"INTERNET LAW BOOK REVIEWS",Provided by Rob Jerrard LLB LLM (London)

Willan Publications Ltd 2008

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Penal Populism, Sentencing Councils and Sentencing Policy
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Authors: Arie Freiberg & Karen Geln
ISBN: 978-1-84392-277-3
Publishers: Willan
Price: £25
Publication Date: February 2008
Publisher's Title Information

Public outcries and political platforms based on misinformation and misconceptions about the criminal justice system and current sentencing practice occur all too often in democratic societies. Penal Populism, Sentencing Councils and Sentencing Policy attempts to address this problem by bringing together important contributions from a number of distinguished experts in the field.
Penal Populism presents theoretical perspectives on the role of the public in the development of sentencing policy. It places particular emphasis on the emerging role of sentencing commissions, advisory councils or panels in a number of English speaking countries: Australia, New Zealand, the United States, the United Kingdom, Scotland and South Africa.
The book explains, expands and develops the existing literature that looks at public attitudes to justice and the role that the 'public' can play in influencing policy. Written in a scholarly yet accessible style, Penal Populism asks the critical questions: should 'public opinion', or preferably, 'public judgment' be relevant to court decision-making, to institutional decision-making and to the political process? And if so, how?
1 Penal populism: sentencing councils and sentencing policy, Arie Freiberg and Karen Gelb
2 Sentencing policy and practice: the evolving role of public opinion, Julian V. Roberts
3 Penal populism and penal scandal in New Zealand, John Pratt
4 Dealing the public in: challenges for a transparent and accountable sentencing policy, David Indermaur
5 Myths and misconceptions: public opinion versus public judgment about sentencing, Karen Gelb
6 The role of the public in sentencing policy development under the Minnesota Sentencing Guidelines, Richard S. Frase
7 The failures of the United States Sentencing Commission, Judge Nancy Gertner
8 English sentencing guidelines in their public and political context, Andrew Ashworth
9 The New South Wales Sentencing Council, The Hon Alan Abadee AM RFD QC
10 The Sentencing Commission for Scotland, Neil Hutton
11 The Victorian Sentencing Advisory Council: incorporating community views into the sentencing process, Arie Freiberg
12 A perspective on the work of the Victorian Sentencing Advisory Council and its potential to promote respect and equality for women, Therese McCarthy
13 Sentencing reform in New Zealand: a proposal to establish a sentencing council, Warren Young
14 Proposals for a sentencing council in South Africa, Stephan Terblanche
15 A federal sentencing council for Australia, Australian Law Reform Commission
16 Institutional mechanisms for incorporating the public in the development of sentencing policy, Neil Hutton
17 Does it matter? Reflections on the effectiveness of institutionalised public participation in the development of sentencing policy, Rob Allen and Mike Hough

Forensic Mental Health
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Authors: Mary McMurran, Najat Khalifa & Simon Gibbon
ISBN: 978-1-84392-389-3
Publishers: Willan
Price: £17.50
Publication Date: December 2008
Publisher's Title Information

This book provides a concise introduction to the increasingly important field of forensic mental health. It aims to set out both the key concepts in forensic mental health as well as the way the discipline operates in the broader context of criminal justice and mental health care systems. It will provide an ideal introduction to the subject for students taking courses in universities and elsewhere, for mental health practitioners in the early stages of their careers, and for professionals from other agencies needing an informed and up-to-date account of forensic mental health.

1 Introduction: the criminal justice system and mental health legislation
The aim of this book
The criminal justice system
The National Offender Management Service
The Mental Health Acts 1983 and 2007
2 Mental disorder and offending
Mental disorders
Mental illnesses
Personality disorders
Learning disability
Substance abuse disorders
Disorders of sexual preference (paraphilias)
3 Entering the forensic mental health system
Police custody
The court
Prison transfers
4 Forensic mental health services
Prison mental health services
Secure hospitals
Specialised forensic services
Community forensic mental health services
Forensic telepsychiatry
5 The multidisciplinary team
Forensic psychiatrists
Clinical psychologists and forensic psychologists
Healthcare assistants
Social workers
Occupational therapists
Art, drama and music therapists
An example of multidisciplinary teamwork
6 Risk assessment
Empirical identification of risk factors
Risk factors
Assessment instruments
7 Treatments in prison and probation services
Programme accreditation
Accredited cognitive-behavioural treatment programmes
Accredited therapeutic communities
Do correctional treatments work?
Sentence management and throughcare
8 Treatments in mental health settings
The Care Programme Approach
Treatment of mental health problems
Learning disability
Substance misuse
9 Leaving the system, patients' rights and advocacy
Mental Health Review Tribunals
The Parole Board
Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements
Legal representation
The Mental Health Act Commission
Mental health advocacy
Voluntary groups

Violent and Sexual Offenders
Assessment, treatment and management
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Edited by Jane Ireland, Carol Ireland & Philip Birch
ISBN: 978-1-84392-382-4
Publishers: Willan
Price: £25
Publication Date: December 2008
Publisher's Title Information

Foreword by David P. Farrington (University of Cambridge)

This book provides an authoritative overview and analysis of issues of assessment, treatment and management of dangerous offenders. It takes particular account of recent policy and legislative changes such as the Sexual Offences Act 2003 and the development of initiatives to manage dangerous offenders, such as MAPPA (Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements). The book addresses wider issues of risk and the dangerous offenders in the context of the risk society, questions the relationship between the assessment, treatment and management of offenders, and considers who it is appropriate to involve in this process.
The book takes a multi-disciplinary approach to the assessment, treatment and management of violent and sexual offenders, and extends its coverage to include the issue of stalking. Contributors to the book bring to bear a wide range of expertise from both academic and practitioner contexts, and are drawn from the UK, Canada, New Zealand and Switzerland.

Foreword by Professor David P. Farrington(University of Cambridge)
Part I Risk assessment: current perspectives
1 Violence risk assessment, Jennifer Lavoie, Laura Guy and Kevin Douglas (Simon Fraser University)
2 Sexual offender risk assessment: research, evaluation, best practice recommendations, and future directions, Douglas P. Boer (University of Waikato, NZ) and Stephen Hart (Simon Fraser University)
3 Domestic violence and stalking risk assessment, Randall Kropp (British Columbia Forensic Psychiatric Services Commission)
Part II Clinical assessment: current perspectives
4 Therapeutic assessment issues to consider with violent offenders, Jane L. Ireland (University of Central Lancashire)
5 Assessing therapeutic needs for sex offenders, Leigh Harkins and Tony Beech (University of Birmingham)
6 Assessing the clinical needs for stalking and domestic violence, Werner Tschan (University of Zurich)
Part III Treatment and management: current perspectives
7 Treatment approaches for violence, Jane L. Ireland (University of Central Lancashire)
8 Treatment approaches for sexual violence, Carol A. Ireland and Rachel Worthington (Dept of Psychology, Ashworth High Secure Hospital)
9 Implications for treatment approaches for interpersonal violence: stalking and domestic, Niki Graham-Kevan and Stefanie Ashton Wigman (University of Central Lancashire)
10 In their own worlds: the relationship between thinking and doing for convicted paedophiles, David Wilson (Birmingham City University) and Tim Jones (Birmingham City University)
11 Comparative analysis of the management of sex offenders within the USA and UK, Bill Hebenton (University of Manchester)
12 Challenges of managing the risk of violent and sexual offenders in the community, Tom Considine (University of Huddersfield) and Philip Birch (University of Huddersfield)

Communities, Crime and Social Capital in Contemporary China
Edition: 1st
Format: Hardback
Author: Lena Y Zhong
ISBN: 978-1-84392-405-0
Publishers: Willan
Price: £40
Publication Date: November 2008

Publisher's Title Information
This book explores the theoretical and empirical dimensions of community crime prevention in China, examining in particular the role of social capital in a rapidly modernizing economic, social and political context. In doing so it provides a vivid picture of contemporary crime and crime control in China as well as analyzing the very particular Chinese approach to community crime prevention, looking at such social institutions as the household registration system, the neighbourhood committee, the work unit and the public security bureau.
The particular focus of this book is on BLSCC - Building Little Safe and Civilized Communities - in the city of Shenshen which has been undergoing rapid change. The book looks at two contrasting communities within the city, looking at their different characteristics and the differing ways in which social capital operates in relation to crime and crime prevention.
As well as shedding light on the hitherto largely hidden subject of crime prevention in China this book also makes an important contribution to wider debates about social capital and its potential, an invaluable study based on unique research.

Foreword by Peter Grabosky (Australian National University)
1 Introduction
2 Taking the field
3 Community crime prevention and social capital
4 Social capital in China
5 Crime and social control in China
6 Building little, safe and civilized communities in Shenzhen: community crime prevention with Chinese characteristics? Part One: CMSO, and BLSCC development and outcome
7 Building little, safe and civilized communities in Shenzhen: community crime prevention with Chinese characteristics? Part Two: BLSCC measures
8 BLSCC in two Shenzhen communities
9 Conclusion

Foreword by Peter Grabosky (Australian National University)
'This book is a great example of contemporary social science. Its treatment of criminological theory in its application to contemporary China is both comprehensive and accessible. Its use of multiple research methods, including observation, depth interviews, surveys, and documentary analysis, is exemplary ... For those who are unfamiliar with Chinese culture and institutions of social control, this book is the place to start. It is a wonderful and fascinating introduction to contemporary Chinese society and to the problems of crime control that accompany it. The reader's attention will be richly rewarded.'
- Professor Peter Grabosky (Regulatory Institutions Network, Australian National University)

'Lena Zhong has skillfully brought to bear insights from Western social and criminological theory to illuminate crime control policy and practice in a part of China which has been undergoing rapid socio-economic and political change. Her subtle theoretical analysis and empirical research will undoubtedly be of great interest to the growing number of scholars who are developing a more sophisticated comparative criminology.'
- Roger Hood (Professor Emeritus of Criminology, University of Oxford)

Raising the Bar, Preventing aggression in and around bars, pubs and clubs
Edition: 1st
Format: Hardback
Authors: Kathryn Graham & Ross Homel
ISBN: 978-1-84392-318-3
Publishers: Willan Publishers
Price: £35
Publication Date: Sept 2008
Publisher's Title Information

This book provides a definitive review of knowledge about bar room environments and their regulation, and provides directions for the prevention of aggression, violence and injury in and around public drinking establishments. It shows why drinking establishments are high risk for aggression, why some establishments are riskier than others, the effectiveness of existing interventions and policies, and the importance of better regulatory models for achieving safer drinking establishments.
The authors emphasise the need to understand the problem and to tackle it through evidence-based preventive strategies, providing a detailed review of the nature of problem behaviours within the specific context of public drinking establishments - while recognising that these establishments are businesses that operate in diverse communities and cultures. Special attention is paid to the difficulties in implementing and sustaining effective interventions within the kinds of regulatory structures and political and economic climates that currently prevail in western countries.
The book draws upon the authors' extensive experience with observational, interview and intervention research related to reducing aggression and injury in drinking establishments, as well as their knowledge of the alcohol field, and of prevention, policing and regulation more generally.


List of tables, figures and boxes

Acknowledgements Foreword by Alasdair Forsyth (Glasgow Centre for the Study Violence)

1 Why a book about bar violence? Licensed premises as hotspots for violence - what is the evidence? Framing the problem of the prevention of violence in and around drinking establishments The trend toward market deregulation'Raising the bar'

2 The culture of public drinking: normal trouble, violence and its prevention The heterogeneity of commercial drinking establishments License to play: the forms and functions of public drinking establishments License for control: preventing minor trouble from escalating Putting bar violence and its prevention in a theoretical context

3 Alcohol: the contribution of intoxication to aggression and violent behaviour Linking alcohol effects and bar violence The effects of alcohol that are most implicated in aggression in real world settings The effects of drugs other than alcohol on aggression and violence Minimising the extent that alcohol contributes to aggression

4 Patrons: risks for violence associated with who goes out drinking and whyStudies of the association between the barroom environment and aggressionWhat are the fights about? The applications of situational crime prevention and routine activity theories to risks associated with patron characteristics

5 Environment: understanding why some drinking establishments are high risk for aggression A tale of two settings Types and locations of premises that are high risk for aggression The relationship between aggression and the environment of the drinking establishment Applying knowledge of environmental risk to prevention

6 Staff: redefining their role as guardians, not guards or enforcers The relationship between staff practices and violence and the move toward club empires with highly specialised and gendered staff roles Rule enforcement versus intervention in patron conflict Implication of the growing role of security staff in licensed premises Strategies for improving the role of staff in preventing aggressionChanging the framing of security and serving staff culture

7 Spilling out the doors: the ecology and governance of violence in the licensed environment The connections between what happens inside and what happens outside The ecology of the public spaces around drinking establishments Governance of the licensed environmentSocial control strategies Towards a better understanding of the ecology of street violence related to licensed premises The prevention of violence in the licensed environment

8 Evaluated approaches to preventing violence related to drinking in licensed premises Voluntary programs for individual drinking establishments Police enforcement Evaluated accords Community action projects The evidence base for the effective prevention of aggression and violence in the licensed environment The need for ongoing research on the prevention of violence in drinking establishments

9 Violence prevention: towards sustainable, evidence-based practicesKey factors associated with violence in and around drinking establishments and approaches to addressing these factors Future directions for enhancing prevention of bar violenceProspects for raising the bar

Reluctant Gangsters: The Changing Face of Youth Crime
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: John Pitts
ISBN: 978-1-84392-365-7
Publishers: Willan Publishing
Price: £22
Publication Date: September 2008
Publisher's Title Information

This book provides an account of the emergence, nature and impact of armed youth gangs in an East London Borough over the last decade. It describes the challenges these armed young men and women pose to their communities, those charged with preventing crime and those struggling to vouchsafe 'community safety'. While the focus of the book is 'local', the processes it outlines and the effects it chronicles have both a national and international relevance.
It argues that the main reason behind the emergence of the armed youth gang has been the coalesence of two previously discreet socially deviant groups; the rowdy, episodically criminal, adolescent peer group on the one hand and the locally-based organized criminal network on the other.
The book analyses the impact of the globalisation of the drugs trade and the consequent shift in the focus of local organized crime from the 'blag' to the 'business'. It also discusses how socio-economic and cultural factors, as well as family and neighbourhood histories and loyalties and localized racial antagonisms all play their part in the emergence of the armed youth gang.

About the author
Figures and tables
1 Things have changed
2 The obscure object of investigation
3 Thinking about gangs
4 Why here? Why now?
5 From blag to business
6 We are family: gang cultures
7 Reluctant gangsters
8 Living in a neo-liberal gangland
9 If every child mattered

The author
John Pitts is Vauxhall Professor of Socio-legal Studies at the University of Bedfordshire. He has worked as a 'special needs' teacher, a street and club-based youth worker, a youth justice development officer, a group worker in a Young Offender Institution and a consultant to workers in youth justice, youth social work, legal professionals and the police in the UK, mainland Europe, the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China. His research includes studies of the differential treatment of black and white offenders in the youth justice system, the violent victimisation of school students, interracial youth violence, the contribution of detached youth work to the life chances of socially excluded young people and violent youth gangs in London. He is editor of Safer Communities and his recent publications include The New Politics of Youth Crime: Discipline or Solidarity, Macmillan (2001) and The Russell House Companion to Youth Justice (with T. Bateman), Russell House Publishing (2005).

Technocrime, Technology, Crime and Social Control
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Stephane Leman-Langlois
ISBN: 978-1-84392-385-5
Publishers: Willan
Price: £25
Publication Date: July 2008
Publisher's Title Information

This book is concerned with the concept of 'technocrime'. The term encompasses crimes committed on or with computers - the standard definition of cybercrime - but it goes well beyond this to convey the idea that technology enables an entirely new way of committing, combating and thinking about criminality, criminals, police, courts, victims and citizens. Technology offers, for example, not only new ways of combating crime, but also new ways to look for, unveil, and label crimes, and new ways to know, watch, prosecute and punish criminals.
Technocrime differs from books concerned more narrowly with cybercrime in taking an approach and understanding of the scope of technology's impact on crime and crime control. It uncovers mechanisms by which behaviours become crimes or cease to be called crimes. It identifies a number of corporate, government and individual actors who are instrumental in this construction. And it looks at the beneficiaries of increased surveillance, control and protection as well as the targets of it. Chapters in the book cover specific technologies (e.g. the use of CCTV in various settings; computers, hackers and security experts; photo radar) but have a wider objective to provide a comparative perspective and some broader theoretical foundations for thinking about crime and technology than have existed hitherto.
This is a pioneering book which advances our understanding of the relationship between crime and technology, drawing upon the disciplines of criminology, political science, sociology, psychology, anthropology, surveillance studies and cultural studies.

Notes on contributors
1 Introduction: technocrime, Stéphane Leman-Langlois (University of Montreal)
2 Crime and lawfulness in the age of the all-seeing techno-humanity, David Brin (formerly of the California Space Institute)
3 The local impact of police videosurveillance on the social construction of security, Stéphane Leman-Langlois (University of Montreal)
4 Cyberwars and cybercrime, Benoît Gagnon (University of Montreal)
5 Policing through nodes, clusters and bandwidth, Johnny Nhan (University of California, Irvine) and Laura Huey (Concordia University, Montreal)
6 Second Life and governing deviance in virtual worlds, Jennifer Whitson (Carleton University, Ottawa) and Aaron Doyle (Carleton University, Ottawa)
7 Privacy as currency: crime, information and control in cyberspace, Stéphane Leman-Langlois (University of Montreal)
8 Information technology in criminal intelligence a comparative perspective, Frédéric Lemieux (University of Montreal)
9 Scientific policing and criminal investigation, Jean-Paul Brodeur(University of Montreal)
10 Sorting systems: identification by database, David Lyon (Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario)
11 A view of surveillance, Peter K. Manning (Northeastern University, Boston)
12 Afterword: technopolice, Stéphane Leman-Langlois (University of Montreal)

'In Technocrime, Stéphane Leman-Langlois has done a masterful job of providing a critical examination of how recent technological innovations have changed both the mechanisms of crime commission - new opportunities, new techniques, new offenders, and new victims - and the mechanisms of crime prevention and control - by police, courts, corrections, and the private sector. After reading the collection of articles in this volume, the reader will find themselves reflecting on a recurring theme in Technocrime: technology is neither the cause of - nor the solution to - the crime problem; but by studying technocrime, we can gain a better understanding of the social - and increasingly technological - construction of crime causation, crime prevention, and crime control. Technocrime is essential reading for anyone interested in the consequences of technology on social interaction and social control.'

James M. Byrne (Professor, Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology, University of Massachusetts)

Handbook of Policing
Edition: 2nd 2008
Format: Paperback
Author: Tim Newburn
ISBN: 978-1-84392-323-7
Publishers: Willan
Price: £34.99
Publication Date: August 2008
Publisher's Title Information

This new edition of the Handbook of Policing updates and expands the highly successful first edition, and now includes a completely new chapter on policing and forensics. It provides a comprehensive but highly readable overview of policing in the UK, and is an essential reference point combining the expertise of leading academic experts on policing and policing practitioners themselves.

1 Introduction: understanding policing, Tim Newburn
Part I Policing in Comparative and Historical Perspective
2 Models of policing, Rob I. Mawby
3 Policing before the police, Philip Rawlings
4 The birth and development of the police, Clive Emsley
5 Policing since 1945, Tim Newburn
Part II The Context of Policing
6 The pattern of transnational policing, Neil Walker
7 Plural policing in the UK: policing beyond the police, Adam Crawford
8 Policing in Scotland, Daniel Donnelly and Kenneth Scott
9 The police service of Northern Ireland, Aogán Mulcahy
10 The police organisation, Rob C. Mawby and Alan Wright
11 Police cultures, Louise Westmarland
12 Police powers, Andrew Sanders and Richard Young
13 Policing and the media, Robert Reiner
Part III Doing Policing
14 Crime reduction and community safety, Simon Byrne and Ken Pease
15 Modern approaches to policing: community, problem-oriented and intelligence-led, Nick Tilley
16 'Interpretation for action?' definitions and potential of crime analysis for policing, Nina Cope
17 Criminal investigation and crime control, Mike Maguire
18 Police use of force, firearms and riot control, P.A.J. Waddington and Martin Wright
19 Drugs policing, Maggy Lee and Nigel South
20 Policing fraud and organised crime, Michael Levi
21 Policing terror, Martin Innes and Darren Thiel
22 Policing cybercrime: emerging trends and future challenges, Yvonne Jewkes and Majid Yar
Part IV Themes and Debates in Policing
23 Policing ethnic minority communities, Ben Bowling, Alpa Parmar and Coretta Phillips
24 Gender and policing, Frances Heidensohn
25 Policing and ethics, Peter Neyroud
26 The accountability of policing, Trevor Jones
27 Leadership and performance management, Bob Golding and Stephen P. Savage
28 Policing and forensic science, Robin Williams
29 Restorative justice, victims and the police, Carolyn Hoyle
30 Future of policing, Tim Newburn

Previous Reviews
'A major contribution to the study of policing in the UK ... authoritative, interesting and extremely wide ranging.' - Sir Ian Blair (Commissioner, Metropolitan Police)
'The most comprehensive treatment ever published on the issues facing British police in the 21st century. Indispensable reading for students, leaders, critics and supporters of the police.'
Professor Lawrence W. Sherman (President, International Society of Criminology)

Crimes Against Nature - Environmental Criminology and Ecological Justice
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Rob White
ISBN: 9781843923619
Publishers: Willan
Price: £18.50
Publication Date: June 2008
Publisher's Title Information

This is an exciting new text on the rapidly expanding subject of environmental criminology and ecological justice. It provides a systematic account and analysis of the key concerns of green criminology, written by one of the leading authorities in the field. The book draws upon the disciplines of environmental studies, environmental sociology and environmental management as well as criminology and socio-legal studies, and draws upon a wide range of examples of crimes against the environment - ranging from toxic waste, logging, wildlife smuggling, bio-piracy, the use and transport of ozone depleting substances through to illegal logging and fishing, water pollution and animal abuse.
Crimes against Nature is divided into three parts. Part 1 sets out theoretical approaches and perspectives on the subject; Part 2 explores the (national and international) dimensions of environmental crime and the explanations for it, while Part 3 deals with the range of responses to environmental crime - environmental law enforcement, regulation, environmental crime prevention and the role of global institutions and movements.
List of boxes, figures and other diagrams/charts
Part I Green theoretical perspectives
1 Criminology and environmental harm
Environmental/green criminology
Theoretical frameworks of environmental criminology
Tasks of environmental criminology
Conclusion: where to from here?
2 Social constructions of environmental problems
Social construction of environmental issues
Media reporting on the environment
Human interests and environmental problems
Conclusion: where to from here?
3 Environmental risk and the precautionary principle
Dimensions of risk
From risk to precaution
Risk assessment and risk management
Deliberative democracy and social participation
Conclusion: where to from here?
Part II Environmental crime
4 Dimensions of environmental crime
Defining environmental harm
Mapping of environmental harm
Measuring crime, measuring consequences
Conclusion: where to from here?
5 Transnational environmental crime
The problem of waste
Waste as a social phenomenon
The problem of biodiversity
Conclusion: where to from here?
6 Explaining environmental harm
Class and corporations
Capitalism, population and technology
Sustainable development and commodity production
Resource colonisation and new market creation
Privatisation, commodification and consumption
Licit and illicit markets and system contradictions
Conclusion: where to from here?
Part III Responding to environmental harm
7 Environmental law enforcement
Prosecuting environmental harm
Limitations of criminal prosecution
Policing and environmental law enforcement
Conclusion: where to from here?
8 Environmental regulation
Systems and models of regulation
Political context of environmental regulation
Social power and environmental regulation
Conclusion: where to from here?
9 Environmental crime prevention
Environmental crime prevention
Harm associated with fishing
Issues for environmental crime prevention
Conclusion: where to from here?
10 Global environmental issues and socio-legal intervention
Global institutions and the neo-liberal agenda
Working with and against the corporations
Contesting the global commons
Conclusion: where to from here?

Reviews to date
'Rob White has done an excellent job. There is currently no single book on the market written by one person for and about green criminology that has the comprehensive depth and interconnections offered by this book. It is, in this respect, a truly remarkable achievement.' - Professor Michael Lynch (University of South Florida)

Dictionary of Youth Justice
Edition: 1st
Format: Large Paperback
Author: Edited by Barry Goldson
ISBN: 978-1-84392-293-3
Publishers: Willan
Price: £24.99
Publication Date: April 2008
Publisher's Title Information

A hundred years have passed since the inception of the first juvenile courts in the UK, yet the pace and reach of contemporary youth justice reform is unprecedented. Each of the youth justice jurisdictions in the UK - England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland - has been subject to substantial change and significant expansion in recent years. Youth justice is now conceived as an increasingly important area, not only within broader criminal justice and crime and disorder reduction discourses, but also within policy and practice debates with regard to child welfare, youth services, health, community development, urban regeneration, education and employment.
This Dictionary explicitly addresses the historical, legal, theoretical, organisational, policy, practice, research and evidential contexts within which 'modern' youth justice in the UK and beyond is located. The entries cover a spectrum of theoretical orientations and conceptual perspectives and engage explicitly with the key statutory provisions and policy and practice imperatives within each of the three UK jurisdictions.
This book is a key resource for those teaching and studying under-graduate and post-graduate courses in criminology, criminal justice, sociology, social policy, law, socio-legal studies, community justice, social work, youth and community work and police studies, together with policy-makers, managers and practitioners working within the youth justice sphere (including staff training officers, youth justice officers, social workers, probation officers, police officers, teachers and education workers, health professionals, youth workers, drug and alcohol workers and juvenile secure estate staff).
Is designed to meet the needs of researchers, policy-makers, managers, practitioners and students;
Begins with an introductory chapter that maps the key shifts in contemporary national and international youth justice systems;
Contains over 300 alphabetically arranged entries - written by almost 100 experts in the respective fields - that explicitly address the core components of youth justice in England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland;
Provides specifically tailored recommended key texts and sources in respect of each entry;
Is closely cross-referenced and contains a detailed index to assist readers to make connections between and across entries;
Includes a detailed 'Directory of Agencies' that relate to youth justice in each of the three UK jurisdictions;
Is compiled and edited by one of the UK's leading authorities in youth justice.
List of entries
List of contributors
Dictionary of Youth Justice
Directory of agencies

This is a monumental piece of work edited by Professor Goldson in reviewing many areas of work that has been done and continues to be done in dealing with youth who have offended against society.
It contains an extensive list of contributors including those from prisons, youth justice boards and universities. It must have been extremely difficult to combine so many different areas relating to youth justice and handling youth within our justice system.
I was especially interested in reading sections relating the current methods of dealing with young persons aged from 15 onwards in the juvenile courts, juvenile justice centres, juvenile secure estates and young offender institutions. As one who visits the latter frequently as an expert witness to the courts to write reports about such young offenders I am particularly heartened by the knowledge currently available in this area. It is hoped the Government will pay heed to this now and in the future when developing what occurs in such centres. The emphasis appears as yet to be on punishment and being surrounded by intolerance and racial prejudice in many cases rather than the rehabilitation of these young offenders.

Preventative work can be done. Such work took place in my own therapeutic community and school for over 20 years when 90+ percent of the individuals attending, both males and females, aged 8-17 managed to rehabilitated to live lawful lives and in some cases very successful lives. Important emphasis here should be on early intervention and intervention of a kind which is positive and constructive. This is also emphasised by one of the contributors to the “Dictionary of Youth Justice”, Roger Smith.
This is a book that should be read by anyone working with young persons who have come into conflict with society and the law including Probation Officers, Prison Officers (especially officers working with young offenders), Psychologists, Psychiatrists and Social Workers.
Dr L. F. Lowenstein

Sex As Crime?
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Edited By Gayle Letherby, Kate Williams,
Philip Birch and Maureen Cain
ISBN: 978-1-84392-267-4
Publishers: Willan
Price: £25
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher's Title Information

This book brings together chapters by writers and researchers from various disciplines to analyse how issues such as sex work, domestic violence and rape and sexual assault have risen up the Government agenda in recent years - for example, the 'Paying the Price' consultation exercise on sex work in 2004, and recent legislation around sex crimes, including the Sex Offences Act (2003). Editors and authors are also motivated by the need to question relationships between sex, crime and violence more generally given that this area of research within the criminological domain is often overshadowed by · issues such as policing and community safety. This is a multi-disciplinary, social scientific, pro-feminist collection, which draws upon practice, empirical research, documentary analysis and overviews of research in the areas of sex work and sexual violence.
'Within Sex as Crime' there are two distinct sub-sections - 'Sex for Sale' and 'Sex as Violence' - but the broader and overriding link of sex as crime remains a paramount theme that spans the collection. Chapters include discussions of the impact of new regulations on street sex workers, and of street sex work on community residents, the use of the internet by men who pay for sex and men who sell it, sexual violence and identity, sex crimes against children and protecting children online and working with sex offenders. Other chapters explore the reasons for such offending behaviour, while there is an additional focus on the relationship between national and international concerns.
Notes on contributors
Introduction: Problematising sex: introducing sex as crime, Gayle Letherby, Kate Williams, Philip Birch and Maureen Cain
Part 1: Sex for Sale
Introduction: sex for sale, Kate Williams, Maureen Cain, Philip Birch and Gayle Letherby
1 Reinventing the wheel: contemporary contours of prostitution regulation, Jo Phoenix
2 What's criminal about female indoor sex work? Teela Sanders and Rosie Campbell
3 Intimacy, pleasure and the men who pay for sex, Sarah Earle and Keith Sharp
4 Sex, violence and work: transgressing binaries and the vital role of services to sex workers in public policy reform, Maggie O'Neill
5 The bar dancer and the trafficked migrant: globalisation and subaltern existence, Flavia Agnes
6 'Getting paid for sex is my kick': a qualitative study of male sex workers, Aidan Wilcox and Kris Christmann
7 Cosmopolitanism and trafficking of human beings for forced labour, Christien van den Anker
8 The sexual intentions of male sex workers: an international study of escorts who advertise on the web, Victor Minichiello, P.G. Harvey and Rodrigo Mariño
9 From the oblivious to the vigilante: the views, experiences and responses of residents living in areas of street sex work, Kate Williams
Part 2: Sex as Violence
Introduction: sex as violence, Philip Birch, Maureen Cain, Kate Williams and Gayle Letherby
10 Why do 'young people' go missing in 'child prostitution' reform? Lyvinia Rogers Elleschild
11 Yes Minister, 'sex violence policy has failed': it's time for sex, violence and crime in a postmodern frame, Adrian Howe
12 War and sex crime, Jen Marchbank
13 Contradictions and paradoxes: international patterns of, and responses to, reported rape cases, Liz Kelly
14 Attachment styles, emotional loneliness and sexual offending, Philip Birch
15 Understanding women who commit sex offences, Amanda Matravers
16 Sexual offenders and public protection in an uncertain age, Bill Hebenton
17 Protecting children online: towards a safer internet, Julia Davidson and Elena Martellozzo
18 The 'paedophile-in-the-community' protests: press reporting and public responses, Jenny Kitzinger

The Editors
Gayle Letherby is Professor of Sociology at the University of Plymouth; Kate Williams is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Wolverhampton; Philip Birch is Senior Lecturer in the Division of Criminal and Community Justice at the University of Huddersfield; Maureen Cain was formerly Reader in the Sociology of Law and Crime at the University of Birmingham, and President of the British Society of Criminology from 2003 to 2006.

The Contributors
Flavia Agnes, Christien van den Anker, Philip Birch, Maureen Cain, Rosie Campbell, Kris Christmann, Julia Davidson, Sarah Earle, Lyvinia Rogers Elleschild, Glenn P. Harvey, Bill Hebenton, Adrian Howe, Liz Kelly, Jenny Kitzinger, Gayle Letherby, Jen Marchbank, Rodrigo Marino, Elena Martellozzo, Amanda Matravers, Victor Minichiello, Maggie O'Neill, Jo Phoenix, Teela Sanders, Keith Sharp, Aidan Wilcox, Kate Williams.

Restoring Justice after Large-scale Violent Conflicts
Kosovo, DR Congo and the Israeli-Palestinian case
Edition: 1st
Format: Hardback
Authors: Edited by Ivo Aertsen, Jana Arsovska Holger-C Rohne Marta Valinas Kris Vanspauwen
ISBN: 9781843923022
Publishers: Willan
Price: £58
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher's Title Information

This book provides a comparative analysis of the potential of restorative justice approaches to dealing with mass victimization in the context of large-scale violent conflicts - focusing on case studies from Kosovo, Israel-Palestine and Congo, incorporating contributions from leading authorities in these areas
One of the main objectives of the book is to examine if, how and to what extent restorative justice is applicable in various different cultural, social and historical contexts, and what common themes can be identified within the different regions under analysis.
The book will also provide a critical analysis of the UN Basic Principles on the use of restorative justice programmes in criminal matters as applied to the context of large scale violence
'The debate on Restorative Justice has been largely concerned with conventional crimes. But is it also relevant in the context of large-scale violence? To what extent are the 'UN Basic Principles on the use of Restorative Justice programmes in criminal matters' still applicable in cases of mass violence?
On the basis of three case studies from Africa, Asia and. Europe this book explores formal and informal responses to incidents stemming from large-scale violence. Special attention is given to the challenges posed by the different cultural, social and historical contexts as well as on the role that Restorative Justice can play in these settings. Through a comparative analysis of the case studies, the transferability and furtherance of the traditional understanding of Restorative Justice and its potential role are critically assessed.

The Editors
Ivo Aertsen is a professor at the Leuven Institute of Criminology, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium), specialising in victimology, penology and restorative justice; Jana Arsovska, Marta Valifias and Kris Vanspauwen are researchers at the same institute; Holger-C. Rohne is a former researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law (Freiburg, Germany).

Ivo Aertsen, Michal Alberstein, Jana Arsovska, Doina Balahur, Sarah Ben-David, Haki Demolli, Borbala Fellegi, Rexhep Gashi, Khalid Ghanayim, Emile George Irani, Roberto Beni Jakob, Olivier Kambala wa Kambala, Theodore Kasongo Kamwimbi,'Vesna NikolicRistanovic, Holger-C. Rohne, Tyrone Savage, Finn Tschudi, Marta Valifias, Kris Vanspauwen.

Young People, Crime and Justice
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Roger Hopkins Burke
ISBN: 978-1-84392-367- 1
Publishers: Willan
Price: £19.50
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher's Title Information

This book is about the involvement of young people in criminality and the subsequent response of the authorities to their activities. It provides a comprehensive and detailed introduction to these themes, and is intended primarily for, second - or third-level undergraduates or those commencing postgraduate studies in this area. It is also an extremely useful textbook for students taking courses in youth justice or training for work in the youth justice system.
The book is divided into three parts:
Part 1, 'Young People, Criminality and Criminal Justice' traces the development of young people from their social construction as children and adolescents; considers attempts to educate, discipline, control and construct them in the interests of a myriad different interest groups, not least industrial capitalism; and examines their deviance, 'offending behaviour' and the consequential societal response, from the beginnings of industrial modernity, via the morally certain modern era at its most confident, to the present-day morally uncertain, fragmented, non-confident modernity or postmodern condition.
Part 2, 'Explaining Youth Criminal Behaviour', considers the various criminological explanations and the relevant empirical evidence to support these of why it is that young people offend. It is recognized that a whole range of theories from different theoretical perspectives inform the behaviour of children and young people who can make choices but these are seriously restricted by their life chances, where they live and with whom they associate. Thus, a large majority of the very small percentage of young people responsible for most of the crime committed by children and young people come from socially excluded backgrounds.
Part 3, 'The Contemporary Youth Justice System and its Critics' examines the origins, foundations, implementation and parameters of the contemporary youth justice system. There is discussion of the rise of 'New' Labour' and its commitment to communitarianism, the risk society thesis, the new public management, the audit society, effective and evidence-based practice, the work of the contemporary youth justice system and the concerns expressed by researchers and commentators. The book concludes with a reconsideration of New Labour youth justice policy and the implementation of the contemporary youth justice system in a wider structural context.

1 Introduction - The Problem of Youth Crime
The extent and distribution of youth offending
The purpose and structure of this book
Part 1: Young People, Criminality and Criminal Justice
2 Children, Young People and Modernity
The emergence and consolidation of modern societies
The social control of childhood and adolescence
Young people, social control and discipline
The centrality of parenting
Social progress, exploitation or something more complex
3 From Justice to Welfare and its Malcontents
The origins of youth justice provision
Development of the juvenile justice system
Consumer society and criminal youth
The triumph of welfarism
4 Youth Justice and the New Conservatism
The retreat from welfarism
Populist conservatism and youth justice
Postscript: young people and the postmodern condition
Part 2: Explaining Youth Criminal Behaviour
5 Youth Offending as Rational Behaviour
Pre-modern explanations of criminal behaviour
The rational actor model of criminal behaviour
The Classical School and its aftermath
Populist conservative criminology
Contemporary Rational Actor Theories
The rational actor model and the youth offender reconsidered
6 Biological Explanations of Youth Offending
Physiological constituents and youth criminality
Altered biological state theories
Socio-biological theories
7 Psychological Explanations of Youth Offending
Psychodynamic theories
Behavioural learning theories
Cognitive learning theories
8 Sociological explanations of youth crime
The social disorganisation thesis
Robert Merton and anomie theory
Deviant subculture theories
Social control theories
Victimised actor model theories
Left Realism
Part 3: The Contemporary Youth Justice System and its Critics
9 New Labour and the New Youth Justice
New Labour and communitarianism
The risk society
The new public management, quality assurance and the audit society
The Audit Commission and the youth justice system
Effective and evidence-based practice, the human services and youth justice
10 The Contemporary Youth Justice System
The Youth Justice Board and Youth Offending Teams
Radical new measures
The Youth Court and its disposals
11 Effective Youth Justice in Practice
Risk and Effective Practice in the youth justice system
Youth Justice Effective Practice
Assessment of risk and intervention planning
Risk and Protective Factors
Implementing intervention
12 Reflections on the Management of Contemporary Youth Crime
Risk-based contemporary youth justice
Social exclusion and reintegrative tutelage
Restorative justice
Towards the future
The future of youth justice

The Author
Roger Hopkins Burke is Principal Lecturer and Criminology Subject Leader, Division of Criminology, Nottingham Trent University. His publications include An Introduction to Criminological Theory (2nd Edition ) (Willan Publishing, 2005).

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Imprisoning Resistance, Life and Death in an Australian Supermax
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author:Bree Carlton
ISBN: 978 0975196755
Publisher: Institute of Criminology, Sydney. The Federation Press
UK Distributor: Willan Publishing
Price: UK 22
Australian RRP $49.95
Direct Price $45.00
International Price $45.00
Publication Date: 10th Oct 2007
Publisher's Title Information

29 October 2007 marks twenty years since the death of five prisoners in a riot and fire in the infamous Jika Jika high-security unit. This book resurrects these events and invites us to learn urgent lessons in our current age of supermax and privatised prisons, detention of asylum seekers and the controversial use of indefinite detention under the banner of a 'war on terror'.
Imprisoning Resistance provides an experiential account of life and death in the controversial Pentridge Prison Jika Jika High-Security Unit in Victoria during the 1980s. One of Australia's first hi-tech supermax prisons, Jika Jika was designed to house and manage the system's 'worst of the worst' prisoners.
Several years of deaths in custody, multiple escapes, assaults, murders, prisoner campaigns and protests, hunger strikes and allegations of prison staff brutality escalated in 1987 to a dramatic protest fire that resulted in the deaths of five prisoners. The prison was closed and a series of inquiries were commissioned.
Bree Carlton revisits this uncomfortable past and reconstructs events leading up to and surrounding the fire and deaths, while critically analysing official responses to the discreditable episodes, crises and deaths that plagued Jika Jika.
Foreword by Phil Scraton
Prologue: 29 October 1987, Jika Jika High-SecurityHM Pentridge Prison, Coburg, Victoria, Australia
Modern High Security in Australia
Imprisoning Resistance: The Politics of Modern High-Security
Disciplinary Power, Resistance and High-Security
Cultures of Violence and High-Security
Official Discourse and Official Responses to Disorder, Death and Institutional Crisis
Book Overview
Part One: Power and Resistance
Polarisation, Power and Prisoner Resistance in Australian Maximum-Security During the Explosive
Managing a Resistance Proff Panopticon: The Official Beginnings of the Jika Jika High-Security Unit
Contextualising Resistance: Prisoner Accounts of Power and Survival in the
'Rebelling Against the Dictatorial Regime in Jika': Acts of Prisoner Transgression and Resistance
Part Two: Concealing Crisis
Descent into Crisis: The Deaths of John Williams and Sean Downie
Exonerating Institutional Liability: Official Responses to the Death of Sean Downie
Imprisoning Crises: Official Responses to the Jika Fire as Strategies of Damage Control and Concealment

Reviews to Date
Carlton's account takes us inside one of Australia's first and most notorious high tech maximum security units, Jika Jika. Meticulous research combined with a keen grasp of narrative gives an intimate and moving account of the human costs of sensory deprivation and isolation as the dynamics of power and resistance spiral inexorably towards a protest fire that killed five men. The struggle for truth and justice contained within provides insight into the official tactics that seek to rationalise inhumane and brutalising conditions as reasonable and necessary. Although Jika Jika was officially declared a 'human zoo' and closed more than twenty years ago the lessons to be learned from its history remain acutely important today.
Associate Professor Jude McCulloch, Monash University.
Bree Carlton provides a vivid and disturbing account of institutionalised violence, intensifying and deteriorating relationships between prisoners and custodial officers, systemic justifications and excuses for deaths in custody, and the ways in which various voices are represented in media and official discourses. It is a profoundly moving piece of work that enables the reader to understand, and to feel, the issues, and to better understand the human dimension of the prison experience.
Professor Rob White, University of Tasmania

The author is a Lecturer in Criminology at Monash University in Victoria, and this book undertakes a critical examination of the context of the building of one of Australia's first hi-tech supermax prisons, and the protest with the setting of a fire in October 1987, and the deaths that followed that event. He makes use of official investigation transcripts and accounts from prisoners and prisoner-interviews to piece together this account.
Jika Jika High-Security Unit in Pentridge Prison in Victoria was one of the first and probably most notorious high-security unit to be opened in the prison system in Australia, designed to imprison resistance. These modern units combined hi-tech security devices and sophisticated spatial and managerial strategies in the context of solitary confinement, to deal with high-risk long-term prisoners.
In Jika, the harshness of the conditions were matched by the responses of prisoners, including violent attacks and assaults on staff or other inmates, destructive outbursts and self-harm. (p.25 of introduction.) The author follows the progress of disciplinary power and the responses of prisoners between 1980 and 1987, when the protest took place. He charts how institutionalised responses produced polarised relationships between prisoners and prison staff, which led to crisis, violence, and ultimately death. (p.30 of introduction.)
Part One - Power and Resistance - charts the precursor to Jika - the H Division of Pentridge's maximum security section, and the process that led to Jika being built. Already the seeds were being sown of institutional dynamics leading to prisoner resistance, and violent disorder. In particular, coercive deterrence of non-compliance by prisoners by using H Division led to a polarisiation of staff and prisoners. Jika was built to a to a set of official ideals and objectives that were not worked through in the day-to -day operating of the unit, a regime which the writer describes as an abusive culture (p.31), which only served to exacerbate frustrations, prisoner violent resistance, conflict and disorder. The final chapter in this Part describes and analyses forms of resistance used by prisoners, the retributions which followed, leading to a crisis point.
Part Two - Concealing Crisis - provides a critical assessment and analysis of official responses to this crisis and the deaths that followed in Jika. Two inmates died in the immediate disturbance, from the fire. The second part of this book is concerned with challenging the official discourses of the incidents and the aftermath.
The prison was mostly demolished and a residential area - Pentridge Village - built in its place. The parts that remain are earmarked for a heritage museum.
The unit was officially proposed as a necessary solution to house the supposedly 'worst ' prisoners in the system, an escape and resistance-proof panopticon to maximise order and control. The 1980's witnessed a monumental internal struggle in Jika between officials and prisoners that ended in a crisis. The authorities still remain unaccountable for the events of that time, and the writer has made a consistent and sustained attempt to bring some accountability back in to that situation, for which he deserves much credit and thanks, from the prisoners involved, the people of Australia, and from the world-wide penal systems.
Terry Nowell

Conflict Of Interest In Policing
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Cindy Davids
ISBN: 978-0-97519-676-2
Publishers: Institute of Criminology Press
Sydney Institute of Criminology Series No 26 2008
UK & Europe (distributor)Willan Publishing
Price: £22
Publication Date: 28th April 2008
Publisher's Title Information

Conflict of interest allegations have become a prominent part of the landscape of political and public sector ethics in Australia and overseas. The arena of policing has not been immune from this problem.
Conflict of Interest in Policing: Problems, Practices, and Principles is based on unique and unfettered access to ten years of internal investigation files held by Victoria Police. Through detailed analysis of actual complaint cases it gives the reader a comprehensive map by which to chart the particular kinds of interests involved, the nature of the conflicts with official police duties, and the contexts from which conflicts of interest emerge. Author Cindy Davids examines conflicts of interest across the private and public realm of the everyday lives of police officers. She provides a conceptual and practical understanding of how integrity and trust must be integrated into the profession of policing through processes of active responsibility, rather than more traditional passive obedience to prescriptive rules.

List of Tables
List of Figures
Preface by Chief Commissioner Christine Nixon (Victoria Police)
Foreword by Professor David Dixon
Conflict of Interest and Police Corruption
This Study
Conflict of Interest Defining the Problem and Its Dimensions
What is Conflict of Interest?
Manifestations of Conflict of Interest
Dealing with the Problem: The System of Accountability
Conflict of Interest and Police Misconduct
Accountability in Operation: The Victoria Police Discipline System
Building Accountability
The Private Realm: Relationships and Involvements
Organisational Involvements
Family-based Involvements
Problematic Personal Relationships
The Public Realm: Use and Abuse of Police Powers and Authority
Intervention, Action, or Involvement in Police Investigations and Processes
Use of Police Power to Harass
Exercise of Improper Influence in Civil Matters
The Public Realm: Use and Abuse of Police Resources
Misuse of Confidential Information
Misuse of Other Police Resources
Summary and Discussion
Conclusions and Reflections: Conflict of Interest, Police Ethics and Accountability
Defining the Problem and its Dimensions
Conflict of Interest and Police Ethics

The Author
Cindy Davids is Academic Director at the Macquarie University Centre for Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, New South Wales,Australia.

Reviews to Date
'Conflict of Interest in Policing 'is an important, well-researched contribution to the public store of knowledge about good and bad policing and how best to encourage the former and minimise the latter.... This book will make a significant contribution to the education of future generations of police officers.'
Christine Nixon, APM, Chief Commissioner, Victoria Police.
'...Quality empirical research on policing in Australia is still regrettably rare. The production of such work depends upon: academics who are prepared to get out from behind their desks; police departments which are willing to open themselves to external scrutiny; funding agencies which value such research; and publishers who are committed to increasing public knowledge and understanding.
This excellent book by Cindy Davids makes a significant contribution to the international, as well as the Australian, policing literature. Chief Commissioner Nixon and her colleagues in Victoria Police deserve great credit for allowing a researcher to have unrestricted access to such sensitive material as complaints files. ...'
Professor David Dixon, Dean, University of New South Wales, From the Foreword

Crime Reduction and Community Safety
Labour and the politics of local control
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Daniel Gilling
ISBN: 978-1-84392-251-3
Publishers: Willan
Price: £19.50
Publication Date: 2007
Publisher's Title Information

Crime control and crime reduction have become central elements in government policy and receive intensive media coverage, whether the concern is with the latest piece of criminal justice legislation or the controversies surrounding the massively increased use of anti-social behaviour orders (ASBOs). Yet the broader context of these developments is often little understood. This book is concerned to address this deficit, and will be essential reading for anybody wanting to understand both policy and practice in this increasingly important field.
Crime Reduction and Community Safety analyses Labour's policies of local crime control from 1997 through to the present. Picking up on the Conservative legacy, it charts the establishment of focal crime and disorder reduction partnerships, and their subjection to a centrally-imposed performance management regime and to broader plans of police and local government reform. It also examines the imposition of a largely enforcement-oriented attack on anti-social behaviour, and explores Labour's attempts to address the causes of crime through a crime and social policy agenda that has crystallised around themes of neighbourhood and civil renewal, tackling social exclusion and building social capital.
The main focus of the book is upon the unfolding of Labour's political project from the centre downwards, but the limitations of this project are exposed through an exploration of a number of key themes. These include the conceptual and practical weaknesses of evidence-based policy, performance management and joined-up government, and the intrinsic political impotence of the 'third way' itself.
1 Introduction
2 Labour's political project
3 Imposing the crime reduction agenda
4 From crime reduction to community safety?
5 Getting tough: anti-social behaviour and the politics of enforcement
6 Going soft? Tackling the causes of Labour's crime problem
7 Losing control: from politics into practice
8 Leaving its mark: Labour and the new landscape of local crime control

Reviews to Date
'Daniel Gilling's text provides us with the definitive criminological analysis of New Labour's national project on community safety and crime prevention over the last decade. Written in an authoritative yet accessible style, it will become a classic case study of the contradictions of this UK government's ambitious if flawed governmental experiment in local crime control. Gilling's careful and penetrating diagnosis of government rhetoric and policy is measured, provocative and ultimately profoundly disturbing., A "must read" for students, teachers, researchers and, you'd hope, practitioners and policy makers in the UK and beyond:
- Professor Gordon Hughes (Cardiff University)

The author
Daniel Gilling is Senior Lecturer in Criminal Justice Studies in the School of Law and Social Science at the University of Plymouth, and currently Criminal Justice Studies Subject Head and Programme Co-ordinator. His main research interests lie in the broad fields of crime prevention, crime reduction and community safety. His previous books include Crime Prevention: theory, policy and practice (UCL Press, 1997).

Drugs and Crime
Edition: 3rd
Format: Paperback
Author: Philip Bean
ISBN: 978-1-843923312
Publishers: Willan
Price: £19.50
Publication Date: May 2008
Publisher's Title Information

A high proportion of crimes committed in Britain are drugs-related, with many offenders reporting drug use prior to the commission of their offence. However, the direct link between drug taking and crime is often less clear than is supposed if only because many of those offenders would have committed offences anyway, and these offences need to be separated from those that are directly caused by drugs. Attempts to address many of these and related issues have been bedevilled by misunderstanding and a lack of consensus on the nature of the relationship between drugs and crime.
This book is a major contribution to this debate, and provides an authoritative and much-needed overview of the range of issues associated with drugs-related crime. The author pays particular attention to policing drugs and drug markets and the way they operate, so that a central theme of the book is the importance of reducing supply at local, national and international levels. Accordingly there are chapters on the drugs-crime link, sentencing drug offenders, policing drug offenders including the use of informers, coercive treatment, trafficking and laundering, and on gender issues, including the treatment of women drug users.
This updated and expanded new edition builds upon the strengths earlier editions of the book. It has been updated throughout, includes new information on police tactics such as stop and search and test purchase, and has an entirely new chapter on the legalisation debate.

List of tables and figures
Preface and acknowledgements
1 Drugs and crime: an overview
Extent of drug use
An assessment
An historical approach to theories linking drugs to crime
2 Drugs and crime: theoretical assumptions
The three major explanatory models
An overview
3 Sentencing drug offenders
Producing the data
An overview of the legal position
Some concluding comments
4 Coercive treatment and mandatory drug testing
The aims and nature of treatment
Coercive or enforced treatment of substance abuse
Mandatory drug testing
An overview of the types of tests available
Likely errors and ways of tampering with the tests
Some legal and social issues concerning testing
5 The Drug Treatment and Testing Order and drug courts
The pilot studies
Drug courts
Some additional comments
Drug courts and the DTTO: a comparison
Drug courts in Scotland and Ireland
An overview and summary
Improving treatment services
6 Trafficking and laundering
Trafficking an overview
International cooperation
Drug dealing within Britain
Money laundering
Confiscation orders
7 Policing drug markets
Policing policy
Drug markets generally
The impact of policing
Assessing the effectiveness of policing
Policing professional organisations
8 Informers and corruption
The legal authority for informers
Protecting the informer
Reducing the sentence
Informers: who are they, and how to control them?
Informers and drug dealing
The special case of juveniles
Corruption and policing
9 Women, drugs and crime
Women, health and social norms
Women drug users, crime and prison
Women as users and dealers
Women in treatment
A note on juveniles
10 The legalisation debate
The major positions ideal types
The two major sets of arguments
An assessment
11 Suggestions for the way forward
The 1960s and beyond
Contributions from the drugs and crime debate and beyond

Philip Bean is one of the UKs leading authorities on drugs and crime,and has published widely in this field. He is Emeritus Professor of Criminology at Loughborough University, and a former director of the Midlands Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice. He was also president of the British Criminological Society, (1996-1999) and is currently an Associate of the General Medical Council. His most recent book is Madness and Crime, published by Willan in 2007.

REVIEW OF 2nd Edition 2004, by Peter Jackson

This was a fascinating book that Philip Bean has obviously done a lot of research and used it to produce this valuable book. There are numerous quotes from very recent research in 2003/4, but in the preface a statement is made "and nothing has been done about trying to get the treatment and criminal justice agencies to work together more closely" I am more than a little concerned that no mention has been made of the Criminal Justice Intervention Programme (CJIP) now renamed Drugs Intervention Programme (DIP) which has been in operation since early 2003, so must have been talked about for some considerable time before this. It may not be perfect or longitudinally evaluated yet, but it is an attempt to get treatment and criminal justice agencies to work together more closely.

I was more than impressed with the closing comments on page 58 that drug use in Britain is NOT normal and there are things that can be done long term to change this. But it is a culture change for this country?

The comments on page 109 weighing up the options within treatment between harm reduction or abstinence are interesting in the light of comments made by users in treatment services in Glasgow in 2004 where most of the users wanted abstinence as opposed to harm reduction, but surely the answer here must be individual choice.

I found the input re the Drugs Courts fascinating and Philip obviously is a fan. My concern is, does the judiciary in this country have the ability to be as down to earth as some judges in the USA?  If we could get the judges dealing with UK drugs court to deal with the individual and understand relapse and regression then I think we would have taken a huge step for mankind.  

Philip waxes lyrical about the TASC system that sounds similar to the Drugs Intervention Programme being rolled out in this country.  Lets hope that in Philips Third edition of Drugs and Crime we can have a reasonable comparison between the two systems.

The continuous concern of Philip and many other people in this area, is the lack of good sustained longitudinal research.  I totally agree with this sentiment and of course the answer is very simple-Cost, Cost, Cost.  There are many great pieces of research that conclude by saying "further research needs to be carried out". Very rarely does this ever happen.  The drugs field is constantly changing thus the research should follow suit.  But due to the restrictions on money it does not happen.  Lets hope that some of the drugs confiscation money will be put to this use. Philip hints at a way forward on page 235, suggesting that there are "two or three high- quality research centres with guaranteed funding undertaking long term research". Although there will no doubt be critics of restrictive practice and unbiased research, this would at least give us continuity in research.

I was in total agreement with the quote from Inciardi and McBride on page 236 regarding focusing on demand reduction and education. We then go on to be critical of programmes that are trying to do just that.  I contacted DARE UK to see what evaluation they have undertaken of Drug Education programmes as quoted by Philip on page 237.  They seemed most indignant and stated in no uncertain terms that they cannot raise the money to carry out good quality evaluation of there own programme, let alone spend scarce resources on evaluating other peoples work.  They were also very jealous of the £6 million spent on the governments attempt to get Drug education in schools.  I hope this was a rare mistake on Philip's part but it did detract from the general great read that this book gave.

Although there was some suggestions, I would have liked to have seen more comment from Philip, who is obviously well read in this subject. I would have valued his opinion. It may not have worked or been evaluated for twenty years, but then what has so far?      

Peter Jackson

Crime, Law and Popular Culture in Europe 1500 - 1900
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Also Available in Hardback
Author: Richard Mc Mahon
ISBN: 978-1-84392-118-9
Publishers: Willan
Price: £19.99
Publication Date: May 2008
Publisher's Title Information

This book explores the relationship between crime, law and popular culture in Europe from the sixteenth century onwards. How was crime understood and dealt with by ordinary people and to what degree did they resort to or reject the official law and criminal justice system as a means of dealing with different forms of criminal activity?
Overall, the volume will serve to illuminate how experiences of and attitudes to crime and the law may have corresponded or differed in different locations and contexts as well as contributing to a wider understanding of popular culture and consciousness in early modern and modern Europe.
Explores the relationship between crime, law and popular culture in Europe from C16 onwards
Original research from high profile contributors
Key contribution to historiographical debates

Table of Contents
Introduction, Richard Mc Mahon (University of Dundee)
1 Popular Violence and its prosecution in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century France, Julius R. Ruff (Marquette University, Milwaukee)
2 The containment of violence in Central European cities, 1500-1800, Joachim Eibach (Forschungs Zentrum Europaeische Aufklaerung, Potsdam)
3 Royal Justice, popular culture and violence: homicide in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Castile, Rudy Chaulet (Université de Franche-Comté)
4 Prosecution and public participation - the case of early modern Sweden, Maria Kaspersson (Institute of Criminal Justice Studies, University of Greenwich)
5 Towards a legal anthropology of the early modern Isle of Man, J.A. Sharpe (Department of History, University of York)
6 'For fear of the vengeance': the prosecution of homicide in pre-Famine and Famine Ireland, Richard Mc Mahon (University of Dundee)
7 Violent crime and the public weal in England, 1700-1900, Greg T. Smith (University of Manitoba)
8 Atonement and domestic homicide in late Victorian Scotland, Carolyn A. Conley (The University of Alabama at Birmingham)
9 'A second Ireland'? Crime and popular culture in nineteenth-century Wales, Richard W. Ireland (Department of Law, University of Wales, Aberystwyth)

Handbook of Forensic Mental Health
Edition: 1st
Format: Large Paperback
Author: Edited by Keith Soothill, Paul Rogers and Mairead Dolan
ISBN: 978-1-84392-261-2
Publishers: Willan
Price: £32.99
Publication Date: April 2008
Publisher's Title Information

This is a comprehensive reference book on the subject of forensic mental health, looking at what forensic mental health is and its assessment, management and treatment. It focuses on key topics and the issues underpinning them in contemporary society.
The book includes:
An account of the historical development of forensic mental health, along with a description of the three mental health systems operating in the UK.
An in-depth analysis of the forensic mental health process and system, including an analysis of the different systems applied for juveniles and adults.
An examination of the main issues in forensic mental health including sex offending, personality disorders and addiction.
A breakdown of the key skills needed for forensic mental health practice.
This is an authoritative reference book, which will be a crucial text for practitioners, academics and students in the forensic mental health field.

Table of Contents
List of abbreviations
List of figures and tables
Notes on contributors
Preface and acknowledgements
Part 1 Setting the scene -The administrative and social framework
Introduction, Keith Soothill
1 Understanding forensic mental health and the variety of professional voices, Paul Rogers and Keith Soothill
2 The forensic mental health system in the United Kingdom, Lindsay Thomson
3 The origins and early development of forensic mental health, David Forshaw
Part 2 Understanding the forensic mental health process and the systems
Introduction, Keith Soothill
4 The process and systems for juveniles and young persons, Sue Bailey and Bill Kerslake
5 The process and systems for adults, Tony Maden
6 Non-custodial sentences and mentally disordered offenders, Danny Clark
7 Mental healthcare in prisons, Jane Senior and Jenny Shaw
8 Release procedures and forensic mental health, Pete Snowden and Bettadapura Ashim
Part 3 Developing a knowledge base - Key issues in forensic mental health
9 Diagnosis, medical models and formulations, Pamela J. Taylor and John Gunn
10 Understanding and managing risk, Mike Doyle and Mairead Dolan
11 Mental health law and risk management, Philip Fennell
12 The law relating to mentally disordered persons in the criminal justice system, Philip Fennell
13 Assessment and treatment of offenders with intellectual and developmental disabilities, William R. Lindsay and John L. Taylor
14 Aggression and violence, Kevin Howells, Michael Daffern and Andrew Day
15 Personality disorders, Mary McMurran
16 Criminality among persons with severe mental illness, Sheilagh Hodgins
17 Substance abuse, Mary McMurran
18 Sexual offenders with mental health problems: epidemiology, assessment and treatment, Madelaine Lockmuller, Anthony Beech and Dawn Fisher
Part 4 Skills for forensic mental health practitioners
Introduction, Keith Soothill
19 The expert witness: professional practice and pitfalls, Nicola Gray and Tegwn Williams
20 Focusing on treatment: the main interventions and their implications, Conor Duggan
21 Inpatient care and management, Kevin Gournay, Richard Benson and Paul Rogers
22 The crimes and pathologies of passion: love, jealousy and the pursuit of justice, Paul Mullen

Preventing Child Sexual Abuse, Evidence, Policy and Practice
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 978-1-84392-222-3
Publishers: Willan
Price: £28.50
Publication Date: April 2008
Publisher's Title Information

Public policy responses to child sexual abuse are dominated by interventions designed to take effect only after offenders have already begun offending, and after children have already been sexually abused. Comparatively little attention has been given to alternative prevention strategies - particularly to those aimed at preventing sexual abuse before it might otherwise occur. Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the characteristics, modus operandi and persistence of offenders, the characteristics, circumstances and outcomes for victims, and the physical and social settings in which sexual abuse occurs, but little work has been done to systematically apply this knowledge to prevention.
This book aims to fulfill this objective through integrating clinical and criminological concepts and knowledge to inform a more comprehensive and effective public policy approach to preventing child sexual abuse. Empirical and theoretical knowledge concerning child sexual abuse is integrated with broader developments in evidence-based crime and child maltreatment prevention, leading to new ideas about understanding and preventing child sexual abuse. This book will be essential reading for anybody with interests in this field.

1 Child sexual abuse: definitions, dimensions and scope of the problem
Defining child sexual abuse
Dimensions of child sexual abuse
Scope of the problem
2 Explaining child sexual abuse: a new integrated theory
Biological foundations
Developmental influences
Ecosystemic influences
Situational influences
3 Identifying prevention targets
Current approaches to prevention
Implications of the integrated theory for preventing sexual abuse
Offenders, victims, situations and communities
4 Developmental prevention
Conceptual and empirical foundations
Developmental prevention of CSA offending
5 Criminal justice interventions
Detection, investigation and prevention
The psychology of punishment
Deterrence strategies
Incapacitation strategies
6 Treating adult and adolescent offenders
General principles
Treatments for adult CSA offenders
Treatments for adolescent CSA offenders
Treatment outcomes
7 Victim-focused prevention
Interventions with potential victims
Interventions with known victims
8 Situational prevention
Conceptual and empirical foundations
Situational prevention of CSA
9 Community-focused approaches
Community-focused approaches to crime prevention
Community-focused approaches to preventing maltreatment
Community-focused approaches to preventing sexual abuse
10 Towards a comprehensive prevention strategy
Primary prevention
Secondary prevention
Tertiary prevention
Where to from here?


As I myself have written a book on paedophilia some years ago I was particularly interested in assessing the current book by Smallbone, Marshall and Wortley. What particularly strikes me as important in the book is the final chapter dealing with the comprehensive preventative strategy consisting of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. This is frequently neglected by many writers dealing with paedophilia problems.
This book consists of ten chapters. The initial chapters deal with child sexual abuse, definitions, dimensions and scope of the problem, explaining child sexual abuse and identifying protection targets. Chapter 4 concerns itself with developmental prevention of child sex abuse. Subsequent chapters deal with criminal justice intervention, treating adult and adolescent offenders and focusing on victims for prevention. A community focused approach is the penultimate chapter and finally a comprehensive prevention strategy is proposed. Each chapter has a summary which provides a focus on what the previous chapter provided. There is also a comprehensive list of references and an index.
The effect of child sexual abuse has already been studied considerably and it shows that depression and anxiety relating to behaviour of former victims of child sexual abuse cannot be underestimated. It is also noted that child sex abuse offenders tend to be criminally versatile with a relatively small proportion of paedophile offenders re-offending. Girls are particularly vulnerable and at greater risk of sustained abuse at a younger age compared with boys.
The prevention of child sexual abuse frequently takes place after the abuse has already occurred and it is to prevent the abuser from continuing this activity. The authors emphasise the importance of early intervention in CSA cases. It is also to prevent recidivism among offenders after leaving prison. The authors also emphasise the likelihood of overt sexual aggression being given priority in treatment. The authors point out that the severity of the punishment does not affect the likelihood or unlikely tendency for paedophiles to repeat their offences.
The authors consider approaches such as chemical and other forms of castration in order to limit the production of testosterone. While this is sometimes effective it is by no means always effective.
Child protection agencies and the police are in the forefront of dealing with potential offenders through punitive approaches. The greatest reduction of recidivism in paedophile acts appear to be achieved through a treatment programme of an intensive nature. This approach is of particular importance for those likely to constitute the recidivism group. Of particular value appears to be group-based cognitive behavioural methods to provide the best type of outcome.
It has also been established that children who have been victimised once are likely to be victimised again and hence preventive methods should be employed as soon as it is discovered that such young persons have suffered from child sex abuse. It is especially important that many children are not only abused physically and sexually but also emotionally by forming a close attachment to the abuser. Hence children need protection in all these areas.
The authors stress the importance of the community being involved in protecting children, especially vulnerable children in one parent families from abuse by relatives who are predators. The authors state firmly that researchers and practitioners need to engage more effectively with policy makers to prevent child sexual abuse.
Finally it must be said that the authors are highly qualified individuals. Stephen Smallbone is a Psychologist and Associate Professor in Criminology, while William Marshall is Emeritus Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry at Queens University, Ontario. Richard Wortley is Professor and Head of School of Criminology at the University of Queensland, Australia. It is a highly academic book written for practitioners in the field of child sex abuse and most especially those dealing with prevention of such activities taking place as well as dealing with the abuser. This would include Probation Officers, Psychologists, Psychiatrists, Social Workers and most especially Child Protection Workers.
Dr L. F. Lowenstein

Justice, Community and Civil Order
A Contested Terrain
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Edited by Joanna Shapland
ISBN: 978-1-84392-299-5
Publishers: Willan
Price: £25
Publication Date: Jan 2008
Publisher's Title Information

Over the last decade there has arisen considerable disquiet about the relationship between criminal justice and its publics. This has been expressed in a variety of different ways, ranging from a concern that state criminal justice has moved too far away from the concerns of ordinary people (become too distant, too out of touch, insufficiently reflective of different groups in society) to the belief that the police have been attending to the wrong priorities, that the state has failed to reduce crime, that people still feel a general sense of insecurity.
Governments have sought to respond to these concerns throughout Europe and North America but the results have challenged people's deeply held beliefs about what justice is and what the state's role should be. The need to innovate in response to local demands has hence resulted in some very different initiatives.
This book is concerned to delve further into this contested relationship between criminal justice and its publics. Written by experts from different countries as a new initiative in comparative criminal justice, it reveals how different the intrinsic cultural attitudes in relation to criminal justice are across Europe. This is a time when states' monopoly on criminal justice is being questioned and they are being asked on what basis their legitimacy rests, challenged by both globalization and localization. The answers reflect both cultural specificity and, for some, broader moves towards reaching out to citizens and associations representing citizens.

1 Contested ideas of community and justice, Joanna Shapland (Professor of Criminal Justice, University of Sheffield, UK)
2 'Proximity justice' in France: anything but 'justice and community'? Anne Wyvekens (CERSA-CNRS and previously Director of Research, National Institute for Advanced Studies on Security, Paris)
3 How civil society is on the criminal justice agenda in France, Philip A. Milburn (Professor of Sociology, University of Versailles St-Quentin, France)
4 Crime control in Germany: too serious to leave it to the people? - the great exception? Axel Groenemeyer (Professor of Sociology, University of Dortmund, Germany)
5 Sweeping the street: civil society and community safety in Rotterdam, René van Swaaningen (Professor of International and Comparative Criminology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands)
6 Lay elements in the criminal justice system of the Netherlands, Marijke Malsch (Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement and University of Leiden, The Netherlands)
7 Refiguring the community and professional in policing and criminal justice: some questions of legitimacy, Adam Crawford (Professor of Criminology, Leeds University, UK)
8 Who owns justice? Community, state and the Northern Ireland transition, Kieran McEvoy and Anna Eriksson (Queen's University Belfast, UK)
9 Policing, 'community' and social change in Ireland, Aogán Mulcahy (University College Dublin, Ireland)
10 New directions in Canadian justice: from state workers to community 'representatives', Isabelle Bartkowiak (Charles Sturt University, Australia) and Mylène Jaccoud (Professor of Criminology, University of Montreal, Canada)

Madness and Crime
Category: Criminology and Criminal Justice
Edition: 1st
Format: Hardback
Author: Philip Bean
ISBN: 978-1-84392-297-1
Publishers: Willan
Price: £36
Publication Date: Dec 2007
Publisher's Title Information

This book provides an authoritative and highly readable review of the relationship between madness and crime by one of the leading authorities in the field. The book is divided intofour parts, each essay focusing on selected features of madness which have relevance to contemporary society. Part 1 is about madness itself, exploring three main models - cognitive, statistical, and emotional. Part 2ashort discussion on madness, genius and creativity.3 is about the much-neglected area of compulsion, an issue that has largely disappeared from public debate. The mad may have moved from victim to violator, yet fundamental questions remain - in particular how to justify compulsory detention, and who should undertake the process? The answers to these questions have sociological, ethical and jurisprudential elements, and cannot just re resolved by reference to medical authorities. Part 4 is about the links between madness and crime - focusing less on the question and nature of criminal responsibility and the various defences that go with this, more on the links between madness and crime and which particular crimes are linked with which types of disorder.
Part 1 Some thoughts on the nature of madness
1 Introduction and overview
2 Madness and the disease model
3 An empirical theory of madness
4 Empirical, statistical and emotional theories compared
5 An assessment of empiricist theories of madness
Part 2 Madness as genius, and madness as an aid to creativity
Part 3 Restraining the mad: justifications for compulsory detention
6 Detaining the mad
7 De jure and de facto detentions
8 A note on liberty
9 Mental health law and formal law
10 Typical legal justifications and their limitations
11 The impact of compulsion
12 Who does the detaining?
13 Paternalism v. autonomy
14 Summary and conclusion
Part 4 Madness and crime
15 Some methodological problems in the madness and crime nexus
16 An overview of the problem
17 Psychiatric services in the penal system: an overview
18 A model for examining the links between madness (mental disorder) and crime
19 Comments on future research
20 Summary and conclusion

Dictionary of Policing
Format: Paperback
Author: Tim Newburn & Peter Neyroud
ISBN: 978-1-84392-287-2
Publishers: Willan
Price: £22.99
Publication Date: April 2008
Publisher's Title Information

Over 200 entries (of between 500 and 1500 words) on key policing terms and concepts arranged alphabetically
Designed to meet the needs of both students and practitioners
Entries include summary definition, main text and key texts and sources
Takes full account of emerging occupational and Skills for Justice criteria
Edited by the UK's leading academic expert on policing and the Chief Executive of the National Policing Improvement Agency
Entries contributed by leading academics and practitioners in policing

Contemporary policing is developing rapidly and is becoming increasingly professionalised. For practitioners National Occupational Standards, Skills for Justice and the new PDLP (Police Development and Leaning Programme) have brought a new emphasis on skills, standards and knowledge. Training for police officers and civilian staff working in policing is being significantly upgraded. At the same time it has become more rigorous, with universities and other higher educational institutions playing an increasingly important part in police training - as well as expanding the range of policing courses for undergraduate and postgraduate students.

'This is the first time that the body of knowledge about Policing has been brought together in a single volume dictionary accessible to practitioner and member of public alike. It is a really welcome development.'
Paul Stephenson QPM (Deputy Commissioner, Metropolitan Police Service)
'An indispensable reference for students, practitioners and leaders of modern British policing.'
Lawrence W. Sherman (Wolfson Professor of Criminology and Director, Police Executive Education, Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge)
'Joining a police force can be an intimidating experience for anyone. The individual and unique language of policing, with its many acronyms and a subculture all of its own, can be off-putting to the uninitiated. That is why this dictionary is so necessary; this is an indispensable guide for anyone interested in, or part of, the police. The sheer breadth of this work provides a unique set for references not only for those within the police service itself, but also - and these days, ever more importantly - for those with a wider community safety and partnership remit. With more than 200 entries contributed by both practitioners and academics, this brings together the collected expertise of people at the top of their field.'
It is vital in the modern police force that the leaders, and future leaders, of the police have a thorough understanding of the world we are operating in. Reference books such as this are essential in bringing together this overview, and I recommend this for anyone involved in police training or professional development.'
Sara Thornton QPM (Chief Constable of Thames Valley Police)
'Tim Newburn and Peter Neyroud have gathered an impressive list of authors, police practitioners and academics, to write the entries for this commendably wide ranging Dictionary, which emphatically underscores the critical message that policing is about much more than the police.'
Rod Morgan (Professor of Criminal Justice, University of Bristol and formerly Chairman, Youth Justice Board for England and Wales).
This Dictionary is the first of a new series of Dictionaries covering key aspects of criminal justice and the criminal justice system and designed to meet the needs of both students and practitioners:

The Editors
Tim Newburn is Professor of Criminology and Director of the Mannheim Centre, London School of Economics, President of the British Criminological Society and an experienced and prolific author; Peter Neyroud is Chief Executive of the National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA), and formerly Chief Constable of Thames Valley.

There are of course law dictionaries and Oxford University Press recently published a much smaller sized book called 'The Oxford Dictionary of Law Enforcement' in which you will find entries covering many of the same subjects. However it is a question of how much and what type of knowledge you require. This book consists of 199 entries compared to about 2,350 in the Oxford book.
Take 'Arrest' as an example, 'The Oxford Dictionary of Law Enforcement' defines it in approximately 450 words, whereas in the book under review 'Arrest' is covered by Leonard Jason-Lloyd, well known for his experience on this subject, in about 1300 words including key texts and sources for the reader, which refers to five textbooks and the Home Office PACE web pages. Comparison is not strictly a good idea; the books have different aims. I would advise Police Officers to purchase both, as neither are expensive compared with many law books these days. In fact this book is already on offer at £19.55.
This publication follows on from other titles of the series, viz Dictionary of Forensic Psychology, Dictionary of Prisons and Punishment, Dictionary of Probation and Offender Management and Dictionary of Youth Justice.
This dictionary consists of 199 subject headings, with 115 contributors having submitted entries. There is an Index, however I am a little puzzled because I saw that Bill Taylor former Commissioner of the City of London Police was a contributor, but I couldn't find him in the Index. Likewise, I could not find John Grieve in the Index. Obviously only 'subjects' are indexed. Thumbing through the book I found that the entry for 'Police Powers' was also written by Leonard Jason-Lloyd. It may have been helpful to cross-reference.
Some entries are of historical value only eg 'J' for Judges Rules. We are told the 'Judges Rules' were originally introduced in 1912 by the Judges of the King's Bench Division. I prefer CH Rolph's ( C R Hewitt a former Chief Inspector of the City of London Police) explanation in 'Common Sense about Crime & Punishment', Gollancz 1961.
"The judges' Rules"
'The questioning of witnesses and suspects by the police is supposed to follow a code of rules laid down in 1906, and embellished from time to time since, by the Judges of the High Court. These were never volunteered by the Judges, who (in theory) do not tell the police what their duties are, and who (in practice) do it only when something has gone wrong in the course of a criminal case they are trying. The "Judges Rules" were wrung from them by circumstances and the importunacy of a Chief Constable….In October, 1906, at the request of the Chief Constable of Birmingham (through the Home Office, and after some hard pushing) the Judges of the High Court considered the duty of the police in taking statements from people suspected of criminal offences. A Judge on the Midland circuit had recently rebuked a police witness for not cautioning a suspect before asking him questions, and a second Judge on the selfsame circuit and during the same sessions had rebuked a second policeman for doing it. Lord Alverstone, who was Lord Chief Justice, replied direct to the Chief Constable of Birmingham on behalf of all the Judges. This 1906 letter from the Lord Chief Justice foreshadowed what have become known as "the first four rules" for the questioning of suspects'.
My copy of the Judges Rules' are dated 1978, (it cost me 30p).
We are told on Page 154 what Rule II and III (a) and (b) say, but the actual cautions are omitted - why? Page 155 is only one-fifth full so a little more information could have been given.
Under 'B' for Beat, we are told, 'Historically, a beat is a geographical area that one police officer has responsibility for patrolling on foot. The 'bobby on the beat' remains a touchstone of British policing, invoking the image of the uniformed officer patrolling the streets night and day, deterring crime through performing a 'scarecrow function' and providing a benign reassuring presence to local residents and businesses. At the centre of this symbolic form of policing is the notion of a geographical area for which one officer is responsible for patrolling namely, the 'beat'. Is this anywhere near the truth? The first paragraph sums it up better, 'historically' rather than the statement 'The 'bobby on the beat' remains a touchstone of British policing'.
We share our town's PC (or Beat Manager) and one part-time female PSO with about ten other villages and all the acreage they contain. The beat I walked in the City of London was certainly small by comparison. I appreciate comparison with a rural part of Devon is not strictly correct. However, a town of 5,000 residents having to share one Police Officer makes nonsense of the Dictionary's quote 'the Bobby on the beat remains a touchstone of British Policing, invoking the image of the uniformed Officer patrolling the streets night and day'. In twelve years our 'Bobby' has never patrolled on foot in our street.
Generally I welcome this Dictionary and recommend it to all Police Officers. However I am not sure that an entry on 'Dixon of Dock Green' was necessary. There is nothing under 'B' for Bill, 'Z' for Z Cars or 'S' for Sweeney.
On the wall of the Police Canteen at Bishopsgate Police Station in the City of London, there was a large framed signed photograph of 'Dixon' AKA Jack Warner - where is it now? Its time to bring back 'Dixon'.
Were I the General Editor of the next Edition I would drop all the historical entries and concentrate on making this a true definitive dictionary of policing. After all, what do modern police officers really care about “Frankpledge”, which should be assigned to a lesson on the English Legal System .
Rob Jerrard

Understanding Criminal Behaviour
Psychosocial approaches to criminality
Edition: 1st
Format: paperback
Author: David W Jones
ISBN: 978-1-84392-303-9
Publishers: Willan Publishing
Price: 19.50
Publication Date: Jan 2008
Publisher's Title Information

Our understanding of criminal behaviour and its causes has been too long damaged by the failure to integrate fully the emotional, psychological, social and cultural influences on the way people behave.
Criminology as a discipline has been dominated by sociological thinking that has emphasized socially structured inequalities as the chief causes of crime, and has lacked the tools to grasp the significance of the internal and emotional worlds of individual offenders. Psychologists with an interest in criminality have not had much impact on mainstream criminological thought. The preoccupation of the academic discipline of psychology with mimicking the experimental methods of the natural sciences has meant that significant internal and emotional forces in people's lives have been ignored. Those psychologists with more clinical perspectives have focused on the affective lives of individuals but without engagement with wider theory or evidence. Neither psychological approach has lent itself well to also understanding the wider context in which individuals live their lives.
This book aims to integrate psychological and criminological perspectives in order to better understand the nature of criminal behaviour. In particular it aims to explore the range of psychological approaches that seek to understand the significance of the emotions that surround criminal behaviour, allowing for an exploration of individual differences and social and cultural issues which help to bridge the gaps between disciplinary approaches.
The book puts forward a model for understanding behaviour through a better grasp of the link between emotions, morality and culture. It argues that crime can often be viewed as emerging from disordered social relationships. In order to understand the roots of those disorders, we need to be able to explore the emotional worlds of those individuals and how morality, crime and violence are hewn from feelings of anger, shame and guilt that develop in relation to others.
The author

David W. Jones is Principal Lecturer in Psychosocial Studies at the University of East London. He has previously taught at the Open University and the London School of Economics, and is the author of Myths, Madness and the Family: The impact of mental illness on families (Palgrave, 2001).

Introduction: Psychological perspectives on criminal behaviour
1 The relationship of psychology and sociology in the study of crime
Beccaria and the study of crime
Nineteenth-century positivism
Twentieth-century positivism
Twentieth-century sociological criminology
Twentieth-century psychological approaches to crime
2 Mental disorder: madness, personality disorder and criminal responsibility
A brief history of criminal responsibility and mental disorder
Diminished responsibility and medical definitions
The problem of psychopathy and personality disorder
3 The contribution of criminal career research
The London Longitudinal Study
Heterogeneity of offenders: adolescent limited vs. life course persistent offenders
Explaining the links between childhood anti-social behaviour and adult offending
4 Familial and parental influences
Family structure and delinquency
Parenting styles and early family experience
Child effects
5 Youth crime
Age and criminal responsibility
Why do young people commit crime?
6 Gender and crime
Men, masculinity and crime
Women and crime
7 Understanding violence: learning from studies of homicide
Scenarios of homicide
Confrontational homicide
Personality types and confrontational rage-murder
8 Intimate violence and sex crime
Domestic violence and violence in the context of sexual intimacy
Sexual crimes: rape
Paedophilia and sexual offences against children
9 Conclusions
Psychosocial understanding of criminal behaviour: the significance of emotion and personality in conditions of 'high modernity'
Reducing crime
Further Work

Policing Critical Incidents

Edition: 1st

Format: Paperback

Author: Laurence Alison & Jonathan Crego

ISBN: 978-1-84392-279-7

Publishers: Willan Publishers

Price: £28.50

Publication Date: Feb 2008

The aim of this book is to examine the qualities of leadership and decision-making in the police service. Based on groundbreaking research using unique, advanced methods for examining policing in complex critical incident environments, the book focuses principally on a series of police debriefs following live major critical incidents. It captures the views of the Senior Investigating Officers (SIOs) who worked on these cases and draws upon the very rich set of experiences that they have had in dealing with complex, stressful and demanding enquiries.

The book provides an introduction to new methods for exploring leadership and decision-making in critical incidents. It will be an essential resource for developers of police training in leadership and decision-making, senior police officers involved in critical incident management, organisational psychologists who work within policing, and for students whose area of study covers policing, decision-making or criminal investigation.

An introduction to new methods for exploring leadership and decision making in critical incidents

A review of leadership and decision making specific to critical incidents and policing

Preface: A conversation that mattered,
William Griffiths
Foreword:Understanding Critical Event Learning and Leadership Using Hydra/10kVImmersive Learning and Debriefing and Other Tools,
John Grieve
1 Introduction,
Laurence Alison
2 The journey,
Jonathan Crego
3 Electronic debriefs and simulations as descriptive methods for defining the critical incident landscape,
Marie Eyre, Jonathan Crego and Laurence Alison
4 The current state of police leadership research,
Allison Wright, Laurence Alison and Jonathan Crego
5 Command, control and support in critical incidents,
Kate Whitfield, Laurence Alison and Jonathan Crego
6 Leading co-operation and context in Hydra syndicates,
Laurence Alison, Jonathan Crego, Kate Whitfield, Andrea Caddick and Laura Cataudo
7 Towards a taxonomy of police decision making in murder enquiries,
Sam Mullins and Laurence Alison
8 Heuristics and biases in decision making,
Louise Almond, Laurence Alison, Marie Eyre, Jonathan Crego and Alasdair Goodwill
9 Emotions in policing: the emotional legacy of homicide investigations,
Jonathan Crego, Laurence Alison, Jennie Roocroft and Marie Eyre
10 Decision inertia: the impact of organisations on critical incident decision making,
Marie Eyre, Laurence Alison, Clare McLean and Jonathan Crego
11 Conclusions

The Editors
Professor Laurence Alison is Co-director of the Centre for Critical Incident Research, University of Liverpool where he also holds a Chair in forensic psychology. He is a Chartered Forensic Psychologist, conducts research on investigative decision-making and leadership and has contributed to a number of major police enquiries as well as national police training programmes. His recent publications include (as editor) The Forensic Psychologist’s Casebook (Willan Publishing, 2005).
Professor Jonathan Crego has delivered Critical Incident debriefing and training for the last 17 years, having designed the Minerva, Hydra and 10,000 Volt debriefing methodologies which are now operating at 32 locations internationally. He directs the Hydra Operations Team at the Metropolitan Police and is the Director for Immersive Learning at the National Policing Improvement Agency in London. He holds a research Chair and is Co-Director of the Centre for Critical Incident Research at the School of Psychology, University of Liverpool.

Intelligence Led Policing

Edition: 1st

Format: Paperback

Author: Jerry Ratcliffe

ISBN: 978-1-84392-339-8

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price: £22

Publication Date: February 2008

What is intelligence-led policing? Who came up with the idea? Where did it come from? How does it relate to other policing paradigms? What distinguishes an intelligence-led approach to crime reduction? How is it designed to have an impact on crime? Does it prevent crime? What is crime disruption? Is intelligence-led policing just for the police? These are questions asked by many police professionals, including senior officers, analysts and operational staff. Similar questions are also posed by students of policing who have witnessed the rapid emergence of intelligence-led policing from its British origins to worldwide movement. These questions are also relevant to crime prevention practitioners and policy-makers seeking long-term crime benefits. The answers to these questions are the subject of this book.

This book brings the concepts, processes and practice of intelligence-led policing into focus, so that students, practitioners and scholars of policing, criminal intelligence and crime analysis can better understand the evolving theoretical and empirical dynamics of this rapidly growing paradigm. The first book of its kind, enhanced by viewpoint contributions from intelligence experts and case studies of police operations, provides a much-needed and timely in-depth synopsis of this emerging movement in a practical and accessible style.

1 Introduction
Reimagining policing
What is intelligence-led policing?
What makes intelligence-led policing unique?
A holistic approach to crime control
Case study: Operation Nine Connect
The structure of this book
2 Origins of intelligence-led policing
Drivers for change
Complexity in policing and the performance culture
Managing risk
The demand gap
Limitations of the standard model of policing
Organised and transnational crime
Changes in technology
The US policing landscape
Fragmented and uncoordinated
Viewpoint: Fragmented policing and the role of fusion centers
Demonising intelligence
The community policing era
Slow emergence of problem-oriented policing
Rapid emergence of Compstat
9/11 and homeland security
The British policing landscape
New public managerialism and oversight
Sporadic emergence of problem-oriented policing in the UK
Helping with enquiries and policing with intelligence
The National Intelligence Model
3 The magnitude of the crime challenge
The crime funnel
How much crime gets reported?
Case study: Calls for service in America’s most dangerous city
Crime-prone places
Completing the crime funnel
The offender problem
Individual offending and recidivism
Predicting prolific offenders
Can the police identify prolific offenders?
Organised crime
Viewpoint: Threat measurement techniques for organised crime
4 Defining Intelligence-led policing
Related policing frameworks
Community policing
Problem-oriented policing
Conceptual confusion
Viewpoint: Policing conceptual frameworks from the analyst’s perspective
Intelligence-led policing defined
Original tenets
Revising the original model
Intelligence-led policing components
5 Analytical frameworks
Awash with terminology
What is criminal intelligence?
What is crime analysis?
Data, information and knowledge?
DIKI continuum
From knowledge to intelligence
Levels of crime intelligence
NIM levels
Viewpoint: A practitioner’s perspective on the National Intelligence Model
Conceptualising analysis
NIM business model
The 3-i model
Can models reflect reality?
6 Interpreting the criminal environment
Target selection
Recording crime details
Threat assessments
Objective targeting and offender self-selection
Playing well with others
Viewpoint: Information sharing at the national level
Information collation
Improving information sharing
A role for liaison officers?
Confidential informants
Analytical techniques
Strategic thinking
7 Influencing decision-makers
Who are decision-makers?
Front-line officers
Police leadership
Non-law enforcement
The general public
Security networks
Viewpoint: The responsibilities of intelligence-led police leadership
Understanding the client’s environment
Working with the audience
Maximising influence
Embracing networks
Recommending action
8 Having an impact on crime
Revisiting the crime funnel
Estimating prevention benefits
Reduction, disruption and prevention
The changing leadership role
Viewpoint: The leadership role in intelligence-led policing
Steering the rowers in the right direction
The police impact on crime
Does police targeting prevent crime?
Does increasing arrests reduce crime?
Intelligence-led crime reduction
9 Evaluating intelligence-led policing
Evaluation concepts and practice
What are we evaluating?
Types of evaluations
Operation Vendas and Operation Safe Streets
Evaluation skills
Pure evaluations and realistic evaluations
Case study: Operation Anchorage
Viewpoint: Refining strategy after Operation Anchorage
Measuring success in different ways
The cost-benefit of surveillance and confidential informants
Measuring disruption
Measuring success in changing business practice
Measuring success in performance indicators
10 Challenges for the future
The challenges of covert activity
The risks of greater informant use in covert activities
Principle of proportionality
Storing private information
Human rights and surveillance
Viewpoint: Intelligence-led policing and public trust
The widening security agenda
Greater strategic application
Merging criminal intelligence and national security
An agenda for the future
Conceptual training for analysts and executives
Disseminating success
Looking beyond the tactical imperatives
Engage the next cohort of police leaders
Ten yardsticks for intelligence-led policing


'Dr Ratcliffe has that rare ability to combine theory and practice using language that practitioners will find both useful and applicable in an operational environment. This is a book for everyone with a stake in understanding crime and the value of intelligence-led approaches as an effective response.'
R. Mark Evans (Director, Analytical Services, Police Service of Northern Ireland)
'Intelligence-Led Policing is a "must" read for police leaders and academics alike. Ratcliffe presents the first comprehensive account of an important movement in modern policing and makes sense of what until now has been a rather vague set of interesting ideas. Clearly written and well organized, Intelligence-Led Policing provides an in-depth insightful prescription for policing. We can hope that in the years to come well-thumbed and underlined copies of this book will be found on the desks and night-tables of police officials around the globe. This may be the most important book on policing in over a decade.'
John E. Eck (Professor, Division of Criminal Justice, University of Cincinnati)

Terrorism, Rights and the Rule of Law

Negotiating Justice in Ireland

Edition: 1st

Authors: Barry Vaughan & Shane Kilcommins

ISBN: 978-1-84392-264-3

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price: £17.99

Publication Date: Dec 2007

Publisher’s Title Information

The rule of law is becoming a victim of the struggle against terrorism. Many countries are reviewing their security procedures and questioning whether due process rights hinder them in the ‘war on terror’. There is increasing emphasis on preventive detention or strategies of disablement that cut into the liberties of suspects who may not have committed a crime.

The focus of this book is the Republic of Ireland, where the risk of political violence has constantly threatened the Irish state. To ensure its survival, the state has resorted to emergency laws that weaken due process rights. The effects of counter-terrorism campaigns upon the rule of law governing criminal justice in Ireland are a central feature of this book. Globalization has supported this crossover, as organized crime seems immune to conventional policing tactics.

But globalization fragments the authority of the state by introducing a new justice network. New regulatory agencies are entrusted with powers to control novel risks and social movements adopt a human rights discourse to contest state power and emergency laws.

The result of this conflux of actors and risks is are negotiation of the model of justice that citizens can expect. Terrorism, Rights and the Rule of Law contributes to current debates about civil liberties in the ‘war on terror’, how counter-terrorism can contaminate criminal justice, and how globalization challenges a state-centred view of criminal justice. It will be of key interest to students of criminology, law, human rights and sociology, as well as legal and other practitioners and policy-makers.

The authors

Barry Vaughan is lecturer at the Institute of Public Administration in Dublin. His main teaching and research interests lie in the field of criminal justice and his previous publications include Crime, Punishment and the Search for Order in Ireland (2004); Shane Kilcommins is Senior Lecturer at the Centre for Criminal Justice and Human Rights, University College, Cork and has published in the fields of penology and insurance law as well as criminal justice.



1 Ending or extending the long nineteenth century of criminal justice

2 Justice, rights and reciprocity

3 Reconstructing truth in criminal law: Moving from an exculpatory to an inculpatory model of justice

4 Law in the shadow of the gunman

5 Entrenching the 'equality of arms' framework in the ordinary criminal justice system in Ireland

6 Disaggregated justice

7 Justice beyond the nation state

8 Conclusion: The war on terror and campaigns for rights


References and further reading


Psychology and Crime

Understanding and tackling offending behaviour

Edition: paperback

Authors: Francis Pakes & Jane Winstone

ISBN: 978-1-84392-259-9

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price: £17.99

Publication Date: Oct 2007

Publisher's Title Information

Society today is fascinated by crime. Crime is a hot topic in the media, so that people are continually exposed to criminal events, portrayals of those who commit them, and the suffering of victims. Yet the reality of crime is often very different from how it is portrayed in the media. Most crime is neither violent nor morbid; most offenders are not psychopaths, and although prison generally does not work, there may well be other, less punitive but more constructive interventions that are actually quite effective.

This book exposes some of the most prevalent myths about crime and criminal behaviour. In addition it provides the reader with up-to-date knowledge on crime and offending behaviour. It also highlights the ways in which psychological methods of research and psychological knowledge can help us to understand criminal behaviour and the ways that targeted interventions are developed based upon this.

Pakes' and Winstone's Psychology and Crime is essential reading for students taking courses in the psychology of crime, criminal and forensic psychology, criminology, and community justice, as well as for other courses where a knowledge of the complex relationship between psychology and crime – and its application in practice - is required.

Practitioners and policy-makers will also find it highly informative.

Gives an overview of psychological theories relating to criminal and anti-social behaviour.

Applies psychological theories in relation to key topic areas and types of offence.


1 Why do people offend? psychological and sociological explanations
2 The criminal mind: understanding criminals from their scene of crime
3 Pathways into crime: understanding juvenile offending
4 Aggression and violence
5 Sexual violence: from theory into practice
6 Insanity, mental health and the criminal justice system
7 Stalkers and their victims
8 The psychology of addiction - are there more questions than answers? (by Aaron Pycroft)
9 Date rape and drugs
10 Can prison ever work?
11 Victims and the fear of crime

You probably wouldn't be surprised to hear that an enquiry into the “Alarming increase in juvenile delinquency in the metropolis” identified lack of education, lack of employment and inadequate parenting as the prime causes. However, you might be rather more surprised when you discovered that this report was published in 1816! More recently New Labour famously declared itself to be “tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime”. It has proved itself to have achieved the former; the prison population has never been higher, but what about the latter? This book examines theories, models and research that underpin current thinking into explanations of criminal behaviour and how those ideas shape solutions to deal with it.
Starting with general theories on offending the book progresses to explanations for specific crimes such as date rape, stalking and sexual violence, whose prevalence is still emerging. Perhaps the key indicator for measuring the success of tackling offending behaviour is recidivism and the book ends with an evaluation of the effectiveness of prison and suggests some alternatives, together with a chapter on the impact on a society that lives in fear of crime.
The interrelation of psychological, biological and sociological factors is stressed and stereotypical beliefs as portrayed in the media (especially it emerges, the local media) are constantly challenged. Using statistics from psychological research, together with those from official sources and referring to plentiful case studies, classic experiments in psychology (Zimbardo, Bandura, Milgram) together with stories from the media, this book supports its views in a way that is relevant to everyday life and is a good introduction to the subject.
The authors are both principal lecturers at the University of Portsmouth, although one chapter on the psychology of addiction was written by Aaron Pycroft. Sadly, this chapter seems to work least well and would have benefited from more of an outline of the trans-theoretical model of change for addressing addiction instead of just a critique.
The causes of crime are complex, but generally speaking just being a young male constitutes a higher risk of being both a victim and an aggressor of violent crime, whereas being a young single female student makes you more likely to attract a stalker. It is suggested that those who are most fearful of becoming a victim of crime are those least likely to be targeted and vice versa, especially when they go on holiday! Aggravating factors such as depression and a hot spell of weather are surprising. Less surprising is the role of alcohol. The drug of choice for date rape turns out not to be GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid) or Rohypnol (flunitrazepam) but alcohol itself.
The chapter on The Criminal Mind deserves to be singled out for debunking the myth of the criminal profiler. Far from the media portrayal of a charismatic intuitive, the work is seen as systematic, rarely providing a breakthrough and valued by the police as a second opinion. Profilers' methods also vary widely. Contrast the geographical statistical approach of David Canter and his Dragnet computer programme with Paul Britton's approach, which is more in line with the FBI.
So what about solutions? Does prison work? Not according to the authors who believe that it is impossible to reconcile the philosophies of punishment and rehabilitation in a socially exclusive environment. On another level the opportunity for crime may be designed out of the built environment or on a personal level by getting young women to guard their drinks and look after each other when they are socializing. But regarding the underlying causes of crime, we don't seem to have moved on much further than 1816.

Gill Payne

Understanding Prison Staff

Published in association with The Prison Service Journal.

Edition: 1st

Author: Edited by Jamie Bennett, Ben Crewe and Azrini Wahidin

ISBN: 978-1-84392-274-2 Publishers: Willan Publishers

Price: £26

Publication Date: Nov 2007

Publisher's title Information

The past decade has seen dramatic growth in every area of the prison enterprise. Yet our knowledge of the inner life of the prison remains limited. This book aims to redress this research gap by providing insight into various aspects of the daily life of prison staff. It provides a serious exploration of their work and, in doing so, will seek to draw attention to the variety, value and complexity of work within prisons.

This book will provide practitioners, students and the general reader with a comprehensive and accessible guide to the contemporary issues and concerns facing prison staff. Information on relevant research studies, key debates, and on operational and procedural matters.an edited collection which academic staff can adopt for core or specialist modules which focus on prison management, prison officer training, and the occupational cultures of prison staff.

1 Introduction,
Ben Crewe, Jamie Bennett and Azrini Wahidin
Part 1 Prisons and Staff Issues
2 Personal reflections on prison staff,
Jason Warr
3 Prison staff: an international perspective,
Roy D. King
4 The experiences of black and minority ethnic prison staff,
Hindpal Singh Bhui and Julia Fossi
5 Prison officers and gender,
Sarah Tait
6 Prison staff in the public and private sector,
Clare McClean and Alison Liebling
Part 2 Prison Officers
7 Industrial relations in prisons,
Jamie Bennett and Azrini Wahidin
8 Understanding prison officers: culture, cohesion and conflict,
Elaine Crawley and Peter Crawley
9 Staff and order in prisons,
Deborah Drake
10 Creating ghosts in the penal machine: prison officer occupational morality and the techniques of denial,
David Scott
11 'An inconvenient criminological truth': pain, punishment and prison officers,
Joe Sim
Part 3 Prison Managers
12 Prison governors: new public managers?
Shane Bryans
13 Change management in prisons,
Andrew Coyle
14 'Resisting the scourge of managerialism': on the uses of discretion in late-modern prisons,
Leo K. Cheliotis
15 The role of middle and first-line managers,
Sue Brookes, Karen Smith and Jamie Bennett
Part 4 Prison Staff
16 The changing face of probation in prisons,
Brian Williams
17 Teachers and instructors in prisons,
Phil Bayliss and Shirley Hughes
18 Psychologists in prisons,
Graham Towl and David Crighton
19 The prison drug worker,
Mike Wheatley
20 Health professionals in prisons,
Morag MacDonald and Paul Fallon
Part 5 Developing the Human Resources of Prisons
21 Recruitment and assessment of prison staff,
Martin McHugh, Jim Heavens and Keith Baxter
22 Training and developing prison staff,
Maggie Bolger and Jamie Bennett
23 The experience of prison officer training,
Helen Arnold
Part 6 Conclusion
24 Concluding comments on the social world of prison staff,
Ben Crewe

Genetic Policing - The Use of DNA in Criminal Investigations

Edition: Paperback

Author: Robin Williams & Paul Johnson

ISBN: 978-1-84392-204-9

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price: £22

Publication Date: Feb 2008

Publisher's Title Information

This book is about the increasing significance of DNA profiling for crime investigation in modern society. It focuses on developments in the UK as the world-leader in the development and application of forensic DNA technology and in the construction of DNA databases as an essential element in the successful use of DNA for forensic purposes. The book uses data collected during the course of Wellcome Trust funded research into police uses of the UK National DNA Database (NDNAD) to describe the relationship between scientific knowledge and police investigations. It will be illustrated throughout by reference to some of the major UK criminal cases in which DNA evidence has been presented and contested. Chapters in the book explain the scientific developments which have enabled DNA profiling to be applied to criminal investigation, the ways in which the state has directed this and how genetic technology has risen to such pre-eminence; how DNA evidence moved from its use in individual prosecutions to a major role in intelligence led policing, and saw the development of the UK National DNA Database; how legislative support for the NDNAD was mobilized, enabling the police to obtain and use genetic information on individuals. Finally the authors examine the ways in which the DNA Expansion Programme, built on the supposed potential for the NDNAD to contribute to criminal detection, has been incorporated into a broader crime reduction strategy, and explore the implications for policing, governance and security of the continued expansion of the range and scope of the NDNAD.

1 Introducing forensic DNA profiling and databasing
Approaching the NDNAD
The politics of 'crime management'
DNA profiling and due process
DNA evidence
The research
2 The technology of social order
Individuation, identification and social order
The criminal body
The new biometrics
Under the skin
3 From 'genetic fingerprint' to 'genetic profile'
Scientific innovation and its investigative application
First police use of DNA - the 'Pitchfork' case
UK government investment in research and development
DNA and UK forensic science
4 Criminalistics and forensic genetics
Crime scene examination, physical evidence and forensic intelligence
Sources and amounts of biological material
Scientific innovations
5 Populating the NDNAD - inclusion and contestation
Technological innovation and legal context
Finding a subject: making the NDNAD in law
The end of innocence: extending NDNAD inclusion
Contesting the law: privacy, discrimination and the Human Rights Act
Conclusion: the reconfigured criminal body
6 Using DNA effectively
Police, forensic science and the new public management
The rise of intelligence-led policing
Using physical evidence - research and evidence
Establishing effective uses of the NDNAD
The expansion programme
7 Governing the NDNAD
Governing the NDNAD: the 'Memorandum of Understanding'
Contemporary 'principles' of governance
Juridico-scientific accountability
Administrative accountability
Civic accountability
8 Current developments and emerging trends
Database futures: changing the inclusion regime
Data-sharing and exchange
9 Conclusion

This well researched and written book is about the increasing significance of DNA profiling for crime investigation in today's societies. The authors chart the development of DNA technologies and their incorporation into the criminal justice systems not only of the United Kingdom but also worldwide.
The book gives an overview of the construction, development and use of the UK's National DNA Database, (NDNAD), the legislation enacted to facilitate this, and along the way examines some of the major UK criminal cases in which DNA evidence has not only been presented but also contested.
The various chapters in the book chart and explain how scientific developments have enabled DNA profiling to be applied to criminal investigations, and how this technology has risen to such pre-eminence in recent times.
The authors also examine how the DNA Expansion Programme has been absorbed into a broader crime reduction strategy, and the possible implications for society and its security of the continued growth in the range and scope of the NDNAD.
Chapter 1. Introducing forensic DNA profiling and databasing.
This chapter explains how the National DNA Database was established in 1995, as the first of its kind in the world, who manages it, who are custodians of it and how it operates. The authors explain how the samples for inclusion on the database, (whether they be from suspects or crime scenes etc.), are incorporated into it, and how the database is searched.
Several interesting tables are produced which show how the database has grown substantially over the years.
The chapter then proceeds to discuss how the collection and databasing of DNA profiles could in the future be part of a bio-surveillance apparatus. This apparatus may be capable of recording the past details of an individual's criminal conduct in an attempt to both control their present activities and detect future ones, by using the current growth of genetic knowledge in the relationship between biological factors and criminal conduct.
The authors then expound their view that contemporary crime management practices differ from previous methods of regulating crime, in that their uses are not exhaustively determined by their integration into a system of due legal process. The authors argue that they are not practices aimed at administering the legal aspects of justice, but rather they are more generally available as generic instruments of social control and social order employing methods, modalities, or technologies to enhance the repertoire of information available not only to the police but also to other state agencies.
The chapter then discusses how the police should be afforded relevant and legitimate powers to investigate possible offences and detect suspects, but how these powers must be balanced with the rights of individuals as guaranteed by a civil society.
Finally, this chapter deals with the adoption of DNA profiling by the courts, and the role of the scientific expert and the presentation of forensic evidence in judicial proceedings.
Chapter 2. The technology of social order.
This chapter explains the recent development of DNA profiling and databasing, as methods for discerning and documenting identity, within the broader history of attempts to construct and use criminal identification methods and their associated records.
The authors argue that the establishment and expansion of forensic DNA databases is not just simply the application of contemporary science and innovation technologies to establish 'problems', but rather represents one aspect of a significant redefinition of social control practices and of the population who are constituted as subjects of often novel, crime control techniques. The authors then suggest that DNA profiling is best understood as one of a number of attempts to capture individuating features of bodies as well as the traces of such bodies left at scenes of crime in order to differentiate and identify them.
This chapter discusses aspects of the Data Protection Act with regard to DNA samples, and as the authors state “the durability of DNA in the body matter that can be collected, means that investigators now have access to a powerful novel form of 'body data' at crime scenes”.
Chapter 3. From 'genetic fingerprint' to 'genetic profile'.
In this chapter the authors explore how early uses of DNA profiling by the police, deployed on a case-by-case basis for detecting suspects of serious crimes, provided the foundations for, (in their view), the development of the NDNAD as an instrument of actual surveillance. The authors detail the first investigative use of DNA in the now celebrated 'Pitchfork' case.
This chapter details three significant changes in the UK which have supported the growth and development of DNA profiling: first how DNA profiling initially supplemented, but later became the most prominent among a number of existing forms of forensic human identification; second, the way in which a number of different UK agencies recognised and invested in this developing technology, and third, how the credibility of DNA evidence has been established in and through its deployment in an increasing number of criminal trials.
The chapter then shows how genetic profiling became scientifically, operationally, and judicially established, and how, within no more than a decade or so, became the worlds leading method of establishing identity.
This chapter also examines in some detail the 'match probability calculations' as used by scientists to calculate or estimate the chance that two people selected from a given population at random would have exactly the same DNA profile, also discussed are the likelihood ratios, evidential reasoning, and what the authors describe as 'statistical fallacies'.
Chapter 4. Criminalistics and forensic genetics.
This chapter encompasses what is meant by criminalistics. Crime scene examination, physical evidence and forensic intelligence are discussed, as are the sources and amounts of biological material required for successful DNA profiling and 'familial searching'.
This chapter covers the work of crime scene examiners and other more specialised forensic scientists who may examine particular scenes of crime.
As the authors state “Members of this group are characterised by their knowledge of investigative routines and their use of a range of methods for identification, collection, and preservation of physical material”.
The authors then list the various 'body fluids and parts' from which a DNA profile may be obtained, and give the success rate of obtaining a complete profile from each in percentage terms for the year 2003. (I understand that success rates have risen in subsequent years).
The section on familial profiling I found of great interest and describes how the Forensic Science Service now offers a search of the NDNAD to identify possible relatives of criminal suspects, and how in the authors opinion familial searching is a practice that is certain to be developed in the future.
Chapter 5. Populating the NDNAD - inclusion and contestation.
This chapter turns attention to the establishment and development of the NDNAD, and explains how the growth of it has been facilitated by a series of inter-related scientific and governmental innovations which encourage the police to routinely collect and retain genetic samples from individuals and crime scenes.
The authors then trace the historical foundations of legislation that has made this possible, but in their view, not entirely desirable.
The authors then explain how there has never been one legislative instrument or Act of Parliament to establish the database or the current powers of the police on which it relies. Rather it has been facilitated by successive amendments to existing legislation, particularly several amendments to the Police and Criminal Evidence Act, (1984), most notable of which was to allow DNA profiles of suspects who's case was not proceeded with, or who were acquitted, to remain on the NDNAD, (they were previously removed). Also explained is how the law was changed to accommodate the taking of mouth swabs by police from suspects, which were hitherto classified as 'intimate samples' under the law.
Part of this chapter is used to discuss the differing aspects of the law of the UK and the European Convention on Human Rights with regard to the collection and retention of DNA samples and data.
Chapter 6. Using DNA effectively.
In this informative chapter the authors consider the ways in which successive UK governments have asserted that DNA profiling and databasing are a vital weapon in the fight against crime and how this has lead to significant amounts of investment across a wide range of laboratory and operational contexts. The authors discuss what they term “the most significant form of that investment” - namely, the DNA Expansion Programme.
The authors quote from, refer to, and discuss many pieces of legislation, Government Reports, White Papers, Home Office Circulars, Audit Commission Reports and academic research into this subject. I was pleased to see that two reports which I considered to be of excellent content and which also affected the work that I was engaged in at the time, were included and discussed. These were the Touche Ross review of 1987 into the organisation of scientific support in police forces in the UK, and the Police Foundation study of 1991 entitled 'Making forensic evidence more effective and efficient'. This latter report introduced a key theme that has dominated all subsequent research in this area, namely, “the lack of recognition given to the specialist knowledge and skills of crime scene examiners”.
Included at this point are some interesting statistics which show how the proportion of DNA matches resulting in detections has risen from 29% in 1998/9 to 49% in 2004/5, and how in 2004/5 the overall detection rate for all recorded crime was 26%, compared with a detection rate of 40% when crime scene DNA profiles were loaded on to the NDNAD.
The authors conclude this chapter by discussing this section subject - namely, is DNA being used effectively?
Chapter 7. Governing the NDNAD.
This chapter explores the relationships that have developed between several public and private sector agencies involved in the custodianship and governance of the National DNA Database. The authors bring to the readers attention what they believe to be of particular historic importance to this network - namely, the 'Memorandum of Understanding' between the Association of Chief Police Officers and the Forensic Science Service, which provides an agreed framework with the aim of establishing and monitoring standards in forensic DNA analysis, controlling the uses that could be made of information derived from biological samples, and devolving significant operational responsibilities to the database Custodian.
The authors then expound and explore the Memorandum of Understanding in some depth.
The authors then discuss laboratory quality assessment and assurance, and a subject that has come to the fore in recent times, both before and since this book was written, namely - data handling, data protection and database security.
There is section on 'data-sharing' in which the authors discuss what the Information Commissioner characterises as 'sensitive personal data' and whether recent developments in trans-jurisdictional genetic sharing raise additional issues to those of 'adequate protection for the rights and freedoms of data subjects'.
The chapter concludes with the information that this year (2008), the contract granted to the Forensic Science Service to operate the NDNAD will end and that the database will be open to tender from private forensic companies (a thought that fills me with dread), and which is discussed here.
Chapter 8. Current developments and emerging trends.
In this chapter the authors outline some of the possible ways in which the NDNAD could develop in the future and they also suggest some of the issues that could be raised by these potential developments. As the authors state 'It seems certain that the NDNAD expansion is not over and that new categories of persons will continue to be added to this heterogeneous collection of 'suspects''.
Discussed at length in this chapter are possible changes to the inclusion regime of the NDNAD, offence categorisation, data-sharing and exchange with special regard to the proposed establishment of an EU-wide DNA intelligence system. There is also a section on the differing legislative arrangements that are in place in Scotland and Northern Ireland (as opposed to England and Wales), with regard to the retention of DNA samples on the NDNAD.
Chapter 9. Conclusion.
In this final chapter the authors reiterate some of their significant arguments, and how important scientific developments are in reshaping the landscape in which operational policing takes place. The authors argue that as a result 'the rituals of justice are now increasingly being performed behind laboratory doors instead of on the public stage of the court room'. The authors then quote a number of commentators who state that this move towards 'genetic justice' is problematic because it is administered by agents of crime management with no concern for due process; in other words, DNA profiling and databasing are tools employed to code and survey a population for the purposes of policing and controlling risk.
The authors then argue that there are several issues about the need to clearly and fairly present DNA evidence in court, and also the importance of establishing appropriate laboratory standards and standards in relation to database governance.
This book, in my view, covers every aspect of 'The use of DNA in criminal investigations', and much, much more. The book goes into considerable detail, (in some places, perhaps too much), but the overall result is that the reader in acquainted with every aspect of DNA profiling and databasing, including the various enactments that have made it possible. There are some very valid arguments raised in the book especially regarding data protection and security, civil liberties and human rights. Some of the author's arguments I do not agree with, however, every aspect of a particular viewpoint is put forward well and in most case is supported by quotes from and references to research documents, books and journals.
My view is that this book will be of primary interest to academics, scientists, policymakers, senior police officers, and those with a particular interest in privacy protection and human rights. If you are amongst this particular group then I can recommend this book to you, and I believe that having read it you will be enlightened in many aspects of this subject, and you will certainly be more knowledgeable about the whole overall topic than before.
If you are not amongst the group that I have mentioned above, then, in my view there are many other books covering this subject which I suggest would be more suitable to your needs and quest for knowledge about DNA and its use in criminal investigations.
Andy Day. 2008.

Paying for Pleasure Men who Buy Sex

Edition: 1st

Author: Teela Sanders

ISBN: 978-1-84392-321-3

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price: £19.99

Publication Date: Feb 2008

Publisher's Title Information

Drawing on original empirical data with men who buy sex, this book takes a fresh look at the relationships clients have with female sex workers. The core questions that form the backbone of the research are not only the expected inquiry into 'why men buy sex', but also into the sociological and psychological processes that men encounter in order to enter an assumed 'deviant' sexual behaviour as part of their everyday lives.

These sociological processes of finding, negotiating and buying sexual services are complicated by the stigma directed towards men who buy sex. Exactly how do men behave with sex workers; what are their relationships like; what emotions are involved and can intimacy be bought?
Recent online virtual relationships that have established a sex work community, identifies a growing group of men who communicate and create networks through the sex industry. Their experiences of entering a semi-legal activity are influenced by the increasing criminalisation of the 'kerb-crawler' and a message from government that buying sex is morally deplorable. Questioning the dichotomy made between commercial and non-commercial relationships, the data suggests that intimacy and commerce are compatible. Managing secrecy, stigma and the consumption of intimacy takes this book into some of the more challenging theoretical areas of masculinity and emotional consumption in contemporary society.
Finally, drawing some parallels from the author’s earlier book Sex Work: A Risky Business, the book offers insights into why engagement in commercial sex is prolific as sexual culture is transformed in late modernity.


1 The genesis of the study
The politics of researching 'punters'
The traditional absence of the male client
Why include men in research on the sex industries?
2 Researching men who buy sex
Locating the population
The empirical study
Recruitment: the procedure
Recruitment: me, men and motivation
Turning a secret story into a public testimony
Emotional labour and the therapeutic interview
The data sources
The participants
3 Client conduct: motivations, markets and morality
Evidence from surveys
Trajectories of being a client
Markets, exploitation and morality
Rules, etiquette and benchmarking
4 Buying sex online: virtual regulation
Technology meets the sex markets
Accessibility and intimacy in the virtual arena
Learning to be a 'punter'
Community, identity and friendship
Theorizing Internet usage by male clients
5 Buying intimacy: pleasure, commerce and the self
Intimacy meets the sex markets
Becoming a 'regular' client
Vulnerability and emotional attachment
The contradictions of marriage
Commerce and the 'transformation of intimacy'
6 Against respectability: stigma, secrecy and the self
Human difference and the origin of stigma
Guilt and 'crossing the line'
Managing stigma
The normal deviant
7 Criminalizing the customer: moral messages
Re-emphasis on who is the problem
The policy and political agenda
Kerb-crawler 'rehabilitation' programmes
Male sexuality, 'respectability' and New Labour
8 Moral panic: the 'punter' as danger
Applying the concept of moral panic
Male sexuality as danger
Men who act violently towards sex workers
Consequences of the social reaction
'Risky' male sexuality as a system of social control
9 Shifting sexual cultures, moving masculinities
A changing sexual morality?
The push factors
The pull factors
Take what's on offer, but be damned if you do
Appendix: list of interviewees

Privatizing Policing

Describing and explaining the growth of private security

Edition: paperback

Author: Ronald van Steden

ISBN: 978 9054549536

Publishers:  Willan (Boom Juridische Uitgevers, Netherlands)

Price: £25

Publication Date: January 2008

Publisher’s Title Information

Private security is a mushrooming phenomenon worldwide, yet little is known about its nature and extent. There is a lack of systematic research that deals with the size, shape, growth and implications of private security operations. Furthermore, the limited available information has been dominated by Anglo-American publications tending to overlook the situation outside Anglophone countries. In addition, academic literature in general lacks a coherent set of theoretical concepts that can explain developing private security markets. This book aims to tackle such blind spots by focusing on both the theoretical and empirical side of flourishing 'manned' guarding services in the Netherlands. It maps out the evolution of private security over the past 30 years and elucidates why the industry has grown so large. The book also offers detailed insights for politicians, policy-makers and ordinary citizens who frequently encounter private guards, but lack detailed information about them. In so doing, it sheds light on changes representing major shifts in policing and public order maintenance, tasks which to date have been government's primary responsibility.

Introduction - The Growth of Dutch Private Security
1 Theory and Methodology
2 On Police, Policing and Private Security: A Brief Overview
3 Widening Networks: Security Governance
4 Theorizing Private Security: The Explanatory Framework
5 Studying Private Security: Research Methods
6 Growing Private Security: A Market in Motion
7 Private Security Growth: Exploring Explanatory Factors
8 Efteling: World of Wonders
9 Stadium Feyenoord: 'Hand in Hand, Comrades!'€™
10 Hoog Catharijne: Retail Heart of the Netherlands
11 Dutch Private Security: An Analysis
12 Conclusions and Discussion: Explaining Private Secrity

Dictionary of Prisons and Punishment

Edition: 1st paperback

Author: Edited by Yvonne Jewkes & Jamie Bennett

ISBN: 978 1843922919

Publishers: Willan

Price: £22.99

Publication Date: November 2007

Publisher’s Title Information

Contemporary prison practice faces many challenges, is developing rapidly and is become increasingly professionalized, influenced by the new National Offender Management Service. As well as bringing an increased emphasis on skills and qualifications it has also introduced a new set of ideas and concepts into the established prisons and penal lexicon.

At the same time courses on prisons and penology remain important components of criminology and criminal justice degree courses. This will be the essential source of reference for the increasing number of people studying in, working in prisons and working with prisoners. This Dictionary is part a new series of Dictionaries covering key aspects of criminal justice and the criminal justice system and designed to meet the needs of both students and practitioners:

Approximately 300 entries (of between 500 and 1500 words) on key terms and concepts arranged alphabetically

Designed to meet the needs of both students and practitioners
Entries include summary definition, main text and key texts and sources
Takes full account of emerging occupational and Skills for Justice criteria
Edited by a leading academic and practitioner in the prisons and penology field entries contributed by leading academic and practitioners in prisons and penology

The editors

Yvonne Jewkes is Reader in Criminology at the Open University, cofounder and editor of Crime, Media, Culture: an international journal,and editor of Willan Publishing’s Handbook on Prisons (2007) ; Jamie Bennett is Deputy Governor, HMP Whitemoor, and Editor of the Prison Journal.

The first paragraph of 'About This Book' sums up perfectly what the aim is:-
'The Dictionary of Prisons and Punishment is the first book of its kind in two important respects. Not only does it represent the first definitive cataloguing of key terms, concepts, theoretical approaches, institutions and policies associated with prisons and punishment, but it is also a unique collaboration between scholars and practitioners working in the fields of prisons and penology. Specifically, the Dictionary brings together contributions from academics; personnel within the Prison Service, Home Office, Ministry of Justice and National Offender Management Service; prison psychologists; health professionals; chaplains, members of prison charities and reform groups; and prison officers, managers and governors. The book's editors also combine academic and professional experience and, given this joint enterprise, it is perhaps unsurprising that the Dictionary has been compiled with two main readerships in mind.'
The above paragraph refers to people who work in prisons and students studying such subjects as criminology, criminal justice and penology.'
The list of entries show, with approximately 98 very varied headings the depth of coverage. They range, inter alia, from 'In-cell Television', 'Farms and Gardens' to more serious subjects such as 'Sex Offenders' and 'Riots'. There is also an extensive list of contributors running to 111.
Whilst there are subjects which I might call commonplace, there are also subjects such as 'Boot Camp', 'Stanford Place Prison Experiment'' 'Mubarek Inquiry' and 'Mother and Baby Units'.
I think this book has much to offer. Whilst reviewing it found myself absorbed in particular subjects, such as the entry on the death penalty, which includes a description on 'botched executions', where it is alleged that electrocutions and lethal injections have gone wrong. Indeed, this subject was aired recently on television.
Being a dictionary, it is by definition a reference book and I am certain it will achieve its objective as stated.
Rob Jerrard

Child Pornography

Edition: Paperback

Author: Ian O’Donnell & Claire Milner

ISBN: 978-1-84392-356-5

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price: £22.50

Publication Date: October 2007

Publisher's Title Information

This book explores the enduring appeal of child pornography and its ramifications for criminal justice systems around the world. It is based on an extensive review of academic literature and newspaper coverage, a trawl of websites frequented by those with a sexual interest in children, a survey of how police investigate these offences, examination of prosecutors’ decisions, and interviews with judges.
It provides a framework for understanding the contemporary nature of this problem, especially the harms it causes, its intimate relationship with new technologies and the challenges it poses to law enforcement authorities. The internet plays a pivotal role. Its sheer size, the anarchic way it grows, the lack of any boundaries to its expansion and its disregard for national borders make it a legal environment without parallel.

An unwavering focus on the threat of sexual abuse has contributed to the emergence of a context where routine dealings with children are viewed through a ‘paedophilic’ lens. This can have the unfortunate consequence of distracting attention from more urgent concerns (such as poverty and neglect), which make children vulnerable to sexual exploitation. In this way an emphasis on the sexualisation of children could be said to aggravate the problem that it sets out to address.

Comprehensive analysis of child pornography issues in all of their complexity, including legal,psychological, criminal justice and social perspectives.

New qualitative and quantitative information set against a background of shifting international developments.

The analysis is explicitly comparative.

Part I: Understanding the Context
1 The enduring appeal of child pornography
Liberalisation and mass production
Paedophiles start networking
Recognising the problem
A cottage industry emerges
International developments
Law enforcement trumped by new technologies
2 The role of the Internet
The Internet using population
Illegal content and Internet misuse
How does the Internet facilitate child sexual exploitation?
Scale of the problem
How has Internet changed nature and use of child pornography?
Evolution of the Internet
3 Why does it matter?
The problem of definition
Harmful effects
Who are the child pornographers?
Why the attraction?
Features of contemporary child pornography
A psychological perspective
Part II: A National Case Study
4 Ireland in focus
A legacy of ill treatment
Acknowledging child sexual abuse
Concern about commercial sexual exploitation
Closing legal loopholes
Operation Amethyst and its aftermath
Police investigations
Child pornography suspects
Prosecutorial discretion
Judicial perspectives
Aggravating and mitigating factors
Making the punishment fit the crime
Closing observation
Part III: Formulating a Response
5 Policing: challenges and consequences
Police operations
Difficulties policing child pornography
Lessons from a national case study
The limits of traditional policing
6 Prosecuting and punishing
Why prosecutions failed
Potential challenges to successful prosecutions
Choosing an appropriate penalty
Eroding disparities
Concluding comment
7 Where to from here?
A modern malaise and an unforgiving response
Mixed Messages
A dangerous distraction?
The fear factor
And finally...

This book, which provides an excellent overview of the current situation relating to child pornography on the internet, is an extremely interesting, topical and illuminating read, if a somewhat harrowing one. O'Donnell and Milner adopt a genuinely interdisciplinary approach utilising a wide range of source material including reference to empirical work with offenders, providing summaries of recent research and drawing on legal, sociological and psychological perspectives. While the text itself and coherent structure make the book eminently readable, the content in places is more difficult to engage with, not because of its articulation but because of the real life subject matter. The chapters are interspersed with extracts from actual cases, summaries of press reports, victim responses and offenders' commentaries. This theoretical approach illustrated with practice examples offers not only a rich and valuable source for research in this area but delivers a clear understanding of the nature and extent of the problem of child pornography. The authors, both criminologists based in Dublin, incorporate an Irish focus not least because Ireland, in 1997, was instrumental in facilitating the international inter-agency COPINE child protection project (Combating Paedophile Networks in Europe). This led to the requirement that all European Union member states review their laws to ensure that child exploitation and the production and dissemination of child pornography are effectively controlled.
The first chapter traces the relatively recent history of internet child pornography and the shift, through government regulation, from a more commercially based 'industry' to the current private, 'cottage' industry linked to child sex tourism and chid prostitution. Chapter two addresses the technological advances and changes that have allowed child pornography to flourish and the paedophiliac sub-culture to become amorphous and dislocated. The figures cited are staggering; in 2000 there were over 60,000 pornographic websites, which had increased to an estimated 4.2 million by 2006 attracting 68 million search hits a day. In 2001 there were an estimated 100,000 websites involved with child pornography, and according to the Internet Watch Foundation at least 1 million images in circulation expanding at a rate of at least 200 a day. One Lincolnshire man was found to have 495,000 images of children and 20 million pornographic images. In the United States in 2006 one in five 10-17 year olds surveyed had received unsolicited sexual material/information/contacts. Such figures are overwhelming and, as the authors suggest, a more useful approach is to try and identify the number of children actually involved rather than the amount of material out there.
Jurisdictional differences in legal control are highlighted, for example, in the United States it is a criminal offence for anyone to view child pornography making legitimate research problematic. The Deleting Online Predators Act 2006 requires federal funded institutions to install effective filters on social network sites. In the UK, the Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre was created in 2006 to target the assets of those who have profiteered from child porn. Conversely the Japanese neither prohibit child pornography in manga, nor its distribution or recreational use online.
Chapter three assesses the human consequences of child internet pornography and exploitation of children detailing the potential effects and consequences that child pornography generates on its child victims and confirming the link between the creation of such material and physical child sexual abuse. Some of the common characteristics and typologies of child pornographers, or 'loli-lovers' as some call themselves, are reviewed, concluding (as expected) that there is no single identifiable stereotype.
Research has suggested that some child pornographers have a more distant relationship with their mothers, whereas physical abusers enjoyed a better maternal relationship but a more problematic paternal one. And apparently American research suggests that some of the most active online traders may be law enforcement personnel, which is a particular concern. Krone's (2004) cited at pp81-2) child pornographer development theory (appropriately?) mirrors more universal internet terminology - from browser, to trawler, non-secure and secure collectors, online groomer, physical abuser to producer and distributor. It is also stressed that for many paedophiles it is the collection aspect of their 'trade', which is as much a driver as the desire to physically abuse.
Child sexual abuse, including child pornography, is presented as a broader case study in chapter four, summarising the infamous role of the Catholic Church and reluctant acceptance of its existence promulgated by the activism of women's group in bringing various abuses to light. Unusually, and because of the anxieties over concealment of child sexual abuse generally and the potential for commercial child pornography to be easily disseminated from the UK, the Child Trafficking and Pornography Act was passed in 1998 despite there being no obvious evidence of child pornography being a significant problem at the time. In fact there were virtually no convictions until the Garda Police launched Operation Amethyst in 2002, mirroring Operation Ore (as a result of the Texan Operation Avalanche) on the mainland leading to 100 arrests. The authors detail subsequent research involving the examination of 138 police files, 106 of which were sent to the Director of Public Prosecutions. Profiles of the suspects, prosecutory decisions, sentencing decisions and judicial perspectives are explored and analysed.
The last third of the book deals with law enforcement, again focussing on the Irish experience, it also reviews international instruments and initiatives to target child pornography. Common problems and issues relating to this type of crime are highlighted in chapter five, for example, the involvement of cross-national bodies, volume of material and need for specialist expertise requiring a completely different approach to policing. And this doesn't even begin to take account of the difficulties regarding the securing of evidence and discharge of burdens of proof. It is estimated that between 2002-2004 some 74% Irish cases lacked sufficient evidence and in addition 1 in 5 were not proceeded with for a variety of reasons including being time expired require a completely different approach to policing. The setting up of a Hotline has been successful in flushing out cases and encouraged other similar models such as the IWF in the UK, and INHOPE, the equivalent international association of hotlines involving 24 countries. Similarly the Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention 2004 agreed minimum benchmark standards in terms of the substantive content of national law, procedural provisions to enable effective investigation and agreement on European collaboration and cooperation.
Chapter six raises a number of issues with regards to prosecution and sentencing again primarily based on the Irish Child Trafficking and Pornography Act 1998. The UK equivalent is a more messy combination of the Protection of Children Act 1978, Criminal Justice Act 1988 and sections 45-50 Sexual Offences Act 2003. The wording of the legislation can be critical. The use, in the Irish provision, of the word 'knowingly' in relation to possession can create problems for prosecutors but can also offer appropriate defences for those who are genuinely innocent (the English offence though in essence strict liability also requires knowledge of possession as an element of the mens rea). For example, an individual may be the subject of a 'trojan horse' scam or virus, which they are unable to control but which still delivers illegal material onto the user's hardware despite automatic deletion when infected. Similarly establishing use for a 'sexual purpose' (the English provision stipulates 'indecency') can be a very subjective interpretation and the meaning of 'child' can become blurred in the 16 to 18 years category. The chapter also compares sentencing thresholds and the use of custodyIreland, the UK and further afield stressing that it is often the conviction that is more punitive than the sentence.
The concluding chapter argues that any consideration of the criminal justice implications of child pornography cannot be divorced from the context of child sexuality. The authors cut through the currently tangled mess of societal hypocrisy and its unnecessarily obsessive protection of children at the expense of their individual independence. They challenge the dichotomy and double standards of the public's desire for over-protection with its implicit acceptance of the cultural over-sexualization of children in pop culture and the media. This manifests itself, they argue, in the demonization and 'monster' stereotypes of child paedophiles and a wider unwillingness to recognize that in some limited situations the debate should at least acknowledge a more understanding approach. This book therefore offers a considered and welcome addition to the debates surrounding one of the most difficult and sensitive crimes that criminal justice professionals will engage with.
Kim Stevenson

Prisoner Resettlement: Policy and Practice

Edition: paperback

Author: Edited by Anthea Hucklesby and Lystra Hagley-Dickinson

ISBN: 978-1-84392-253-7

Publishers: Willan Publishers

Price: £22.50

Publication Date:  November 2007

Publisher’s Title Information

Prisoner resettlement is high on
current political and policy agendas. The high reconviction rates of ex-prisoners have been acknowledged for many years but the rapidly rising prison population has meant that more prisoners than ever before are released. This together with the pressure this puts on to the infrastructure of the prison estate and the publication of two influential reports which highlighted the problems faced by prisoners leaving prison has concentrated attention on attempts to ensure that prisoners do not return to prison once released.

The ‘resettlement’ of prisoners is now a priority policy area linked directly to Government initiatives to reduce reoffending. The renewed policy interest in prisoners’ resettlement forms the context of this volume, which brings together current knowledge and understanding about prisoners’ resettlement. The book draws on the contributors’ extensive experience as researchers and practitioners in the field and includes contributions from acknowledged experts.

Prisoner Resettlement provides a comprehensive review and analysis of resettlement policy and practice in England and Wales in the early part of the 21st century. In particular it:


Critically reviews current policy, theory, practice and research on prisoners’ resettlement


Explores practice issues through case studies of two resettlement initiatives and an examination of accommodation provision and voluntary sector involvement in prisoners’ resettlement; and


Examines the particular issues raised by the resettlement of different groups of prisoners including women, minority ethnic groups, prolific and priority offenders and high-risk offenders


Anthea Hucklesby (University of Leeds) and Lystra Hagley-Dickinson (University of Northampton)

Part I

1 Rediscovering resettlement: narrowing the gap between policy rhetoric and practice reality,
Carol Hedderman (University of Leicester)

2 Theoretical perspectives on resettlement: what it is and how it might work?
Peter Raynor (University of Swansea)

3 Models of resettlement work with prisoners,
Anthea Hucklesby (University of Leeds) and Emma Wincup (University of Leeds)

4 Researching and evaluating resettlement,
Emma Wincup (University of Leeds) and Anthea Hucklesby (University of Leeds)

Part II

5 The SWing model of resettlement: some reflections,
Kirsty Hudson (Cardiff University)

6 PS Plus: a prison (lately) probation based employment resettlement model,
Andrew Cole, Ian Galbraith, Philippa Lyon and Heather Ross (PS Plus)

7 Accommodation and related services for ex-prisoners,
Mike Maguire (Cardiff University) and Jane Nolan (University of Glamorgan)

8 The voluntary sector and prisoners’ resettlement,
Anthea Hucklesby (University of Leeds) and Jackie Worrall (Nacro)

Part III

9 Women and resettlement,
Loraine Gelsthorpe (University of Cambridge) and Gilly Sharpe (University of Cambridge)

10 The resettlement of black and minority ethnic offenders,
Kate Williams (University of Central England), Susie Atherton (University of Central England) and Douglas Sharp (University of Central England)

11 The resettlement of prolific offenders: policy and practice,
Julie Vennard (University of Bristol)

12 Dangerous offenders: release and resettlement,
Hazel Kemshall (De Montfort University)

13 Conclusion,
Anthea Hucklesby (University of Leeds) and Lystra Hagley-Dickinson (University of Northampton)


This book came out of a one-day conference organised by Maureen Cain and Paul Kiff in December 2005 under the auspices of the British Society of Criminology. From that conference it emerged that a whole area of experience, knowledge and evidence about prisoner resettlement was not recorded - this book is an attempt to remedy that situation.

The 306 pages are divided into three parts: Part I reviews current policy, theory, practice and research on prisoners' resettlement. Part 2 examines practical issues - two case studies of resettlement initiatives are recorded along with the examination of accommodation provision and voluntary sector involvement in resettlement. Part 3 provides a focus on issues raised by the resettlement of different groups of offenders - women, minority ethnic groups, prolific and high-risk offenders. This final section brings together experience of researchers and practitioners relating to policy and practice among these groups. A concluding chapter explores the future for policy and practice in this field, and the threats and opportunities to the continued development of resettlement policy, set against the backdrop of the new Offender Management Model.

Resettlement has experienced a rediscovery, argues Carol Hedderman in the opening chapter, prompted by the creation of the Social Exclusion Unit, and its report of 2002, but there is still a mismatch between policy and practice. The probation service has suffered from the same increase in numbers felt by the prison service, which means that supervision offered becomes more and more stretched with increasing caseloads. Peter Raynor offers theoretical perspectives on resettlement, and argues for an equating of resettlement and rehabilitation, which is complemented with a chapter describing models of resettlement work with prisoners, written by Anthea Hucklesby and Emma Wincup. They focus on the evaluation of three initiatives, hoping to provide a broad overview of the most common ways of arranging resettlement work at the present. The very next chapter by the same writers draws on these evaluations to offer a research design that is “ theoretically informed, methodologically sophisticated and ethically sound.” There is a caveat that there is a political nature to evaluation, which requires researchers to have doses of patience and sensitivity added to their work.

Part 2 begins with an account of a regional partnership in resettlement - South West Integration - Swing, designed to offer a structured resettlement plan to every short-term prisoner who requested it. Kirsty Hudson draws out three issues from this project which have broader implications: partnership work; information gathering and dissemination; and assessment and offender management. The chapter continues with an initial assessment of the Going Straight Contract - a pilot model for offender management in the region.

Andrew Cole, Ian Galbraith, Philippa Lyon and Heather Ross focus on PS Plus - a prison and probation based employment resettlement model, which at the time of writing provided services to around 50,000 offenders in 39 prisons and 15 probation areas, with the aims of increasing offenders' employability and assisting them to find work and housing. The project provides a valuable evidence base of effective practice, to encouraging the evolution of effective resettlement.

Accommodation has always been a problem for prisoners on discharge, and as such is a major focus for resettlement work, and this is the topic addressed by Mike Maguire and Jane Nolan in the light of a study in 2006 in the South West region of England. It is a problem that is made worse by the shortage of social housing and rising prices, and accommodation needs have to be assessed before prisoners leave custody, as a part of sentence planning.

Anthea Hucklesby and Jackie Worrall examine the voluntary sector's role in prisoners' resettlement, and point to an increased focus on this sector as a core provider of criminal justice services. They update the term used to VCS - voluntary and community sector - whilst acknowledging two areas of work, reform of the criminal justice process through campaigning; and service providers. Nacro affords a case study for the writers as they assess its provision of services to prisoners and to offenders in the community.

The third and final part of this volume addresses the needs of specific groups in the process of resettlement of prisoners. Loraine Gelsthorpe and Gilly Sharpe address the issue of the lack of attention given to women's needs in the area of resettlement. The new gender duty in the Equality Act 2006 gives a timely reminder of women's particular needs in this area.

Black and minority ethnic offenders are addressed by Kate Williams, Susie Atherton and Douglas Sharp, noting that the needs of this grouping have been largely ignored by research until now. They draw upon current literature and a recent study conducted by the authors in the West Midlands, to present the key issues surrounding the resettlement needs of MBE offenders and the services available to them.

Julie Vennard examines the police and practice with regard to the resettlement of prolific offenders, whose high rates of offending bring them within the ambit of the national Prolific and Other Priority Offenders (PPO) Strategy, which was launched by the government in 2004. Home Office figures suggested that 10 percent of the active offender population were responsible for half of all crime in England and Wales (Home Office 2001), so this is a vital group to consider.

Finally, the release and resettlement of dangerous offenders is addressed by Hazel Kemshall. Recent cases have raised the issue of safe release and effective resettlement and risk management of dangerous and sexual offenders in the community, most notably the high levels of anxiety, public fear and stigmatisation that often accompanies them.

This is a volume that fills a gap in current literature - as the editors suggest, the whole area of resettlement is under-theorised and sparsely evidenced. They believe that desistance research is the most promising avenue in terms of providing a theoretical base for resettlement. The chapters in this work provide necessary material for practitioners and theoreticians alike.

T M Nowell; 2008-04-14

Northern Soul, Music, Drugs and Subcultural Identity

Edition: HB

Author: Andrew Wilson

Series editors: Professor Dick Hobbs (LSE) and Professor Geoffrey Pearson (Goldsmiths College)

ISBN: 978-1-84392-208-7

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price: £42

Publication Date: September 2007

Publisher's Title Information

This book provides a vivid historical ethnography of the 1970s Northern Soul Scene, drawing on the author's personal involvement in this as well as extensive research. The book examines how cultural patterns and normative standards are established through individual practices and group interaction, and aims to show how participants in the scene became converted to actions that they once thought unacceptable - for a substantial majority this was amphetamine use, and for a minority, opiate use and burglary.

The book shows how early social background experiences influenced how quickly participants started using amphetamines and whether they subsequently became involved in criminal activities such as the burglary of pharmacies, and suggests a link

Reviews to Date

 'The concepts of culture and subculture are increasingly used ("knife culture") to give a spurious depth to the public discourse about delinquency. Andy Wilson's study of the 1970s Northern Soul Scene provides just the right depth to give such concepts any meaning. Picking up from the subcultural traditions about rock music, delinquency and recreational drug use, this book is rare example of a genuine historical ethnography: combining an external observer's sense of historical change and an insider's account of shared experience.'
Stan Cohen (London School of Economics)

'This book is based on a re-engagement with the Northern Soul Scene of the 1970s, and is a fine example of what Jules Henry termed passionate ethnography. Andy Wilson's account gains authenticity not only because he took part at the time but also because, over a decade later, he reconnected with his peers and that that experience means to them. In the process, he adds a new dimension to studies of popular culture and subcultural movements: their highly variable impact on people's lives over time.'
David Downes (London School of Economics)

'This is a fascinating sociological study of a neglected aspect of British cultural history, the Northern Soul Scene, which in illuminating one particular example of the interplay of friendship, drugs and music shows how much can still be learnt about popular culture by the good use of a 'naturalistic' empirical methodology.'
Simon Frith (University of Edinburgh)

'Sticking two fingers up to the "academic-criminology-must-be-boring" school of thought, Northern Soul is scholarly research as violence, drugs and northern soul. Rooted in the author's lived experience, rich ethnographic detail and an innovative re-working of sociological theory, Wilson has produced a fascinating account of the complex relationships between youth subculture in Northern towns, rare soul records imported from the USA, the all-night dance scene, amphetamine use and chemist shop burglaries. Reminiscent of the early work of Stan Cohen, David Downes and Jock Young, Northern Soul has the hallmarks of an instant classic. Highly recommended.'
Ben Bowling (King's College, London)

 Between burglary of chemist shops, opiate use and fatalities from drugs overdose. Such high-risk behaviour is associated with previous delinquency and early social background, rather than the nature of involvement in the subculture. The book shows how early life influences have a powerful impact on shaping social identity, attachment to the subculture, and involvement in crime.

How and why individuals become involved in the subculture, and the impact it had on identity, are central themes to the study. The findings suggest that while involvement in the Northern Soul Scene provided valued memories and friendships, it did not impede movement to the conventional roles and responsibilities of adulthood. The book concludes with a summary of its implications for the sociology of adolescence, subcultural theories and deviant careers.



1 Understanding the context
2 The Northern Soul scene
3 The people
4 Drug use - the context
5 Getting involved with drugs
6 Responding to the criminalization of drug use
7 High-risk behaviour
8 Conclusions - a longer perspective

Schools and the Problem of Crime

Edition: HB

Author: Stephen Boxford


Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price: £42

Publication Date: July 2006

Publisher's Title Information

What causes young people to offend? What influence do schools have on young peoples' offending behaviour in relation to other possible causal factors? These critical criminological and educational questions are addressed in Schools and the Problem of Crime.

The book examines the causes of offending in the school context among 3,103, male and female, Year 10 pupils (age 14-15), in twenty state schools in Cardiff. The findings of one of the largest empirical studies of its kind in the UK are used to examine the role of schools, family background, neighbourhood, young peoples' social situation and dispositions, and lifestyles on pupils' offending behaviour. Critically, the interplay and relationships between these causal factors are disentangled in gaining a greater understanding as to why young people offend in the school context and why young people do not, as well as examining why some schools experience higher offending rates than others. The book employs an integrative analytical approach which is theoretically led. Through gaining an understanding of the factors that cause young people to offend it is envisaged that future crime prevention strategies can be better informed and targeted.


1 The Cardiff school study
2 The Cardiff school study: research design and methods
3 Offending in schools: key issues
4 Offending in Cardiff’s schools: individual and between-school differences
5 Neighbourhood context
6 Family social position
7 The school context
8 Individual characteristics
9 Lifestyle
10 Between-school differences
11 Key findings and implications


Offending behaviour in schools and amongst young people in general has been an under-researched topic in criminology and the social sciences. This may seem unusual as criminological research seems to suggest that schools are important in influencing juvenile delinquency. In 'Schools and the Problem of Crime' Stephen Boxford details his study of offending in schools and stresses the importance of conducting research in this area. Boxford goes into great detail about previous research, most notably with reference to Wikström’s work, through which continuous correlations are made. Previous studies have highlighted how offending and victimisation should be looked into more thoroughly, rather than focusing on school misconduct, such as truanting. Boxford does this in his study, setting out clear definitions of the offences he has included in the study and his reasons for doing so. In summary, the previous research suggests that schools are not operating in isolation from the rest of society, and that external factors such as community and family life will have an effect on offending and will help us to understand offending behaviour. In his own research, Boxford’s multi-level analysis explores the numerous situational and individual factors that can affect offending behaviour, taking into account the recommendations made in previous research.

The study was conducted using self-report surveys in 20 state secondary schools in Cardiff, which although may not be fully representative of the UK, presented Boxford with a microcosm of wider society as the city has a good mix of highly affluent and poor areas. The methodology used was extremely thorough and provides the reader with a systematic breakdown of the results alongside the discussion. However, the author frequently uses mathematical terminology when referring to the results of the study and relies heavily on quantitative data. The issues raised in the book could be made more interesting to study if some qualitative accounts had been used, for instance some direct quotes from the respondents. This would give the research a higher level of validity and would make the book more suitable as a social science resource, as it is difficult to provide a thorough explanation of behaviour through quantitative closed questions.

In this respect the title of the book is slightly misleading as it gives the reader the impression that you are going to get a real insight into the reasons why crimes are committed in schools and how this is a problem for schools. The results are slightly disappointing, in that instead of investigating the underlying reasons for committing an offence, the author merely makes correlations between individual and situational factors and identifies those combinations that are most likely to result in an offence being committed. As the book focuses on the 20 state secondary schools in Cardiff, it may also have been useful to include more of a comparison of how offending differed between schools and how this relates to the situational factors, for instance neighbourhood and affluence.

The book would be suitable for anyone studying an undergraduate degree programme in a social science subject, however, wider reading around the topic is strongly recommended as this only provides a short, basic overview of offending in schools. The author identifies and includes a wide variety of factors that affect offending behaviour, however, they are not explored to a high level, allowing for breadth of subject, not depth. The layout is clear and easy to follow, allowing for quick reference. The discussion is strongly supported by graphs and tables, which is in line with the technical, mathematical approach of the book.

Sadly 'Schools and the Problem of Crime' does not cover any groundbreaking new territory, however it would make a good starting point for students looking into juvenile delinquency and sociological theories of crime.

Natalie Hudson


"Internet Law Book Reviews" Copyright Rob Jerrard 2008