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Safety Crimes

Edition: paperback

Authors: Steve Tombs & Dave Whyte

ISBN: 9781843920854

Publishers: Willan

Price: £19.99

Publication Date:


Crime and Society Series

Publisher’s Title Information

Every year in the UK, hundreds of workers are killed just doing their jobs, thousands more die of illnesses caused by their work and tens of thousands suffer major injuries such as amputations, loss of sight, serious burns, and so on. Worldwide, two million people are killed by work each year. Yet with the exception of high profile cases such as the gas leak at Bhopal, India, which killed tens of thousands, this crime wave fails to attract the interest of the politicians, the media or - least forgivably of all - the knowledge industry of criminology.
This book is concerned with crimes against worker and public safety, providing an account and analysis of this increasingly important field, and setting this within the broader context of corporate and white-collar crime. It uses case studies and original analyses of official data to illustrate key points and themes, drawing upon both well known and high profile instances of safety crimes as well the mass of ubiquitous 'mundane' or 'routine' deaths and injuries. Thus the book examines how much safety crime is there, how are such offences rendered invisible, and how can their extent be unearthed accurately?
Throughout the book the authors analyse the social, legal and political processes that ensure that safety crimes remain subject to under-enforcement and under-criminalisation. This analysis identifies key moments in the historical development of criminal law and regulation, and assesses the prospects for criminalising safety crimes in the context of contemporary neo-liberal regulatory policies.
The theoretical and political justifications for dominant approaches to the regulation and sanctioning of safety criminals are subject to critique in order to develop alternative, more effective, means of criminalisation and punishment. The book concludes with an original analysis of safety crimes that allows us to understand the complexities of the conditions of their production, and develop a more realistic appraisal of the prospects for their amelioration.

Contents
Acknowledgements
List of tables and figures
List of abbreviations
Foreword by Rory O'Neill
1 Introducing Safety Crimes
2 Mapping Occupational Death and Injury
3 Obscuring Safety Crimes
4 Discovering Safety 'Crimes'
5 Differentiating Safety Crime from 'Real' Crime in Law
6 Assimilating Safety Crimes
7 Regulating Safety Crimes
8 Punishing Safety Crimes
9 Conclusion: making sense of safety crimes
Sources of further information
References
Index



Reviewer Wanted

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Dictionary of Probation and Offender Management

Edition: 1st paperback

Author: Edited by Rob Canton & David Hancock

ISBN: 9781843922896

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price: £22.99

Publication Date: September 2007

Publisher’s Title information


Contemporary probation practice is developing rapidly and is become increasingly professionalized. Probation officers are typically described now as offender managers, and the creation of NOMS (National Offender Management Service) has broadened the remit of the Probation Service. As well as bringing an increased emphasis on skills and qualifications it has also introduced a new set of ideas and concepts into the established probation lexicon - including institutional, legal, political and theoretical terms of its own as well as importing concepts from the disciplines of sociology, criminology and psychology. This Dictionary is the essential reference book. This Dictionary is part a new series of Dictionaries covering key aspects of criminal justice and the criminal justice system and designed to meet the needs of both students and practitioners:


Approximately 300 entries (of between 500 and 1500 words) on key terms and concepts arranged alphabetically

Designed to meet the needs of both students and practitioners

Entries include summary definition, main text and key texts and sources

Takes full account of emerging occupational and Skills for Justice criteria

Edited by a leading academic and practitioner in the probation and offender management field entries contributed by leading academic and practitioners in probation and offender management

The editors

Rob Canton is Professor and Head of the Division of Community and Criminal Justice at De Montfort University, Leicester; and has had extensive experience in lecturing and training in the probation field; David Hancock has had a long career in the Probation Service, most recently (until 2005) as Chief Probation Officer of Nottinghamshire

Endorsement of book

'More an encyclopaedia than a dictionary, the more than two hundred entries provide interpretations of key terms in contemporary probation organisation and practice written by the most authoritative commentators in the field of probation studies. Valuable links to recently published research and commentary are provided for every entry. This will prove an invaluable reference work for both probation students and practitioners.' - Professor Rod Morgan, University of Bristol and the London School of Economics, formerly Chief Inspector of Probation and Chairman of the Youth Justice Board.
An impressively comprehensive and up-to-date guide with contributions from all the leading scholars in the field. In an area where so much has changed in recent years, Canton and Hancock's Dictionary of Probation and Offender Management will surely become an indispensable text for teachers and students as well as for the probation service itself and others involved in working with offenders.’ - Professor Tim Newburn (LSE)


Review
Like its sister publication the 'Dictionary of Prisons and Punishment, we are told in 'About this Book' what the stated aims are:-
'This Dictionary has been compiled mainly for people already working - or perhaps contemplating a career - in the community justice sector, especially those with an interest in working constructively with offenders in the community to protect the public and to support rehabilitation. This includes current or future probation service staff, itself an increasingly diverse group, Probation Board members and staff in partner agencies. Those who might benefit from the information in this Dictionary are not confined to them: the not-for-profit sector and, nowadays, some organizations in the commercial sector need a sophisticated understanding of the terms discussed in this volume. It is also intended for further education and higher education students on community justice programmes and on criminology, applied criminology and criminal justice studies courses.'
 
At the beginning are listed about 192 entries followed by the names and current position of 149 contributors, which indicates the size of this dictionary.
 
The dictionary starts with an extremely good explanation, an introduction and overview of probation history with the year 2007, being 100 years after the Probation of Offenders Act 1907. Perhaps one interesting fact not generally known, was the work of the Church of England Temperance Societies' Missionaries to the Police Courts. With their firm Christian convictions and their strong opposition to alcohol.
 
We are told that Whitehead and Statham (2006) quote extensively from a Police Court Mission Report Book, recounting experiences of two Probation Officers in Sunderland (1918-1923), and draw attention to their explicit profession of their Christian faith.
 
I think the Temperance Movement had very strong links with the Police Court Missions and certain well-known people such as Miss Agnes Weston played their part in the great Naval Ports of Portsmouth, Devonport and Chatham, to persuade Blue-Jackets (Royal Naval Ratings) not to drink alcohol. See 'My Life Among The Blue-Jackets', Agnes Weston, 1909, James Nisbet & Co Limited. Miss Weston wrote, “I have always thought that one of the best points about this work was that I was able to begin with the boys”. In 1873 when she first went to Devonport, the four old sailing ships mentioned above were used for Boys' training. She also tells us that HMS St Vincent lay at Portsmouth, HMS Ganges at Falmouth and HMS Boscawen at Portland. The Portsmouth Sailors' Rest was opened on 31 June 1881.
 
Alcohol was and still is the major cause of crime, something this Government fails to see.
 
This is a book which nobody in this field of work will want to be without.
 
Rob Jerrard


Handbook of Victims and Victimology

Edition: 1st

Author: Edited by Sandra Walklate

ISBN: 978-1-84392-257-5

Publishers: Willan

Publication Date: September 2007

Publisher’s Title Information


The study of criminal victimisation has developed to the stage where by victimology is now regarded as a central component to the study of crime and criminology. This focus of concern has been matched by the growth and development of support services for the victim of crime alongside increasing political concern with similar issues. The central purpose of this book is to bring together leading scholars to produce an authoritative handbook on victims and victimology that gives due consideration to these developments. It will be concerned to reflect contemporary academic, policy, and political debates on the nature, extent and impact of criminal victimisation and policy responses to it.


This book:

Provides a overview of the importance of the role of the victim in the criminal justice system, with an analysis of the different theoretical perspectives within victimology.

Explores the relationship between victimisation and feminism with particular focus on domestic and sexual violence.

Analyses criminal justice policy and service delivery in relation to victims of crime, looking at developments within the UK and international perspectives.

This handbook will be fundamental reading for students and academics studying victims and victimology and an essential reference tool for those working within the victim support environment.


Contents

About the contributors
Figures and tables

Introduction and overview Sandra Walklate
Part 1 Perspectives on the victim and victimisation
Introduction, Sandra Walklate
1 Setting the scene: a question of history
Tony Kearon and Barry S. Godfrey
2 Theoretical perspectives on victimisation
Paul Rock
3 Theory and method: the social epidemiology of crime victims
Tim Hope
4 Crime, victimisation and vulnerability
Simon Green
Part 2 Victims, victimology and feminism
Introduction, Sandra Walklate
5 Surviving victimhood: the impact of feminist campaigns
Kate Cook and Helen Jones
6 Feminism, victimology and domestic violence
Carolyn Hoyle
7 Lessons from the gender agenda
Pamela Davies
Part 3 Victims, policy and service delivery
Introduction, Sandra Walklate
8 Public sector services and the victim of crime
Rob I. Mawby
9 The role of the voluntary sector
Brian Williams and Hannah Goodman
10 Matching service delivery to need
Peter Dunn
11 The victim in court
Andrew Sanders and Imogen Jones
12 The victim in restorative justice
Jim Dignan
Part 4 Comparative perspective
Introduction, Sandra Walklate
13 Looking beyond Great Britain: the development of criminal injuries compensation
David Miers
14 Benchmarking victim policies in the framework of European Union Law
Jan van Dijk and Marc Groenhuijsen
15 A comparative analysis of the victim policies accross the Anglo-speaking world
Tracey Booth and Kerry Carrington
Part 5 Other visions of victimisation and victimology
Introduction, Sandra Walklate
16 'Race', religion and victimisation: UK and European responses
Jo Goodey
17 Victims of corporate crime
Dave Whyte
18 Cultural victimology:are we all victims now?
Gabe Mythen
Conclusion, Sandra Walklate
Glossary
Index


Review

In 2002 New Labour announced that they were dedicated to "rebalancing the Criminal Justice Service in favour of the victim". This book examines the treatment of victims from Saxon courts to current practices across Europe and the English-speaking world and asks the fundamental question, "Who is granted victim status and why?"  Victimology evolved from a combination of sociology and criminology around 1940 when Mendelsohn first coined the term. This textbook draws together 18 contributions from leading academics under 5 themed parts. As such it assumes prior knowledge of sociological concepts although there is a helpful glossary.

This book is a challenging read on many levels. Throughout we are repeatedly invited to question our idea of what a victim is starting with the concept of the "ideal victim" as portrayed in the media - typically a vulnerable person subjected to an unprovoked violent personal assault. Those most likely to become victims of  "street" crime are identified together with less obvious categories. These include victims of racist and religious hate crime, domestic violence against males (witness the first Asian male refuge announced in February 2008), honour killings and same sex crimes. It also suggests that there may be a ripple effect of levels of victimhood from the initial victim to secondary victims (family and close friends) to tertiary victims such as the emergency services and expanding this idea to the thesis that under the current climate of fear of crime, coupled with global terrorism, that we are all victims now.

Furthermore, there is the concept of the deserving and undeserving victim. For example, it is suggested that in some sections of society perpetrators and victims may be interchangeable. Some categories of victim are specifically excluded from financial compensation and yet others are far less visible. These include victims of corporate crime, estimated to run at twenty times the volume of street crime, but less visible because they are more likely to be dealt with by institutions other than the criminal justice system such as the FSA or Health and Safety. The discrepancy between the official Home Office statistics and victim surveys such as the British Crime Survey is highlighted repeatedly.

Might the legal process itself further compound the victim's trauma? Although this issue is frequently raised  in relation to rape trials, one fifth of all victims are reported to be intimidated by their court appearance. Currently, under our adversarial criminal justice system, the status of the victim is reduced to that of a witness. Government initiatives to support the victim and give them a voice such as the Victims Charter, the introduction of witness care units and the victim impact statement are evaluated, but how might victims be better served? Solutions range from court design to the provision of specialist courts for rape trials and for children. The desirablity of alternative models of justice such as restorative justice and the inquisitorial criminal justice system are also discussed, as is customary law, somewhat pre-empting perhaps what the Archbishop of Canterbury had to say recently. The recurring question is, does this really benefit the victim as opposed to the offender or society as a whole: are the rights of the victim irreconcilable with those of the offender?

The role and influence of voluntary organisations and campaign groups are explored. For example, the Feminist movement set up the first womens’ refuge in this country in 1972 and founded the first rape crisis helpline in 1976. They reject the term "victim" for the more positive "survivor". The history of the Victim Support movement is charted to its current status as a quasi official body tied into service level agreements. But does subsuming these voluntary organisations into the mainstream, result in restricting their camapigning activities?   

So, has the government fulfilled its promise? By the end of this demanding but fascinating and informative book the reader is left with the conclusion that despite the system's shortcomings, the UK currently leads the way internationally when it comes to victim centred justice.

Gill Payne



Criminology

Edition: 1st PB

Author: Tim Newburn

ISBN: 1-843922-84-3

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price: £29.99

Publication Date: August 2007

Publisher’s Title Information


This is a comprehensive introduction to criminology for students who are either new or relatively new to the subject. This text provides the basis of study for the new undergraduate student of criminology and those who need a foundation knowledge of criminology in other relevant courses. These include access and foundation degree courses run by colleges, university level courses in law, probation, policing, criminal and forensic investigation, and forensic psychology, as well as criminological components of A level courses in sociology and psychology.

Description

Comprehensive - covering all the areas found in 'criminology' and 'criminal justice' courses
Broad approach - moves beyond sociological approaches to crime and criminal justice to take full account of the contribution of other disciplines, particularly psychology and biology

Accessible - written, designed and presented to be valuable to both teachers and students

Authoritative - written by an experienced and prolific author, researcher and leading British criminologist who has taught at A level, undergraduate and postgraduate levels

Lively - highly illustrated with charts, tables, photographs

Functional - easy to use, and geared to the needs of students and to the courses and exams they will confront

Additional website support for students and teachers


Previous Reviews

'At last a truly comprehensive, accessible yet authoritative introductory textbook for students of criminology in the UK and beyond written by one of our outstanding criminologists. Given its clarity, breadth and depth, it has the potential to become the 'must have' book for every undergraduate student and teacher of criminology . Put bluntly it puts all other introductory criminology textbooks in the shade'.
Professor Gordon Hughes (Cardiff University)

‘I think it’s a better book for an undergraduate audience than its competitors, and I think this will be borne out by its adoption and sales. . . it takes students through a step-by-step, coherent story of nuanced, contextualised and well judged ideas and illustrations in studying criminology.’
Dr Colin Webster (Leeds Metropolitan University)

‘There is no other text which addresses the market anywhere near as effectively as this one. I for one would expect to use it extensively and am sure that this will be so for the great majority of those teaching criminology at this level.’
Dave Edwards (London South Bank University)

'I have little doubt that Newburn's proposed work will quickly supplant all rivals as our principally recommended text for first-year undergraduate students. . . I can easily imagine it becoming the new 'bible' for students of criminology.'
Dave Waddington (Sheffield Hallam University)

'Excellent. . . a formidable competitor in the market place.'
Professor P.A.J. Waddington (University of Wolverhampton)

'Newburn’s distinctive accomplishment in this book is the combination of accessibility mand scholarship, achieving (near comprehensive) breadth without compromise to depth. . . It is not easy to think of another criminologist who could have managed this nor of a better single volume to put in the hands of a criminology student.'- Professor Rob Canton (De Montfort University)

'Exceptionally comprehensive and well structured, it will undoubtedly become one of the leading criminological textbooks on the market . . . I would have no hesitation in recommending it for use by my students as well as referring my colleagues to it.'
- Lorraine Wolhuter (University of Wolverhampton)

Contents
Detailed contents
Acknowledgements
Preface
How to use this book
List of acronyms

Part 1 Introducing Crime and Criminology
1. Understanding crime and criminology
2. Crime and punishment in history
3. Crime data and crime trends
4. Crime and the media
Part 2 Understanding Crime: theories and concepts
5. Classicism and positivism
6. Biological positivism
7. Psychological positivism
8. Durkheim, anomie and strain
9. The Chicago School, culture and subcultures
10. Labelling and subcultural theory
11. Control theories
12. Radical and critical criminology
13. Realist criminology
14. Contemporary classicism
15. Feminist criminology
16. Late modernity, governmentality and risk
Part 3 Understanding Crime: types and trends
17. Victims, victimization and victimology
18. White-collar and corporate crime
19. Organised crime
20. Violent and property crime
21. Drugs and alcohol
Part 4 Understanding Criminal Justice
22. Penology and punishment
23. Understanding criminal justice
24. Crime prevention and community safety
25. The police and policing
26. Criminal courts and the court process
27. Sentencing and non-custodial penalties
28. Prisons and imprisonment
29. Youth crime and youth justice
30. Restorative justice
Part 5 Critical Issues in Criminology
31. Race, crime and justice
32. Gender, crime and justice
33. Criminal and forensic psychology
34. Globalisation, terrorism and human rights
Part 6 Doing Criminology
35. Understanding criminological research
36. Doing criminological research
Publisher's acknowledgements
Glossary
Bibliography
Index

The Author
Tim Newburn is Professor of Criminology and Director of the Mannheim Centre, London School of Economics, President of the British Society of Criminology and an experienced and prolific author.



Review

Near the beginning of his magnum opus Professor Tim Newburn cites Sutherland's definition of criminology as being, "the study of the making of laws, the breaking of laws and of society's reaction to the breaking of laws". The ensuing chapters illustrate and expand this definition in a reference work that is surely destined to become a classic.

Tim Newburn has written a degree level introduction to criminology that is "big" in all senses of the word. Not only is it physically large, running to just over 1000 pages, but its scope is impressively comprehensive too, seamlessly combining what Garland identified as the 'Governmental' and 'Lombrosian' projects, the two distinct strands that comprise the "rendezvous subject" of criminology. The reader is guided through its thirty-six chapters from the classical criminology theories of Beccaria right up to the current complexities, such as human rights, that are brought into focus by the rise of global terrorism.

Chapters can be read consecutively as an introductory course to criminology, reminiscent of an Open University style course with summaries, review questions and essay style questions at the end of each chapter. The last two chapters are specifically directed at students with helpful guidelines for researching and writing up projects. Chapters are grouped together thematically, written with a light, sometimes humorous, touch. Complex academic concepts and terms are explained and evaluated in simple language. The text is generously interspersed with tables, figures, illustrations and case studies. However, the chapters are also designed to stand alone and are impeccably cross-referenced so they may be read individually for reference or interest. Its accessibility means that this book is not just for students but a fascinating read for the less committed reader.

All the different topics of criminology that you would expect to find in an academic text book are covered such as types of crime, statistics, the workings of the different sections of the criminal justice system and the rise of forensic psychology. However, part 2, which evaluates the wide range of theoretical perspectives, deserves special mention. This is a chronological journey that demonstrates how the various schools of thought give rise to attitudes toward crime and consequently solutions. Coming right up to date, the section ends with a chapter on governmentality and the assessment and management of "risk" in late modern society.

If theories and solutions for tackling crime are the product of historical, political and cultural roots, they in turn influence political policy and the evolution of the criminal justice system. Newburn draws our attention to the fact that "crime" only began to emerge as a major hot topic, in recent times, with the Conservative Party Manifesto in 1979. With the two main political parties subsequently engaging in a bidding war to be the toughest on crime, this book both demonstrates and predicts trends. In a recent lecture at the RSA, Jack Straw seemed not only to agree that "prison works" but is in turn now calling for a more punitive approach to prisons and an end to putting the needs of offenders before those of victims - an example of the "new penology" cited in chapter 16.

Reading this book from start to finish, the reader is clearly able to establish how the Government has arrived at its current position on the fight against crime influenced by such diverse ideas as "broken windows" theory from American right realism to restorative justice theories from the Mennonite community and the culture of New Zealand.

True to its word, the Labour party has proven that it is tough on crime. Since coming to power in 1997 it has made significant changes to the criminal justice system and created over 3,500 new offences. But perhaps that is the easy bit. Its achievements on tackling the causes of crime are perhaps less successful because by the end of this book any reader would be able to tell them that it just isn't that simple.

Gill Payne



What Works with Women Offenders

Edition: 1st PB

Author: Edited by Rosemary Sheehan, Gill McIvor & Chris Trotter

ISBN: 1-843922-39-8

Publishers: Willan Publisher’s

Price: £22.50

Publication Date: August 2007-09-26

Publisher's Title Information


The number of women prisoners has been growing rapidly during recent years and in many places has more than doubled in the past decade. However most of the research and publications in this area are related to men. There is a lack of literature relating to women offenders and for this reason the book is clearly needed. What Works with Women Offenders provide a comprehensive analysis of issues relating to work with women offenders with chapters written by academics or professionals with a high degree of expertise in their specific field. Its practical focus will enable readers to apply the material presented to direct work with offenders. The book takes an international focus, making it relevant to academics and practitioners who work in this field around the world.

Contents

Preface and Acknowledgements
Introduction
Rosemary Sheehan, Gill McIvor and Chris Trotter
Chapter 1: The nature of female offending
Gill McIvor
Chapter 2: The transitional pathways of young female offenders: towards a non-offending style
Monica Barry
Chapter 3: Sentencing and gender
Loraine Gelsthorpe
Chapter 4: Risks and needs: factors that predict women's incarceration and inform service planning
Margaret Severson, Marianne Berry and Judy L. Postmus
Chapter 5: Responding to drug and alcohol problems:innovations and effectiveness in treatment programmes for women
Margaret Malloch and Nancy Loucks
Chapter 6: Cognitive behavioral programmes
Sue Pearce
Chapter 7: Parole and probation
Chris Trotter
Chapter 8: Responding to mental health needs of female offenders
Jim Ogloff and Christine Tye
Chapter 9: Responding to the health and medical needs of female offenders
Angela M. Wolf, Fabiana Silva, Kelly E. Knight and Shabnam Javdani
Chapter 10: Women prisoners and their children
Rosemary Sheehan and Catherine Flynn
Chapter 11: Barriers to employment, training and education in prison and beyond: a peer-led solution
Paul Senior, Caroline O'Keeffe and Valerie Monti Holland
Chapter 12: Employment:offending and re-intergration
Tracie McPherson
Chapter 13: Housing and support after prison
Sally Malin
Chapter 14: What does work for women offenders?
Rosemary Sheehan, Gill McIvor and Chris Trotter
Index


Review

This book consists of 14 chapters. The first chapter is concerned with the nature of female offenders followed by transitional pathways of young female offenders towards a non-offending lifestyle. The next chapter deals with sentencing and gender as well as risks and needs of women incarcerated. The importance of drug and alcohol problems so common among many prisoners, including women, are dealt with in Chapter 5, providing innovations and effectiveness in a treatment programme for women.

Following release from prison there is a chapter dealing with parole and probation, and dealing with the mental health needs of women offenders specifically. There is also a chapter concerned with women prisoners and their children and the barriers that women face in regard to employment and training, despite having had some education within the prison system. The difficulties of reintegration into society are also considered in a chapter as are housing and support after prison. The final chapter deals with what actually works with women offenders i.e. what is effective in turning them around towards a more socially acceptable pattern of behaviour.

Monash University in Australia hosted the inaugural conference: "What works with women offenders: Across national dialogue about what are effective responses to female offenders," which was held at the Monash Centre in Prato, Italy" 20-22nd June 2005. This conference held in Tuscany brought together many individuals from worldwide sections eager to find ways of helping women offenders. The group included academics, practitioners and those responsible for policy in Europe, North America and Australasian countries. This conference was held due to the increase of imprisonment of women across the western world.

The problem of increasing numbers of women coming within the prison system may be summarised by the fact that women entering prison are currently outstripping increases in the number of male prisoners in comparison. Minority ethnic, black and aboriginal women in Australia, as well as other minorities elsewhere in the world, have had a disproportionate level of increase within the prison system. This has been studied in Canada, United States, the UK and Australia. All the authors in this book agree that the international phenomenon of the increase of women in prison needs urgent attention.

The editors are academically or otherwise qualified to deal with this problem. This includes Rosemary Sheehan who teaches undergraduate and post-graduate students in the Department of Social Work at Monash University in Melbourne, Gill McIvor who is Professor in Criminology in the Department of Applied Social Science at Lancaster University in the UK, and Chris Trotter who teaches in the Department of Social Work at Monash University in Melbourne. The editors point out the fact that women who go to prison have a range of social and personal problems and are likely to require significant support in custody as well as upon release.

All the contributors of this book work in applied social science or within such a sphere as criminology and criminal justice. Others such as Professor James Ogloff are in the academic sphere such as clinical forensic psychology. There is also a representative from the Probation Service and Social Work. Virtually all the contributors point out the special problems faced by women, many of whom have experienced traumas and abuse, commencing as children as well as having mental health problems combined with substance abuse issues. Many of the authors therefore stress the importance of developing responses to such women prisoners which consider reducing the likelihood of future offending by helping to deal with their underlying problems.

As one who visits prisons regularly to assess prisoners, and more recently many women’s prisons, I can state with considerable concern that many of the inmates of women’s prisons suffer from severe problems including the danger of self-harming. There are frequently suicides associated with such harming. It would be vital therefore to deal with these underlying issues including drug addiction and alcohol abuse as well as past physical, sexual and other abuses suffered by these women. The primary objective of such treatment would be to avoid re-offending once such women leave prison. Important suggestions in this book are made by Paul Senior, Caroline O’Keefe and Valerie Monti-Holland on how the women can be effectively integrated into society after leaving prison. For this purpose there must be educational programmes and the learning of life skills as well as vocational training.

It is of interest to note that there are differences in gender as to the type of offences committed. Men are more likely to commit acts of sexual assault and deception than women. The most common offences amongst women include from the less serious to the more serious such as failure to pay for a TV licence, driving while disqualified, shoplifting, non payment of fares on public transport, common assault, offences under the Education Act and failing to surrender to bail. Most female prisoners have multiple problems including abuse of drugs and alcohol as well as self-harming. Their crimes on the whole are due to their acquisitiveness and are less likely to be convicted of violent crimes in comparison to men. Frequently such women also suffer due to the fact that they are deprived of providing immediate care for their children and it is for this reason that many investigators consider that very few women should be placed in prison and the majority treated outside the prison system.

Despite the wealth of statistical information I found this book extremely readable and it is likely to appeal to a large readership, especially those involved with antisocial behaviour in general, and specifically in women. Compared with male prisoners women in prison have received relatively little attention. It is why this book is of particular importance since it is one of the few books written dealing specifically with the problems and possible solutions for women prisoners in the world today. It is a book that is likely to appeal to those working directly with women in prisons including prison officers, psychologists, psychiatrists, the legal profession and the Judiciary. It is also likely to be of value to the Probation Service.

Dr L. F. Lowenstein



Reviewer Wanted

Would you be interested in reviewing this book? (The Book Above) If you are interested in providing a review in about 500/800 words within 3 months or sooner then please contact us by e-mail at robjerrard@aol.com providing a small CV and your interest in this particular book. We do ask reviewers to agree to review within approx 3 months and pay the postage, books not reviewed should be returned. We are looking for a positive commitment.

"Internet Law Book Reviews" aims to provide academic reviews of a high standard. For an indication of what is required please see this website. "Internet Law book Reviews" which currently attracts up to 1,200 visitors per day. We welcome all categories of reviewers.



Policing Public Order - Theory and Practice

Edition: 1st PB

Author: David P Waddington

ISBN: : 1-843922-33-9

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price: £22

Publication Date: August 2007

Publisher's Title Information


This book takes an eclectic theoretical approach to understanding the causes and management of public disorder, drawing on social scientific studies of collective conflict, and the policing of crowds and social movements. to provide an understanding of the causes and management of public disorder.

The author has drawn on his own first-hand research to produce an engaging and highly readable study focusing on the use of original case studies and original data (e.g. on the 2001 Burnley riot and the recent 2005 British G8 summits) to illustrate the causes of public disorder in a generally applicable yet sharply focused manner. The book describes and critiques the major theoretical approaches to public disorder and applies the Flashpoints Model to examples and case studies. The book is highly readable and accessible through the use of original case studies, including tables and diagrams.

Contents
List of figures and tables
Acknowledgements

Introduction
1 Public order policing: theoretical approaches
2 Theories of public disorder
3 The American urban riots, 1991-2001
4 The British urban riots, 1991-2001
5 World-wide 'anti-globalisation' protest, post Seattle
6 The G8 Justice and Home Affairs Ministers' meeting in Sheffield, June 2005
7 English football fans abroad, 1990-2006
8 Conclusions
References
Index


Review
What are the causes of public disorder? How do crowds come together amidst apparent disorder and chaos? How are disorderly crowds policed? What accounts for different strategically and tactical variations in policing disorderly crowds? These are just some of the pressing questions that David Waddington fully explores in Policing Public Disorder.

The author, David Waddington, is a lecturer in Communication Studies at Sheffield Hallam University in Sheffield, England. His primary areas of academic interest are in the policing of public disorder, research methods, and the sociology of mining communities. Beyond Policing Public Disorder, Waddington has written many other works on crowd policing that have appeared in numerous books and journal articles. As such, Waddington can rightfully be considered an expert on the strategies and tactics of regulating public disorder.
 
Waddington engagingly begins his work with a thick description of protestors at the G8 Summit held at the Gleneagles Hotel in Auchterarder, Scotland from July 6th to 8th, 2005. He depicts a stunning visual display of a black man carrying a cardboard coffin to represent the genocide of Congolese in Rwanda, who is followed by 1500 protestors before police collapse on the demonstration. This image sets the stage for Waddington's work. Throughout the book, Waddington draws on numerous examples of public protest and disorder, which are followed by careful analyses of the social processes that surround these events, such as how the events arose and why certain policing tactics were used in response.
 
The first two chapters outline the theoretical foundations of police responses to occurrences of public disorder. He suggests that in recent years there has been a move away from confrontational policing approaches in response to protesters and disorderly crowds. Instead, he suggests that policing has moved towards a “softer negotiated management approach” (191). This approach rests on negotiation, preparation, and prevention, rather than on reaction, coercion, and force. Police may use confrontational force when necessary, but, as Waddington asserts, this is no longer the first line of defense. Waddington suggests that this tactical shift has occurred largely due to evidence that ineffectual reactionary police strategies have often provoked rioting, rather than dampening it.
 
In the remainder of the book, Waddington thoroughly describes and analyzes five case studies of public disorder, looking specifically at how the responses of the police have factored into the development of each disorder. The first two case studies involve urban riots between the years 1991 and 2001 in both the United States and Britain. Among the numerous examples, Waddington provides from these case studies, one major event he discusses is the Los Angeles riot of 1992. This riot occurred following a police crackdown on gang drug wars, which caused rising distrust and discontent towards law enforcement officials. This hostility was capped by the acquittal of the police officers seen on tape beating Rodney King. As Waddington describes, through these and other events, the Los Angeles police instigated this riot, but were then unprepared to handle it due to inadequate training, poor police communication, and insufficient protective riot gear and clothing.
 
Two further case studies explored in this book involve the anti-globalization protests at the 1999 WTO Summit meeting in Seattle and the G8 Justice and Home Affairs Ministers; meeting in Sheffield, England in June of 2005. Here, Waddington provides a detailed example of how police can effectively handle crowd disorder, unlike the law enforcers in the 1992 Los Angeles riots. Police at the Sheffield G8 were able to avoid any major incidences through containment procedures and tolerant interaction with protestors. In this instance, the police were responsive to the cause of the protestors, while simultaneously ensuring the safety of political leaders, protestors, and themselves.
 
In the final case study discussion, Waddington broadens the scope of his work by providing an interesting examination of football hooliganism, and the common responses by police. Through this discussion, Waddington further expands his discussion on the vital role of the police in the eruption or suppression of riots. He suggests that violent rioting has often resulted when law enforcement officials have confrontationally reacted to hooligans as a result of stereotypical notions of the hooligan; perspectives that have been entrenched by the media and political discourse. In contrast, he writes: “crowd disorder has been less prevalent during competitions where the police have been permissive of the cultural norms of traveling English supporters, and when their interventions have been more judiciously implemented” (202).
 
Drawing on the lessons learned from the case studies he has examined, Waddington concludes with several practical strategies for effectively dealing with disorderly crowds. One measure would be for police to make efforts to support or at least garner a measure of appreciation for protestors, rather than openly contesting their stance. Another would be to use local police services whenever possible to ensure a level of sensitivity to the motivations of the protestors or other disorderly crowds. Those who are not local police should be trained to understand the social identities and motivations of the dissenting individuals and groups. Police should also be trained to exercise self-control or restraint in tense situations that might be most suitably dealt with through negotiation or tolerance. When a confrontational response is necessary on the part of the police, Waddington contends that it should be done in a careful manner that avoids treating all crowd members as dissenters requiring forceful attention. Instead, police should distinguish between those who have a malicious intent and those who do not, rather than treating the crowd as a homogenous whole. Waddington's final resolve is to suggest that police should be more attuned to the motivations of protestors, and less hasty to label them as the enemy creating a hostile, unpredictable environment where peaceful protest can turn violent.
 
Overall, Waddington's book provides a detailed examination of the causes and management of public disorder. As such, this work makes an important contribution to the literature on the mitigating effects of various police responses to the development and outcome of crowd unrest, whether at political protests or local football matches. This book should be of primary interest to those actively working in public disorder sectors of law enforcement, as well as to anyone with interests in crime, policing, and public disorder.
 
Curtis Fogel


Human Trafficking

Edition: 1st PB

Author: Maggy Lee

ISBN: 1-843922-41-X

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price: £22

Publication Date: September 2007

Publisher's Title Information


Human Trafficking provides a critical engagement with the key debates on human trade. It addresses the subject within the broader context of global crime and the internationalisation of crime control. The book takes a broadly discursive approach and draws on historical, comparative as well as the latest empirical material to illustrate and inform the discussion of the major trends in human trafficking. The book helps to develop fresh theoretical insights into globalisation, exclusion and governance, and identifies a new research agenda that will ensure the book is of interest to advanced level students as well as academic scholars.

Contents
1 Introduction: Understanding Human Trafficking, Maggy Lee (University of Essex)
2 Historical Approaches to the Trade in Human Beings, John T Picarelli (TraCCC, American University, Washington DC)
3 Researching into Human Trafficking: Issues and Problems, Andrea Di Nicola (University of Trento, Italy)
4 Trafficking of Persons in Central Asia, Liz Kelly (London Metropolitan University)
5 Trafficking Into and From Eastern Europe, Ewa Morawska, (University of Essex)
6 Human Trafficking as a Form of Transnational Crime, Louise Shelley (TraCCC, American University, Washington DC)
7 From HIV Prevention to Counter-Trafficking: Discursive Shifts and Institutional Continuities in Southeast Asia, Johan Lindquist (Stockholm University) and Nicola Piper (National University of Singapore)
8 Immigration Detention in Britain, Mary Bosworth (University of Oxford)
9 Shooting the Passenger: Australia’s War on Illicit Migrants, Michael Grewcock (University Of New South Wales)
10 The Rights of Strangers: Policies, Theories, Philosophies, Barbara Hudson (University of Central Lancashire)
Index


Review


At last, a practical and sensible law book about human trafficking. This book consists of 240 pages and 10 chapters, each a complete essay by an academic in the field.

Human trafficking is one of organized crime's most lucrative markets, with the size of the annual trade ranking behind only drugs and arms. It is almost impossible to know precisely how many people are trafficked every year, but the US State Department estimates the number at between 600,000 and 800,000. Some nongovernmental organizations put the number as high as 2 million annually. Of the victims, some 80 percent are female and half are minors at the time they are trafficked.

This book mainly deals with human trafficking as it affects immigration policies, prostitution, and cheap labour in the European Union and in particular, in the United Kingdom. It does not particularly address child trafficking, which UNICEF estimates as being more than 300,000 children under 18 who are currently being exploited in more than thirty armed –conflict countries worldwide.

Rather, it addresses forced labour, most instances of this occurring as unscrupulous employers take advantage of gaps in law-enforcement to exploit vulnerable workers and acknowledges that female victims of forced or bonded labour, especially women and girls in domestic servitude, are often sexually abused. Forced labour is a form of human trafficking that can be harder to identify and estimate than sex trafficking. It often does not involve the same criminal networks profiting from transnational trafficking for sexual exploitation, unlike the salaciousness of the media who feed on scurrilous, often unauthenticated, reports. This book takes a historical approach to the economic, social, political, and cultural aspects of this slave trade, referred to as “chattel slavery” and describes “chattel slavery” as “a condition whereby labourers are legally owned as property.”

Child labour, the worst form this being targeted for eradication by nations across the globe, is barely addressed in this book. Any child who is subject to involuntary servitude, debt bondage or slavery through the use of force, fraud or coercion is a victim of trafficking regardless of the location of that exploitation.

The overall flavour of the book is domestic and a particular subject that it tackles admirably is the ‘ rights of strangers’ into Britain, ie. the rights of non-citizens. This section addresses the rights of citizens as defined by various UK and EU laws and policies. It states:

“UK and EU legislation and policy are centred on giving effect to classifications of wanted and unwanted migrants. The categories constructed through attempts to manage migration in the interests of nation states are the basis of inclusions and exclusions from national and EU territories, and are treated as though they are reflections of real differences in the motivations and circumstances of migrants.”

It is enlightening to see the subject of strangers treated, not by pinning the human rights of asylum seekers to the subject, but in a more noble way, by introducing the concept of the “duty of hospitality,” a noble, theoretical construction introduced by the moral philosophers Kant and others.

In all, the book’s essays are subtle and philosophical and they remove much of the brashness and the crassness from this emotive topic, yet bringing the reader back to the legal quandaries of free movement of people, human rights, immigration, and emigration, earning the book a place among the best-written expositions on human trafficking.

Sally Ramage



Interrogating Images - Audio-Visually Recorded Police Questioning of Suspects

Sydney Institute of Criminology Series

Edition: 1st PB

Author: David Dixon with Gail Travis

ISBN: 0975196-74-X

Publishers: (The Federation Press) Willan

Price: £22.50

Publication Date: June 2007

Publisher's Title Information


Police interrogation attracts debate and controversy around the world. Audio-visual recording is widely regarded as a panacea for problems in police questioning of suspects.

Interrogating Images presents the first empirical study of the routine use of audio-visual recording anywhere in the world, focusing on New South Wales, Australia where such recording has been required for more than a decade. Its introduction is set in a historical account of disputes and concerns about police questioning of suspects. There is a detailed study of the participants in the interrogation process. Various styles of police interviewing are identified, showing out the nature and purpose of interrogation are inaccurate. A chapter assesses the impact in NSW of 'investigative interviewing', a questioning style very different from that used in the USA. The penultimate chapter examines the experiences and perceptions of criminal justice professionals - judges, defence lawyers, prosecutors, and police.

Interrogating Images concludes by pointing to some dangers of misusing audio-visual recording. If the complete questioning process is not recorded, confessions may be rehearsed and unreliable. A second danger is the misreading of images, particularly by those who overestimate their ability to identify deception from a suspect's 'body language'. Audio-visual recording can be a useful tool, but it must be one part of a broader process of effectively regulating investigative practices.

Interrogating Images is informative and thought provoking reading for lawyers, police investigators, academic researchers, policy-makers, legislators, students and those with an interest in police interrogation and its implications for criminal justice processes.

Contents

Acknowledgements
1 Introduction: From verballing to ERISP
2 Researching recorded interrogation
3 Dramatis personae: police, suspects and others
4 The interviewing process
5 'PEACE' and investigative interviewing skills
6 Perceptions and experiences of videotaping the questioning of suspects
7 Conclusion: the role of audio-visual recording in criminal justice
References
Index


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Introduction to Police Work

Edition: 1st

Authors: Edited by Colin Rogers & Rhobert Lewis

ISBN: 1-843922-83-5
Publishers: Willan

Price: £19.50

Publication Date: July 2007

Publisher’s Title Information


Policing is in a profound period of change, the result of recent government reform, a renewed drive for professionalism as well as the need to adapt to a rapidly changing society. This book provides a highly readable and up to date introduction to the work of the police, exploring what this currently involved and the directions it may be going in. It is designed for student police officers starting their probation and training, students studying public or uniformed service courses in colleges, students taking
undergraduate courses in policing and criminal justice - and anybody else who wants to know about policing today.
The book describes all the key elements of policing work. The first two parts look at how the police functions as an organization, with chapters devoted to important new areas of crime reduction partnerships and forensic support in investigation and enforcement. The third section covers key aspects of practical police work, with coverage of such challenging areas as anti-social behaviour and terrorism. The book contains a wide range of practical tasks and activities, and links are made throughout to the new Initial Police Learning and Development Programme and National Occupational Standards in Policing.

Glossary of police terminology
Notes on contributors
Special features of the book
List of figures and tables

Part 1 The Police Framework
1 The Police Organisation
1.1 A brief history of the police
1.2 The criminal justice sector and the police service
1.3 The organisation of police forces
1.4 What is the police service for?
1.5 The Home Office, the National Police Plan and the performance of police forces
1.6 What do the public think of the police?
1.7 Reassurance, effectiveness and efficiency
1.8 Policing by consent
1.9 Themes in modern policing
2 The Probationer Officer
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Initial Police Learning and Development Programme (IPLDP)
2.3 Community engagement
2.4 Competencies and standards
2.5 Professional Development Units
2.6 Approaches to adult learning
2.7 Role play
2.8 Reflective practice
2.9 The experimental learning cycle
2.10 Action planning
2.11 Pre-reads and distance learning packages
2.12 Further considerations
3 Communication
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Communication with the public
3.3 Communication and the fight against crime
3.4 Communicating with the public about major incidents
3.5 Communication within the police service
3.6 Communication between the police service and other agencies
4 Study Skills
4.1 The study skills needed by probationer officers
4.2 Essay writing
4.3 Report writing
4.4 Referencing
4.5 Research
4.6 The use and abuse of statistics
4.7 Police-related journals
Part 2 Supporting Police Work
5 Ethical Policing Values
5.1 Introductions
5.2 Ethics
5.3 Conflict between organisational and personal ethics
5.4 Impact of current changes upon UK police ethics and values
5.5 Applying police ethics
5.6 Human Rights Act 1998 and the police service
6 Race, Diversity and Equal Opportunities
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The complexity and diversity of communities
6.3 Prejudice
6.4 Discrimination
6.5 Anti-discrimination law
6.6 Institutional racism
6.7 Identifying a racist or homophobic incident
6.8 Conclusion
7 The Basic Command Unit
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The purpose of the BCU
7.3 Structure
7.4 Uniformed police staff
7.5 Frontline services
7.6 Support services
7.7 Response policing
7.8 Community policing teams
7.9 Neighbourhood policing
7.10 Community consultation
7.11 Police staff
7.12 Other police support services
7.13 Criminal Investigation Department
7.14 Public protection
7.15 Criminal justice
7.16 Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships
7.17 National Intelligence Model
7.18 Finance
7.19 Performance measurement
7.20 The National Policing Improvement Agency
7.21 Conclusion
8 Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships
8.1 Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships
8.2 Consultation
8.3 Developing a crime-reduction strategy
8.4 What exactly do we mean by crime and disorder reduction?
8.5 The opportunity to commit crime and disorder
8.6 The motivated offender
8.7 Repeat victimisation
8.8 The Problem Analysis Triangle
8.9 Neighbourhood policing teams
8.10 The extended policing family
8.11 Conclusion
9 Forensic Support in Law Enforcement
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Range of scientific and technical support available to the police service
9.3 Scientific evidence
9.4 Police officers as gatherers and preservers of forensic evidence
9.5 Police science and technology strategy
9.6 Crime analysis
9.7 Use of HOLMES in major investigations
9.8 Cyber crime
9.9 The future
Part 3 Practical Police Work
10 Criminal Investigations
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Why should the police investigate professionally?
10.3 What is an investigation?
10.4 The role of the criminal investigator
10.5 What legislation covers criminal investigations?
10.6 The Professionalising Investigation Programme (PIP)
10.7 The Serious Organised Crime Agency
10.8 Reactive and proactive criminal investigation
10.9 Covert investigations
10.10 The National Intelligence Model
10.11 Features of crimes
10.12 Material
10.13 The golden hour and the early stages
10.14 Victims and witnesses
10.15 Interviewing witnesses
10.16 Investigative knowledge
11 Drug and Alcohol Related Crime
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Drugs and drug crime
11.3 Legislation and drugs
11.4 Policing drug-related crime
11.5 Analysis of drugs: how do we know what drug it is?
11.6 Basic facts about drinking and its effects
11.7 Legislation related to alcohol
11.8 Drink and crime
11.9 Government strategy
11.10 Drinking and driving
12 Anti-Social Behaviour
12.1 Introduction
12.2 The impact of anti-social behaviour
12.3 Tackling anti-social behaviour
12.4 Problems of defining anti-social behaviour
12.5 Officially defining anti-social behaviour
12.6 Local definitions of anti-social behaviour
12.7 Why do we have anti-social behaviour?
12.8 What can be done to deal with anti-social behaviour?
12.9 Prevention
12.10 Intervention
12.11 Acceptable Behaviour Contracts
12.12 Youth Offending Teams
12.13 Parenting contract
12.14 Referring a person for a parenting contract
12.15 Failure to comply
12.16 Different types of Parenting Order
12.17 Requirements of a Parenting Order
12.18 Breach of a Parenting Order
12.19 Anti-social Behaviour Orders
12.20 Who can apply for an ASBO?
12.21 Against whom can be an ASBO be made?
12.22 Who can make an Anti-social Behaviour Order?
12.23 What does and ASBO do?
12.24 Breach of an ASBO
12.25 Types of ASBO
12.26 Dispersal Orders
12.27 Other measures that can be used against anti-social behaviour
12.28 Victim and witness support
12.29 Hearsay evidence
12.30 Professional witnesses
12.31 Special Measures
12.32 Conclusion
13 Operational Response
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Safety and liability
13.3 Responding to unplanned events
13.4 Planned events and targeted operations
13.5 Communicating pre-planned operational information
13.6 Debriefing police operations
13.7 Conclusion
14 Arrests
14.1 What is an arrest?
14.2 Reasonable grounds to suspect
14.3 Powers of arrest
14.4 Human Rights Act 1998
14.5 Necessity test
14.6 What an arrested person must be told
14.7 Use of force when making an arrest
14.8 Searching arrested people
15 The Custody Suite
15.1 Police detention
15.2 Custody officers
15.3 Custody records
15.4 Risk assessments and deaths in police custody
15.5 Detainees’ entitlements
15.6 Detention times
15.7 Methods of prosecution
15.8 Bail
15.9 Detention after charge
16 Roads Policing
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Road safety and roads policing strategy
16.3 Denying criminal use of the roads by enforcing the law
16.4 Reducing road casualties
16.5 Tackling the threat of terrorism
16.6 Reducing anti-social use of the roads
16.7 Enhancing public confidence and reassurance by patrolling the roads
16.8 Working in partnership
16.9 Human rights
17 Terrorism
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Government response to terrorism
17.3 The police officer’s role in anti-terrorism
17.4 Protecting businesses against terrorism
17.5 Example of a terrorist group: Al Qaeda
17.6 Anti-terrorism: accountability and control
18 Future Directions
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Demands on the police
18.9 Police training
Index


The editors

Colin Rogers and Rhobert Lewis are both former senior police officers, now lecturing in police studies at the University of Glamorgan.

Endorsements


'Written by practitioners for practitioners, this book is a comprehensive introduction to the work of policing and will provide a useful insight for anyone, student, member of staff or citizen, seeking to understand our profession.’ - Peter Neyroud QPM (Chief Constable and Chief Executive, National Policing Improvement Agency)
'I am delighted to provide the foreword for this excellent publication. Just a quick glance at the contents will show that it covers everything from the initial training of a probationer through to countering the modern terrorist threat. Every page is relevant, not just to those wanting to join the police service, but also to those who need to know and understand how it works, what issues it must address and what the future may hold'. - Dick Winterton (Chief Executive, Skills for Justice)



Title: Ageing, Crime and Society

Edition: First Edition

Author: Wahidin, A., and Cain, M. (Eds)

ISBN: 1-84392-152-9

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price: £22.50

Publication Date: 2006

Review

The purpose of 'Ageing, Crime and Society' is to offer a reader a different perspective to the theory of crime and age.  The central objective of the text is to make '...a powerful argument for the concept of age to be added to the more familiar analytical categories of gender, race and class in relation to an understanding of crime' (Wahidin and Cain, 2006:1).  The publication of the book has inherently identified a lapse in academic/practitioner knowledge concerning crime committed by and against the ageing population.  Thus, the text serves a dichotomous purpose to critically draw together a view of criminality with regards to old persons as victims of crime and those as perpetrators.  This is achieved through the contributions of seventeen authors, each with diverging theoretical standpoints as per: Criminology, Gerontology, Sociology and Social Policy.  In essence, the contributing authors make a case to persuade authorities to take workable advice from expert practitioners as opposed to implementing non viable policies with little or no input from professionals.

The book is compiled into fifteen chapters, each extending the previous narrative to offer a comprehensive analysis on how to appropriately manage the ageing population not only as victims of and but also as perpetrators of crime.  The narrative of the book can be sub-divided into four parts.  The first aspect sets the foundations for the impending chapters and brings into context the complexities underpinning efforts to tackle the subject of ageism and crime.  The second section considers the crime of abuse in the elderly population, it also draws attention to the elderly as perpetrators of specific crimes.  The penultimate debate examines policies and prevention strategies to respond to the fear of crime and abuse within the ageing population.  The final part evaluates the policies available for the punishment of elderly offenders.

The opening section of 'Ageing, Crime and Society' sets the context for the forthcoming discussion by demonstrating the inherent challenges in tackling such a subject through qualitative and quantitative research studies (Wahidin and Cain).  The following three chapters draw attention to an attempt to identify a new direction for a Criminology of Ageing through different theoretical standpoints.  The dialogue presented by Powell and Wahidin (Chapter Two) succinctly debates the core concern as to why Criminology has yet to approach the aforesaid issue.  The authors extend this argument to consider a theory of ageism rooted within: political economy, gender studies and post modernist thinking.  The narrative by Brogden and Nijhar (Chapter Three) centres on the issue of harm and ageing and the issues of crime and abuse.  The writers consider that the recognition of such themes - through academic research - become a means to create and open dialogue between Social Work and Criminology.  This notion is extended further in the following narrative which presents an overview of current research in the subject (Phillips). 

The second part of 'Ageing, Crime and Society' is based on the thematic concern of abuse and crime.  The narratives presented are based on research findings.  The first discussion by Görgen presents empirical findings from a study based on the victimisation of older people in nursing homes.  The study concludes that the employment of a large number of qualified nurses in nursing homes statistically reduces the risk of abuse (albeit they are expensive to employ).  Next, Fitzgerald reports findings from analysing phone calls to Action on Elder Abuse.  The central conclusion here is that the sole method to protect individuals is to change the culture of nursing homes through a strict improvement in staff training practices.  The research carried out by Lister and Wall is described as a ground-breaking study, which seeks to analyse the demographic composition of persons at risk from burglary and to implement adequate policies for the protection of vulnerable groups.  The study identified that the characteristics of persons most at risk from burglary are those aged 75 years and over, female, white and living alone inter alia.  

The third part of the text examines the policies and prevention strategies utilised by various organisations to respond to the fear of crime experienced by the ageing population.  In Chapter Eight, Burnett initiates a debate on statistical and qualitative methods to address the aforementioned problem.  The crux of the argument rests on the author stressing that Criminology, as an academic subject should statistically identify the level of violence carried out by carers and loved one against the elderly.  The writer acknowledges that such research has predominantly been qualitative.  The narrative by Manthorpe discusses that victimisations against the elderly are problematic to address, as it is an under-resourced area which is given little focus by policing and local agencies to improve service delivery for the elderly in institutions.  The conclusions presented by Penhale presents the reader with a workable policy to address the aforesaid problem.  The author identifies a range of national and local interventions as per: help-line networks, training of community based listeners, counsellors, research and evaluation by academics and practitioners and quality development assurance schemes in nursing homes, to offer reassurance and protection for the elderly. 

The final part in 'Ageing, Crime and Society' commences with Wahidin presenting the reader with an insightful dialogue concerning the inability of Criminology as an academic discipline to recognise ageing as a social process.  For example, one area which has yet to be considered by Criminology is the implications in growing old in prison.  The discussion is highly informative, considered within the context of theory and emphasising the necessity for further disciplinary work within the field.  The following chapter by Jaques is an analysis in the high level of care offered to the ageing population in a special unit at Norwich Prison.  Chapter Thirteen focuses on the penal programmes available to the elderly in the United States by examining the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Corrections.  Bramhall (Chapter Fourteen) concisely discusses lack of literature on community penalties for the elderly and attributes this as evidence of denial by institutions and agencies in their failure to acknowledge the needs and concerns of the elderly population.  The final chapter by Eastman brings together the central themes presented in the section to call attention to the necessity in addressing the treatment of elderly prisoners through a multi-faceted approach with charitable organisations, NGO’s and the criminal justice system.  The dialogue concludes with the author stressing that the needs and wants of elderly prisons are diverse to those faced by other prisoners, which should be accommodated for by the system.

In all, 'Ageing, Crime and Society' is a thought-provoking text which has undoubtedly realised a niche in academic thinking within Criminology.  The dialogue is succinctly written and instigates the reader to consciously consider the challenges faced by the ageing population in contemporary society.  The value of the book is reinforced by the contributions made by both academics and practitioners.  This emphasizes the link between the values in academic research viewed in parallel to contributions made by practitioners to design, implement and suggest policies to improve the situation of the elderly in Society on a multitude of levels.                     

Reference:

Wahidin, A., and Cain, M (Eds.) (2006) Ageing, Crime and Society.  Devon: Willan Publishing.

Faiza Qureshi



Handbook of Criminal Investigation

Edition: 1st Paperback

Authors: Tim Newburn, Tom Williamson & Alan Wright

ISBN: 1-843921-87-1
Publishers: Willan

Price: £31.50

Publication Date: May 2007

Publisher’s Title Information


This book provides the most comprehensive and authoritative book yet published on the subject of criminal investigation, a rapidly developing area within the police and other law enforcement agencies, and an important sub discipline within police studies. The subject is rarely out of the headlines, and there is widespread media interest in criminal investigation.

Within the police rapid strides are being made in the direction of professionalising the criminal investigation process, and it has been a particular focus as a means of improving police performance. A number of important reports have been published in the last few years, highlighting the importance of the criminal investigation process not only to the work of the police but to public confidence in this. Each of these reports has identified shortcomings in the way criminal investigations have been conducted, and has made recommendations for improvement .

Handbook of Criminal Investigation provides a rigorous and critical approach to not only the process of criminal investigation but also the context in which this takes place, the theory underlying it, and the variety of factors which influence approaches to it. It will be an indispensable source of reference for anybody with an interest in, and needing to know about, criminal investigation. Contributors to the book are drawn from both practitioners in the field and academics.

Contents

List of abbreviations
Notes on contributors
Preface and acknowledgements

1 Understanding investigation, Tim Newburn
Part 1 Criminal Investigation in Context
Introduction, The editors
2 History of criminal investigation, Bob Morris
3 Social context of criminal investigation, Mario Matassa and Tim Newburn
4 Psychology and criminal investigation, Tom Williamson
5 Law and criminal investigation, Paul Roberts
6 Criminal investigation and the media, Rob C Mawby
Part 2 Organization of Criminal Investigation
Introduction, The editors
7 International structures and transnational crime, Chris Lewis
8 Criminal intelligence and the National Intelligence Model, Tim John and Mike Maguire
9 The investigation of high-volume crime, Nick Tilley, Amanda Robinson and John Burrows
10 Investigation and major crime inquiries, Martin Innes
11 Private investigation, Les Johnston
Part 3 Forensic Techniques
Introduction, The editors
12 Principles of forensic identification science, A.P.A. Broeders
13 Forensic investigation in the UK, Robert Green
14 Trace biometrics and criminal investigations, Robin Williams and Paul Johnson
15 The application of forensic science to criminal investigation, Jim Fraser
Part 4 Investigative Sources and Processes
Introduction, The editors
16 Models of investigation, David Carson
17 Covert surveillance and informer handling, Denis Clark
18 Victims and witnesses in criminal investigation, Nicholas Fyfe and Kevin Smith
19 Investigative interviewing, Gisli H. Gudjonsson
20 Profiling suspects, Laurence Alison, Clare McLean and Louise Almond
21 Profiling places: geodemographics and GIS, David Ashby and Max Craglia
Part 5 Governance of Criminal Investigation
Introduction, The editors
22 The management, supervision and oversight of criminal investigation, Peter Neyroud and Emma Disley
23 Critical incidents: investigation, management and training, John Grieve, Bill Griffiths and Jonathan Crego
24 Ethics and corruption, Alan Wright
25 Miscarriages of justice, Stephen P. Savage and Becky Milne
26 Professionalizing criminal investigation, Peter Stelfox
27 Criminal investigation: future direction, Tim Newburn
Glossary
Index


Review of Forensic Content, Part 3

This book is in five parts, and as the editors state in the preface, "This handbook has been produced to remedy the lack of a readily accessible overview of the subject and to enable practitioners, academics and general readers to explore the salient issues of criminal investigation and some of its complexities".

The book has contributions from 38 learned academics, professors, researchers, experts in various fields, and serving and former senior police officers.

My review is of part 3 of this book - Forensic Techniques. Having looked at the other four parts of the book and noted their contents I would perhaps suggest that a more apt title for this publication would be 'Encyclopaedia of Criminal Investigation'.

Part 3. Forensic Techniques.

This section consists of an introduction and four chapters.

As the editors state in their introduction to this section of the book, "It appears that modern television is all but obsessed with forensic science"

I entirely agree with that statement and I am sure, in common with others who are experienced in this field, find myself laughing out loud at some of the ludicrous claims and actions of television forensic experts, television crime scene examiners, and fingerprint experts. Writers of television programmes from Cracker to Crime Scene Investigation and from Waking the Dead to The Bill, should read chapters 12, 13, 14, and 15 of this book. It certainly will not make the programmes more entertaining - but it will give viewers, (and it has to be said, many police officers - some of senior rank), a better understanding of what forensic science, and this includes fingerprints, can and cannot do. Hopefully, also the way in which evidence is recovered, and what exhaustive examinations have to be carried out before a result is obtained and reported upon.

Chapter 12, Principles of   forensic identification  science

by A.P.A. Broeders.

This chapter of the book, as well as giving an overview of forensic science in criminal investigations, also looks in detail at the many different aspects of what is generally perceived to be 'forensic science' and how it is and can be used in criminal investigations.

The author covers the examination of trace materials, identification, classification and individualisation, the relationship between traces and their sources, and a very interesting section on probability scales and their use by forensic scientists when making statements and giving evidence. The author examines the use of words v numbers - whether degrees of certainty or probability are better expressed in terms of some range of verbal labels or by means of numbers or percentages. For example the words or phrases often used like, 'consistent with', 'could have come from', 'probably comes from', 'moderately strong', etc.  Alternatively, could they be expressed, (as is now usual when referring to DNA results), as estimates of the probability of the findings - in numerical or percentage terms to express the weight of evidence? Although this is discussed at some length, the author does not come to a definite conclusion.

This chapter of the book contains case studies of two murders in the Netherlands and explains, discusses and explores in depth the forensic science input and relevance to those cases.

There are excellent sections on - 'How trace evidence arises', 'Donors and receptors: primary and secondary transfer', and 'Class characteristics and individual characteristics: natural variation and wear'. Also of interest is what the author has to say regarding divided expert opinion.

In the conclusion to this section the author makes some very valid points, including that forensic scientists should not be allowed or should not take it upon themselves to usurp the role of the judge but should always be aware that the role of the expert, [whether scientist or not], is to pronounce upon the weight of evidence, and not to address the ultimate issue.

This is a well-researched and written section, but does perhaps in my view, delve a little too deeply into various aspects of this subject considering the title of the book.

Chapter 13, Forensic investigation  in  the  UK.

By Robert Green.

This is an excellent chapter which I would recommend to all police officers, crime scene examiners and scientific support managers.

The introduction states the six main points which are covered in the chapter.

The focus of the chapter is on current practice, and the ways in which forensic science support assists the investigation of volume crime. However there is a very interesting section on the 'Historical Background' to the subject, which puts what follows into context. On three occasions in this chapter the author mentions different reports from the Home Office and Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary, which reiterate the lack of awareness even among some senior police officers of forensic science provision and techniques.

The section entitled 'The staffing of scientific support units' imparts some very interesting facts and figures, not least the fact that in the year 2004/5, in England and Wales the proportion of crime scene examiners, compared with the number of police officers was only 3%.

The following sections look at and compare the number of crime scenes attended, the reasons why some are not attended, the outcome of the forensic examinations and the end result, (suspects arrested). These figures reveal some interesting information, for example, different types of crime scenes and the amount of fingerprint/DNA recovered from each, and the conversion rates, (arrests) that result. Also discussed are the timelines and delays between items being recovered and suspects being arrested.

There then follow sections regarding 'Improving Performance' which includes how crime scene examiners are deployed and tasked in different police areas, crime scene screening, and performance management.

The use of footwear marks for the investigation of volume crime is discussed and figures produced that show how retrieval rates vary widely between forces, but unfortunately the author does not investigate or suggest why this is the case.

The conclusion to this chapter brings all the previously mentioned fact and figures together and suggests that most police forces could improve their performance. The last paragraph then comes to, (what I believe to be the crux of the matter), the level of resourcing of scientific support. This I believe could have been examined further, but having said that, this, in my view is an excellently researched and presented chapter.

Chapter 14, 

Trace biometrics  and  criminal  investigations.

By Robin Williams and Paul Johnson.

After the introduction to this chapter, the authors then concentrate on "The ways in which novel methods for capturing the unique characteristics of the bodies of individual subjects, particularly through the traces of those bodies left by offenders during the commission of criminal acts, may serve both to enhance and reshape existing methods of criminal investigation". The authors then further state that they will be concentrating on two trace biometric technologies used to infer individual identity from materials recovered from crime scenes: fingerprinting and DNA profiling.

The authors quote texts from a range of operational and academic authorities in the UK, Europe, North America and Canada. However, for the purpose of this review, I will concentrate only on those of the UK, and this is where discrepancies arise between texts and figures quoted in the previous chapter and texts and figures quoted in this.

For instance, this chapter quotes a study suggesting that fingerprint examinations at crime scenes in one English force area - including all crimes, resulted in identifications in about 5% of cases. In the previous chapter, figures from another study are quoted which state that in 2004/5 the fingerprint yield from all burglaries and thefts of and from motor vehicles in England and Wales was 36%.

A further study quoted in this chapter, this time of a different English force, states that although crime scene examiners attended 90% of all the burglaries that were committed in their force area, forensic evidence was found and tested in only 9% of these examinations and that evidence was found to be useful in under 1% of the cases. In the previous chapter, other study figures for the same offences in the whole of England and Wales, (admittedly for a different year), quoted forensic evidence being found at 21% of scenes examined and a success rate in identifications from that evidence of 28%.

 I do not intend to try and explore the differences in these quoted figures, suffice to say that the Police area where I was a crime scene examiner for many years consistently had success rates in excess of the higher figures quoted above for consecutive years throughout the late 1990s and into the first years of this century.

The authors then consider the practical aspects of crime scene work, and state how important contemporaneous written records are of actions taken, observations made, and items recovered. These records will be used in any subsequent examinations and acted upon by other forensic scientists, police officers and possibly other agencies. In addition to this, of course, (and not highlighted in this chapter), is the importance of accurate scene notes when giving evidence and being cross-examined in court.

The sub-chapter entitled 'Collection of fingerprints and DNA', acknowledges that the work of finding and recovering fingerprint marks is a skilled task that involves the use of background technical expertise and a number of interpretive and manual skills. The authors then explain the different types of fingerprints that may be found at a crime scene, how they are recovered, and the importance of recording the location and orientation of those fingerprints, having regard to the interpretive significance of all potentially recoverable fingerprints.

The collection of DNA is described and discussed at length as well as the different items that may yield DNA. What is not mentioned, however, is the taking of control swabs, or the ever-present problem of contamination, which in my view is extremely important. Defence submissions at court against DNA evidence are almost always on the grounds of some form of contamination. Crime scene examiners go to great lengths to prevent this, or the suggestion of this, by wearing crime scene coveralls with the hood up, gloves and of course face masks when searching for and recovering potential DNA evidence. The way that potential DNA evidence is packaged, stored and transported is also of extreme importance, again not only to prevent contamination but also to prevent the sample degrading, and then becoming impossible to profile. This is only mentioned in passing in this section, and I believe, should have been discussed at greater length.

The section on 'Biometric databases and the investigation of crime', describes how both the National DNA database and the National Automated Fingerprint Identification Service have grown significantly over the past years, and states the various pieces of government legislation which have made this possible. Also quoted is the fact that the 'DNA Expansion Programme' has provided £241 million for DNA activity between 2000 and 2005. What is not mentioned or discussed is  that despite all this investment on one side, the fact still remains that individual police forces and scientific support units are under extreme financial constraints, and that items for DNA examination from 'minor crimes' are routinely not submitted to a laboratory for examination because of the cost involved. Many police forces now employ Budget Managers, (who have no forensic or scientific knowledge or training), and it is they, not the crime scene examiners or managers, who decide which items will be submitted for examination. I also understand from former colleagues that the number of items so submitted "diminishes substantially towards the end of the financial year".

There then follows a section entitled 'Measuring forensic effectiveness in criminal investigations'. In this part the authors discuss the various ways that this has been attempted, and the many reports and enquiries that have been carried out to discover the best ways of producing figures regarding the investigative chain: from the commission of an offence, the reporting of it to the police, the offence being recorded by them, the offender being detected, charged and finally convicted. The government’s crime reduction strategy is also discussed.

Finally in this section and also in the 'Concluding remarks', the authors state that "there are no rigorous studies of how particular artefacts and information derived [from crime scenes] are deployed by police staff in the course of investigations".

I would here, just like to quote one small point made by the authors which I think sums up some of the problems faced by investigation teams, "Certainly, the actions of those involved in particular investigations will often be subject both to the hammer of expectations of effective crime control, and to the anvil of human rights legislation".

Chapter 15. The application of forensic science to criminal investigation.

By Jim Fraser.

In the first three sections of this chapter Jim Fraser explains and discusses the development of forensic science in England and Wales, the impact of DNA, and further legislative developments.

I was glad to see that two subjects were included in this chapter,which have not been mentioned in the previous three. These are contamination, and a vital part of crime scene work - namely, photography, and how important this is as part of any major crime scene investigation.

The author mentions some high-profile miscarriages of justice during the 1980s, and how the subsequent Royal Commission on Criminal Justice and other enquiries led to changes in legislation, which had significant implications for the use and provision of forensic science, not least the increase and formalisation of quality management procedures within the forensic science service.

The author also explains how and why the forensic science service became an executive agency of the Home Office, and how the financial arrangements for examinations changed when the provision of forensic science was privatised.

The impact of DNA is then briefly written about, with an interesting statistic that of the 2.9 million individuals on DNA databases throughout Europe in 2002, 2.5 million, (86%), were on the database in England and Wales.

The author then discusses the impact of further legislative developments, including the requirement for full disclosure to the defence by the prosecution.

In the next section - 'Professional developments in forensic science' the author describes and discusses the implications of the Royal Commission on Criminal Justice, (1993), and the creation of the Council for Registration of Forensic Practitioners.

There then follows a very informative section on the Forensic Science Society.

The next section entitled 'Forensic science in the police service' covers the recommendations of a Touche Ross report, (1987), and reports by Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary and the Police Standards Unit.

Among the subjects written about are :- Scientific support units, their management and responsibilities, the role of crime scene investigation as determined by individual force policy, the roles of a fingerprint bureau,  fingerprint experts and photography and imaging.

The next section - Training of scientific support, informs the reader how the fragmented system prior to 1990 was greatly improved by the setting up of the National Training Centre for Scientific Support to Crime Investigation, what that training involves, specialist courses, and the University of Durham Academic Diploma in fingerprints and crime scene examination.

The next section of this chapter - 'Investigative development in the police service', gives the reader an in depth account of the Home Office Major Enquiry System, (HOLMES), the Murder Manual, the National Centre for Policing Excellence, the Core Investigative Doctrine, the Professionalizing Investigation Programme, and the Home Office Police Skills and Standards Organisation.

The next sub-chapter is 'The role of ACPO'. This section explains the role of the Association of Chief Police Officers in the effective management of developments in forensic science and investigation within the police service.

There then follows a short section on 'Forensic science training in laboratories'.

The next section is entitled 'Forensic science education'. This is an excellent section, and in my view should be sent to every undergraduate student in the country before they decide on a university forensic course.

This section shows how the number of 'forensic science' degree courses have virtually exploded since the University of Strathclyde implemented the first educational programme in forensic science in 1967. There are now over 50 institutions offering over 350 courses labelled as 'forensic'.

The author then states that most students gave as their reason for studying forensic courses, was to gain employment as forensic scientists, crime scene examiners or fingerprint experts, despite the fact that graduate numbers now exceed the demand of employers in this field by at least four to one. I can concur with this, of the many hundreds of students that I taught forensic science to at university over a period of five years, only about a quarter are currently employed in one of the many different aspects of forensic science.

What are the reasons for this explosion of forensic courses? I entirely agree with the author when he states that there is the television CSI effect, and that most of these programmes are inaccurate, some fantastically so, in their portrayal of forensic science, the legal process and police investigation. Another point the author makes with which I entirely agree is that universities are using these courses to maintain student numbers, and therefore income, against a decline in popularity in more traditional subjects. This was brought home to me when several years ago a senior academic at a London university told me that “forensic science courses are amongst the best income generators that we have”.

The next two sections of this chapter are - 'Law, science and investigation', and 'The current state of knowledge'.

In these sections the author discusses and investigates the interface between law, science and policing and their distinctive traditions, structures, cultures and professional dimensions, and, latterly, using forensic science effectively, evidence evaluation, quality management and best practice.

Finally, the author then raises, (as I also see it), a continuing problem - that there is an almost complete absence of forensic science content in probationer constable or refresher training, and that training for sergeants and inspectors does not at present provide any input on scientific and technical support.

After each section in this book, (as opposed to the normal tradition of at the end of the book), there is a list of references used, notes and a list of useful suggestions for further reading.

In all, the section reviewed of this publication is, I believe, essential reading for forensic scientists, academics in this field and senior police officers. In some parts it is long winded, and some sections inevitably overlap with others, but overall I can recommend the section 'Forensic Techniques' to those that I have mentioned above.

The book lists literally hundreds of references, (107 alone at the end of just one chapter), however, I would like to add one of my own, I believe this chapter of the book does not give enough credence or acknowledgement to crime scene examiners.

Forensic science starts at the scene. If evidence is missed, incorrectly handled or is incorrectly packaged, stored or transported, no amount of 'laboratory analysis' or processing will be able to rectify the problem, and the scene usually cannot be revisited to have another attempt at obtaining additional evidence.

If crime scene examiners are to carry out their duties to the best of their ability, they require access to the latest knowledge technology and equipment.

'These days crime scene examiners should be regarded as professional specialists in their own right'. (Brightman, Frogel and Horswell - 1993). 

Review by Andy Day. 2007.



Reducing Reoffending

Social Work and Community Justice in Scotland

Edition: 1st

Authors: Fergus McNeill & Bill Whyte

ISBN: 1-843922-18-5
Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price: £19.50

Publication Date: April 2007

Publisher’s Title Information


Reducing Reoffending provides a critical overview of social work and community justice in Scotland, taking full account of recent developments. The book is divided into three comprehensive sections. Part one of the book provides a critical analysis of the challenge of reducing reoffending in Scotland and locates this challenge within its historical context.. Part one also reviews the available evidence about when, how and why people stop offending; about desistance from crime. This analysis exposes not only the complexities of desistance processes, but also the many difficulties that offenders face in making the related transition. Part two of the book provides an account of the legal contexts of criminal justice social work services in Scotland analysing both the role that social work plays in the sentencing process and its role in supervising offenders in the community. The final part the book addresses questions of how the practice of supervision might be best developed so as to support desistance and reduce re-offending, though the book’s final conclusion is that reducing reoffending requires a much broader commitment to promoting and realising justice in the community.

Contents

Acknowledgements
Figures and tables
Introduction: challenging times
Part One: Analysing the Challenge
1.The history of social work with Offenders in Scotland
2. Re-offending: Understanding the ‘Problem’
3. Ending Offending: Supporting Desistance
Part Two: The legal Context
4. Advice and services to Court
5. Supervising Offenders in the Community
6. Prisons and Resettlement
Part Three: Towards Effective Practice
7. Offender management or Change Management?
8. Developing Human Capital
9. Developing Social Capital
Conclusion: Reducing Re-offending and Community Justice
Bibliography
Study Guide
Index



Reviewer Wanted

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Who to Release

Edition: 1st

Author: Nicola Padfield

ISBN: 978-1-84392-227-8

Publishers: Willan

Price £37.50

Publication Date:

April 2007


Publisher's title Information

This book is concerned to explore the changing role of the Parole Board across the range of its responsibilities, including the prediction of risk and deciding on the release (or continued detention) of the growing number of recalled prisoners and of those subject to indeterminate sentences. In doing so it aims to rectify the lack of attention that has been given - by lawyers, academics and practitioners - to 'back door sentencing' (where the real length of a sentence is decided by those who take the decision to release) compared to ‘front door sentencing' (decisions taken by judges or magistrates in court).

Particular attention is given in this book to the important changes made to the role and working of the Parole Board as a result of the impact of the early release scheme of the Criminal Justice Act 2005, with the Parole Board now deciding in Panels concerned with determinate sentence prisoners, lifers and recalled prisoners. A wide range of significant issues, and case law, has arisen as a result of these changes, which the contributors to this book, leading authorities in the field, aim to explore.

The editor

Contents
1 Introduction, Nicola Padfield
Part One: Setting the scene
2 Who should we keep locked up?, Duncan Nichol
3 Parole and Risk Assessment, Stephen Shute
4 The Parole Board and the Changing Face of Public Law, Mark Elliott
5 Why fairness matters in criminal justice, Alison Liebling
6 The New Zealand Parole Board: independence and domestic and international challenges, Tony Ellis
Part Two: Dealing with indeterminacy
7 Dealing with indeterminacy: life sentences and IPP, Terry McCarthy
8 The Parole Board as a court, Simon Creighton
9 The Parole Board: Current Practice and Future Changes: a judicial member’s perspective, Anthony Thornton
Part Three: Recall: Challenges for the Parole Board and NOMS
10 The Recall and Re-release of Determinate Sentence Prisoners, Jo Thompson
11 Discretion, Offender attributes and the recall process, Helen Collins
12 Recall: Contested facts and risk assessment, Hamish Arnott
Part Four: Is predicting risk fair?
13 Offenders’ views on risk assessment, Gill Attrill and Glenda Niell
14 MAPPA, parole and the management of high risk offenders in the community, Hazell Kemshall
15 The paradoxical effects of stringent risk management: community failure and sex offenders, Jackie Craissati
Part Five: Pulling the threads together
16 Public Confidence - the real challenge, Christine Glenn
17 A personal overview, Hugh Southey
Index

The Author

Nicola Padfield is Senior Lecturer in Law at the University of Cambridge, and has published widely on criminal law, sentencing and criminal justice.  She sits as a Recorder in the Crown Court, and has been editor of Archbold News since 1996.



Reviewer Wanted

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Title: Prison Governors

Managing prison in time of change

Edition: Hardback

Author: Shane Bryans

ISBN: 1-843922-23-1

Publishers: Willan

Price: £35

Publication Date: February 2007


Shane Bryans - formerly a Prison Governor himself, and now deputy Director in the Immigration and Nationality Directorate at the Home Office, has produced an accessible and readable account about what it means to be a prison governor in England and Wales and the skills and qualities that the best governors bring to the job.  Bryans has written on this subject before, and much of the primary research for this book - some 42 interviews with serving prison governors was conducted in the 1990s, prior to Bryans acting as the Council of Europe’s prison management expert (in which capacity he spent two years in Turkey advising the Ministry of Justice on penal reform).  So too his MBA and a co-authored book (with myself) called The Prison Governor - Theory and Practice has dealt with much of the information and argument that appears here, but there is also a freshness too in that Bryans wrote both his MBA and the Prison Governor prior to becoming a governing governor himself.

All that having been said, he sticks resolutely to some familiar territory and in particular the debate as to whether the work of prison governors is sui generis - in other words special and unique.  As with his earlier work, he concludes that it is, but one also detects a softening of his position in his earlier writings so that the governor emerges here simply as one of the "key actors in prisons" (p.190).  This is an interesting conclusion for it is clear that Bryans is not suggesting that governors are "the" key actors in prison, and the absence of the definitive article suggests that while governing himself - in practice rather than theory as it were, that the twin demands of the prison’s Area and Head offices brought pressure to bear which demonstrated that what happens inside our prisons is all too often dictated by what happens outside of the prison’s walls.

There are interesting absences too, and I would have liked much more about the political context in which governors have to work and their relative silence about that context.  I say this, for whilst it is common-place for senior police officers to appear on our TVs and radios there are precious few governors who do the same.  Indeed, I would go as far as to suggest that while most members of the public could name a handful of senior police officers, they would be hard pushed to name any prison governors.  Where does the silence of prison governors come from?  Why is there a reluctance for governors to use their skills, qualities, talents and experience to challenge - or at least contribute to the debate about the inexorable growth in our prison population, which clearly not only makes governing jails more of a "challenge" (as Bryans puts it), but also limits what governors and their staff can do in relation to treating their charges with humanity?  Bryans is silent here on all of this, but where he does speak it is with authority and clarity - an authority and clarity that are rarely heard in discussions about prisons and what happens inside them.

Professor David Wilson, Centre for Criminal Justice Policy and Research, UCE, Birmingham



Youth Justice, Ideas, Policy, Practice

Edition: 2nd

Author: Roger Smith

ISBN: 1-843922-24-X

Publishers: Willan

Price £19.50

Publication Date: January 2007


This is a thoroughly revised edition of Roger Smith's book published in 2003. The book provides a comprehensive and critical overview of the youth justice system. It begins by setting the youth justice system in historical context, and then assesses the impact of political ideas and influence on both the structural arrangements for delivering youth justice (such as the Youth Justice Board and Youth Offending Teams) and practice initiatives (such as moves to implement forms of restorative justice). Taken together, these present serious challenges to those delivering youth justice. The book goes on to offer a critique of current developments, explores the options open to practitioners and service providers, and some of the possibilities for positive intervention. Finally, a detailed agenda for improvement at all levels is set out.

This new edition offers an up-to date analysis of the most recent developments and trends, including the increased reliance on Anti-Social Behaviour Orders to control the behaviour of young people.
This book will be a resource for youth justice practitioners and essential to students taking courses in youth crime and youth justice.

Contents
Introduction
1 Lessons from history: the 1980’s
2 Where did it all go wrong?
3 The same old song? New Labour and youth
justice
4 Where are we now? Policy and outcomes in
youth justice
5 Inside the machine
6 Making it happen: practice in the new century
7 Nothing gained?
8 Theorizing youth justice
9 The consumer view
10 Making sense of it all: looking ahead
Notes
Bibliography
Index


Reviewer Wanted

Would you be interested in reviewing this book? (The Book Above) If you are interested in providing a review in about 600/800 words within 3 months or sooner then please contact me by e-mail at robjerrard@aol.com providing a small CV and your interest in this particular book. I do ask reviewers to agree to review within 3 months and pay the postage,books not reviewed should be returned. I am looking for a positive commitment.

For an indication of what is required please see this site, which contains hundreds of examples. "Internet Law book Reviews" which currently attracts up to 1,200 visitors per day welcomes all categories of reviewers.



Issues in Green Criminology, Confronting harms against environments, humanity and other animals

Edition: 1st

Authors: Piers Beirne & Nigel South

ISBN:1-843922-19-3

Publishers: Willan

Price £22

Publication Date:January2007


Issues in Green Criminology: confronting harms against environments, humanity and other animals aims to provide, if not a manifesto, then at least a significant resource for thinking about green criminology, a rapidly developing field. It offers a set of specially written introductions and a variety of current and new directions, wide-ranging in scope and international in terms of coverage and contributors. It provides focused discussions of current and cutting edge issues that will influence the emergence of a coherent perspective on green issues. The contributors are drawn from the leading thinkers in the field.

The twelve chapters of the book explore the myriad ways in which governments, transnational corporations, military apparatuses and ordinary people going about their everyday lives routinely harm environments, other animals and humanity. The book will be essential reading not only for students taking courses in colleges and universities but also for activists in the environmental and animal rights movements.

Its concern is with an ever-expanding agenda - the whys, the hows and the whens of the generation and control of the many aspects of harm to environments, ecological systems and all species of animals, including humans. These harms include, but are not limited to, exploitation, modes of discrimination and disempowerment, degradation, abuse, exclusion, pain, injury, loss and suffering. Straddling and intersecting these many forms of harm are key concepts for a green criminology such as gender inequalities, racism, dominionism and speciesism, classism, the north/south divide, the accountability of science, and the ethics of global capitalist expansion.

Green criminology has the potential to provide not only a different way of examining and making sense of various forms of crime and control responses (some well known, others less so) but can also make explicable much wider connections that are not generally well understood. As all societies face up to the need to confront harms against environments, other animals and humanity, criminology will have a major role to play. This book will be an essential part of this process.

Issues in Green Criminology: confronting harms against environments, humanity and other animals aims to provide, if not a manifesto, then at least a significant resource for thinking about green criminology, a rapidly developing field. It offers a set of specially written introductions and a variety of current and new directions, wide-ranging in scope and international in terms of coverage and contributors. It provides focused discussions of current and cutting edge issues that will influence the emergence of a coherent perspective on green issues. The contributors are drawn from the leading thinkers in the field.

The twelve chapters of the book explore the myriad ways in which governments, transnational corporations, military apparatuses and ordinary people going about their everyday lives routinely harm environments, other animals and humanity. The book will be essential reading not only for students taking courses in colleges and universities but also for activists in the environmental and animal rights movements.

Its concern is with an ever-expanding agenda - the whys, the hows and the whens of the generation and control of the many aspects of harm to environments, ecological systems and all species of animals, including humans. These harms include, but are not limited to, exploitation, modes of discrimination and disempowerment, degradation, abuse, exclusion, pain, injury, loss and suffering. Straddling and intersecting these many forms of harm are key concepts for a green criminology such as gender inequalities, racism, dominionism and speciesism, classism, the north/south divide, the accountability of science, and the ethics of global capitalist expansion.

Green criminology has the potential to provide not only a different way of examining and making sense of various forms of crime and control responses (some well known, others less so) but can also make explicable much wider connections that are not generally well understood. As all societies face up to the need to confront harms against environments, other animals and humanity, criminology will have a major role to play. This book will be an essential part of this process.

Contents
Table of Contents
Preface and Acknowledgments
List of Contributors
Introduction: Approaching green criminology, Piers Beirne (University of Southern Maine) and Nigel South (University of Essex)
Part 1 Introduction to green criminology
1 Ecology, community and justice: The meaning of green, Ted Benton (University of Essex)
2 Green criminology and the pursuit of social and ecological justice, Rob White (University of Tasmania)
3 Animal rights, animal abuse and green criminology, Piers Beirne (University of Southern Maine)
Part 2 Animal rights and animal abuse
4 Labelling animals. Non-speciesist criminology and techniques to identify other animals, Geertrui Cazaux (formerly University of Ghent)
5 ‘Vivisection: 'The case for abolition', Tom Regan (North Carolina State University)
6 Debating 'animal rights' on-line: The movementcountermovement dialectic, Roger Yates (University of Wales, Bangor)
Part 3 Ecological systems and environmental harms
7 'At risk': Climate change and its bearing on women's vulnerability to male violence, Sandra Wachholz (University of Southern Maine)
8 Crime, regulation and radioactive waste in the United Kingdom, Reece Walters (Open University)
9 Food crime, Hazel Croall (Glasgow Caledonian University)
10 The 'corporate colonisation of nature': Bio-prospecting, bio-piracy and the development of green criminology, Nigel South (University of Essex)
11 Green criminology in the United States, Michael J. Lynch (University of South Florida) and Paul Stretesky (Colorado State University)
12 Eco-crime and formal and informal law-enforcement in South Africa, Maria Hauck (University of Cape Town)
Webliography
Index



Reviewer Wanted

Would you be interested in reviewing this book? (The Book Above) If you are interested in providing a review in about 600/800 words within 3 months or sooner then please contact me by e-mail at robjerrard@aol.com providing a small CV and your interest in this particular book. I do ask reviewers to agree to review within 3 months and pay the postage,books not reviewed should be returned. I am looking for a positive commitment.

For an indication of what is required please see this site, which contains hundreds of examples. "Internet Law book Reviews" which currently attracts up to 1,200 visitors per day welcomes all categories of reviewers.


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