"INTERNET LAW BOOK REVIEWS", provided by Rob Jerrard

Willan Publications Ltd

E-Mail Rob Jerrard for the address to forward books you wish to have reviewed

Policing Beyond Macpherson:Issues in policing race and society
Edition: 1st

Author: Michael Rowe

ISBN: 1-843922-12-6/ISBN-13: 978-1-84392-212-4

Format: Paperback

Publishers: Willan

Price £22

Publication Date: February 2007

Publisher's Title InformationFebruary 2007

The book will explore the impact of the Lawrence Report since it was published in 1999. Upon publication in, Home Secretary Jack Straw promised that the Macpherson Inquiry would lead to real change in the policing of minority ethnic communities in Britain. Several senior police officers made similar pledges and insisted that the benchmark against which their commitment should be judged should be the extent to which progress was made ‘on the ground’. In the aftermath of the report a host of initiatives have addressed issues ranging from police liaison with victims, first aid training, to stop and search procedures and police complaints. As well as exploring the many ways in which the Lawrence Report has impacted on the police service and on society more widely this collection assesses the extent to which, in retrospect, the Macpherson Inquiry has led to significant changes to policing, and highlights areas where future efforts ought to be concentrated.


Introduction: Policing and Racism in the Limelight – the politics and context of the Lawrence Report, Michael Rowe
1 The Historical Context: Policing and Black People in Post-War Britain, James Whitfield
2 Diversity or Anarchy? The Post-Macpherson Blues, Eugene McLaughlin
3 Police Diversity Training: a Silver-Bullet Tarnished?, Michael Rowe and Jon Garland
4 Understanding ‘Institutional Racism’: The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry and the Police Service Reaction, Anna Souhami
5 Black Police Associations and the Lawrence Report, Simon Holdaway and Megan O’Neill
6 Policing Muslim Communities, Neil Chakraborti
7 Macpherson, Police Stops and Institutionalised Racism, Kevin Stenson and P.A.J. Waddington
8 Reform by Crisis: The Murder of Stephen Lawrence and a Socio-Historical Analysis of Developments in the Conduct of Major Crime Investigations, Mark Roycroft, Jennifer Brown and Martin Innes
9 View from Within - The realities of promoting race and diversity inside the police service, Hilary Kinnell

Drugs and Popular Culture, Drugs, media and identity in contemporary culture

Edition: 1st

Authors: Edited by Paul Manning

ISBN-10: 1-843922-10-X
ISBN-13: 978-1-84392-210-0

Publishers: Willan

Price £24

Publication Date: February 2007

Publisher’s Title Information

The use of illegal drugs is so common that a number of commentators now refer to the ‘normalisation’ of drug consumption. It is surprising, then, that to date very little academic work has explored drug use as part of contemporary popular culture. This collection of readings will apply an innovatory, multi-disciplinary approach to this theme, combining some of the most recent research on ‘the normalisation thesis’ with fresh work on the relationship between drug use and popular culture. In drawing upon criminological, sociological and cultural studies approaches, this book will make an important contribution to the newly emerging field positioned at the intersection of these disciplines. The particular focus of the book is upon drug consumption as popular culture. It aims to provide an accessible collection of chapters and readings that will explore drug use in popular culture in a way that is relevant to undergraduates and postgraduates studying a variety of courses, including criminology, sociology, media studies, health care and social work.

Part 1 Context, theory and history
Part 1 introduction, Paul Manning
1 An introduction to theoretical approaches and research traditions, Paul Manning
2 Mental health and moral panic: drug discourses in history, Andrew Blake
Part 2 Considering the 'normalisation thesis'
Introduction: an overview of the normalisation debate, Paul Manning
3 Definitely, maybe, not? The normalization of recreational drug use amongst young people, Michael Shiner and Tim Newburn
4 The 'normalisation' of 'sensible' recreational drug use: further evidence from the North West Longitudinal Study, Howard Parker, Judith Aldridge and L Williams
Part 3 representing drugs in and as popular culture
Part 3 Introduction, Paul Manning
5 Drugs and popular music in the modern age, Andrew Blake
6 Drugs, the family and recent American cinema, Leighton Grist
7 Under a cloud: morality, ambivalence and uncertainty in news discourse of cannabis law reform in Great Britain Simon Cross
8 The symbolic framing of drug use in the news: ecstasy and volatile substance abuse in newspapers, Paul Manning
9 Drug dealers as folk heroes? Drugs and television situation comedy, Paul Carter
10 'Junk, skunk and Northern Lights - representing drugs in children's literature, Andy Melrose and Vanessa Harbour
Part 4 Identities, cultural practices and drugs
Part 4 Introduction, Paul Manning
11 Echoes of drug culture in urban music Oluyinka Esan
12 Drugs and identity: being a junkie mum Sarah Goode
13 Women, drugs and popular culture: is there a need for a feminist embodiment perspective? Elizabeth Ettore
14 The drugs of labour: the contested nature of popular drug use in childbirth, Laura Hubner
Part 5 Drugs, normalisation and popular culture: implications and policy
Introduction to part 5, Paul Manning
15 Systemic 'normalisation'? - mapping and interpreting policy responses to illicit drug use, Richard Huggins

Transforming Youth Justice, Occupational Identity and Cultural Change

Edition: 1st

Author: Anna Souhami

ISBN: 1-843921-93-6, : 978-1-84392-193-6
Publishers: Willan

Price £40

Publication Date: February 2007

Publisher’s Title Information

In 1997 the newly modernized Labour party swept into power promising a radical overhaul of the youth justice system.  The creation of inter-agency Youth Offending Teams (YOTs) for the delivery of youth justice services were the cornerstone of the new approach.  These new YOTs were designed to tackle an ‘excuse culture’ that was alleged to pervade the youth justice system and aimed to encourage the emergence of a shared culture among youth justice practitioners from different agencies.

The transformation of the youth justice system brought about a period of intense disruption for the practitioners working within it. The nature and purpose of contemporary youth justice work was called into question and wider issues of occupational identity and culture became of crucial importance.
Through a detailed ethnographic study of the formation of a YOT this book explores a previously neglected area of organisational cultures in criminal justice.  It examines the nature of occupational culture and professional identity through the lived experience of youth justice professionals in this time of transition and change.  It shows how profound and complex of the effects of organisational change are, and the fundamental challenges it raises for practitioners’ sense of professional identity and vocation.
Transforming Youth Justice makes a highly significant contribution not only to the way that professional cultures are understood in criminal justice, but to an understanding of the often dissonant relationship between policy and practice.

1 Transforming youth justice
2 Occupational cultures and criminal justice
Part 1 The Youth Justice Team
3 Experiences and problems of team membership
4 Working in youth justice: social work and ambiguity
5 An unrepresentative representative: being a police officer on a YOT
Part 2 Ambiguity and change
6 Joining the team: problems of identity and membership
7 Experiencing change: identity, resistance and fragmentation
8 Managing ambiguity and change: power and creativity
Part 3 A Youth Offending Team
9 Culture and identity in the new youth justice
10 Understanding culture and change Appendix Researching a Youth
Offending Team

Inventing Fear of Crime

Edition: 1st

Author: Murray Lee

ISBN: 1-843921-74-X, ISBN-13 978-1-84392-174-5

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price £22

Publication Date: January 2007

Over the past four decades the fear of crime has become an increasingly significant concern for criminologists, victimologists, policy makers, politicians, police, the media and the general public. For many practitioners reducing fear of crime has become almost as important an issue as reducing crime itself.  The identification of fear of crime as a serious policy problem has given rise to a massive amount of research activity, political discussion and intellectual debate.  Despite this activity, actually reducing levels of fear of crime has proved difficult. Even in recent years when many western nations have experienced reductions in the levels of reported crime, fear of crime has often proven intractable. The result has been the development of what amounts to a fear of crime industry.

Previous studies have identified conceptual challenges, theoretical cul-de-sacs and methodological problems with the use of the concept fear of crime.  Yet it has endured as both an organizing principal for a body of research and a term to describe a social malady.  This provocative, wide ranging book asks how and why fear of crime retains this cultural, political and social scientific currency despite concerted criticism of its utility? It subjects the concept to rigorous critical scrutiny taking examples from the UK, North America and Australia.

Part one of Inventing Fear of Crime traces the historical emergence of the fear of crime concept, while part two addresses the issue of fear of crime and political rationality, and analyses fear of crime as a tactic or technique of government.  His book will be essential reading on one of the key issues in government and politics in contemporary society.

Fear and anxieties over crime of crime are a central feature of western societies and their government’s approaches to crime control policy.

This book provides a wide-ranging analysis, investigating fear and anxieties over crime with special reference to N America, UK and Australia.

This is a major contribution to criminological theory and our understanding of the development of government policy on crime.

1 Introduction
2 Fear of crime: a pre-history
3 Anxieties in the knowledgeable society: the birth of a new criminological object
4 Surveying the fearful: the expansion of the victim survey
5 Fearing subjects
6 Governing and policing the fearful
7 The marketing of monsters
8 Conclusions: don't mention the 'F' word

Out of Sight

Crime, youth and exclusion in modern Britain

Edition: 1st

Author: Robert McAuley

ISBN-10: 1-843921-96-0

ISBN-13: 978-1-843921-96-7
Publishers: Willan

Price £40 HB

Publication Date: October 2006

Publisher’s Title Information

Youth crime is simultaneously a social problem and an intrinsic part of consumer culture: while images of gangs and gangsters are used to sell global commodities, young people not in work and education are labelled as antisocial and susceptible to crime

This book focuses on the lives of a group of young adults living in a deprived housing estate situated on the edge of a large city in the North of England. It investigates the importance of fashion, music and drugs in young people’s lives, providing a richly detailed ethnographic account of the realities of exclusion, and explaining how young people become involved in crime and drug use. Young men and women describe their own personal experiences of exclusion in education, employment and the public sphere. They describe their history of exclusion as ‘the life’, and the term identifies how young people grew up as objects of suspicion in the eyes of an affluent majority.
While social exclusion continues to be seen as a consequence of young people’s behaviour, Out of Sight: crime, youth and exclusion in modern Britain examines how stigmatising poor communities has come to define Britain’s consumer society.
The book challenges the view underlying government policy that social exclusion is a product of crime, antisocial behaviour and drug use, and in focusing on one socially deprived neighbourhood it promotes a different way of seeing the problematic relationship between socially excluded young people, society and government.

List of illustrations

Masking poverty
Twenty-four seven society
1 A mugger's paradise
The unusual suspects
Working poor
Growing up in a poor community
Through the looking glass
Being poor in an affluent society
Shovelin shit: Nova's local economy
Ordinary world
Crime as status
Welfare and Workfare
Poverty, culture and crime
Too much too young
Social exclusion
Stitched up: exclusion at school
Compulsory youth training
Working in a service economy
Room 101
Crime and consumption
2 Nova
The Project
Uncle Sean
Born and bred
Spirit of a community
The rule of the street
Nova: it's me, it's who I am
Survival of the fittest

Elements of a culture
Going under
Work and leisure
Working in Nova
A bit of business
Fuckin' chaos

3 Work
Life or death
Children under a shadow
Just Thievin'
Gender and crime
Youthful aspirations
Shit Street
4 Respect
Drugs and crime
Poverty and drug use
Inside out
Social exclusion in action
Achieving respect
Exclusion through style
Hip Hop culture
Watching communities
Risk and defeat
Maintaining respect
The enemy within
Feeling for one another
Faith in the future
5 Education
Problem youth
Ghetto heaven
One hand doesn't know what the other hand's doing'
A new initiative
Learning to labour
Escape attempts
You got no hopes: working on Workfare
Urban regeneration
The Workfare carousel
Been here before: repackaging the Project
Behind the scenes
Making history
The Breakfast Club
Demonising community
6 Community
Living with poverty
Stigmatising poor people
Changing times
Thinking about society
Fatal strategies
People power
Township community
They think you're bad
War on community
The last frontier
Staying alive
7 Society
A dolls' house
Heroes and villains
Imagining crime
Search and destroy
Consumer protection
Faith in the city
The golden years
Law and order
Back to basics
Intel: crime in an information society
Being human

The author

Robert McAuley studied for a doctorate in criminology at the University of Cambridge, and was formerly a research Fellow at London South Bank University. He is currently writing a book about young people’s experiences of higher education.


As the millennium approached, a number of insightful books appeared that questioned the self-satisfied state of fin-de-siecle Britain. In their descriptions of the poor and the marginalised, works such as Danziger’s Britain (Danziger 1997) and Dark Heart (Davies 1997) echoed earlier writing, for example, George Orwell’s The Road to Wigan Pier. In Out of Sight, Robert McAuley adds to this recent body of hitherto largely journalistic work by providing an ethnographic and theoretically informed investigation of this ‘other’ Britain. His context is Britain as a de-industrialised consumer society characterised by the ‘redevelopment of cities into theme parks organised around the pursuit of a consumer lifestyle’ (page 12). Unfortunately these are theme parks that require cheap labour to undertake work that is unrewarding and poorly paid. The marginalised young people whom McAuley interviews and observes during his twelve months of field work are faced with the unsatisfactory prospect of joining this work force or opting for alternative means of scraping a living.

McAuley focuses on ‘Nova’, a 1950s housing estate located on the edge of ‘Ford’, one of northern England’s large cities. Initially constructed in post-war optimism to house the workers who powered the post 1945 recovery, by the time of his study, Nova is disproportionately featured in the local media for its association with car crime, drug dealing and vandalism; its residents are associated with fecklessness, poor parenting and welfare dependency. This is an estate overlooked by regeneration booms and its residents are demonised at school and work for where they come from. Geographically adjacent to Nova, regeneration funding has led to the establishment of ‘Gemini Park,’ a retail, business and hi-tech park where the more affluent residents of Ford work and play, oblivious to the other Britain just beyond. 

Out of Sight provides numerous rich insights into the lives of the young people of Nova. After setting the context of Nova and its neighbour, Gemini Park, in chapters one and two, the author allows his informants to guide us through their world. This includes: the ‘workfare merry-go-round’ that perpetuates exclusion with its culture of lowly paid, insecure employment; the escape of some into informal work and working for themselves, sometimes crossing the border into criminality through ‘mooching’ and going ‘on the shift’; the decline of others into class A drug-taking. Relief is provided by ‘the Project’ (see below) and through the hedonistic pursuit of leisure; the account of a night out in the area’s leading night-spot is suitably grim.

McAuley’s conceptual framework is consumer society as ‘a world in which everyone is trapped’ (page 77) and where consumer culture is ‘defined by angst and dread’ (page 166). The dominant structural conditions, exacerbated by government policy, ensure that poor communities such as Nova are excluded and its residents carry the stigma of crime. This is a post-modern vision in which the modern Nova contrasts starkly with post-modern mainstream Britain (page 165). The absurdity of the strangling structural conditions described by McAuley is symbolised by ‘the Project’. This is a valued drop-in centre, providing employment advice for the young people of Nova. It is one public amenity that has succeeded in wining the trust of young people; it is both a link to work and training and also a place where they meet and socialise. Yet because it doesn’t fit the managerialist model of achieving performance targets and providing a standardised service, it is forced to close, denting the collective confidence of the community’s young people and further emphasising their exclusion.

The outline thus far suggests that the lives of Nova’s young people are bleak and literally hopeless. However, the book describes also how the young people maintain their self-respect through working for themselves and enjoying a collective, inclusive culture expressed, for example, through hip-hop. The older young people, particularly, maintain notions of faith in themselves and some degree of positive certainty about the future. Following the low of the demise of ‘the Project’, optimism for the future is raised by the creation of ‘Gateways’, a local education and employment training centre, achieved through the social capital that Nova’s community groups are able to build. For those who wonder what will become of Nova’s young people, McAuley tells us towards the end of the book (page 157) of returning to Nova and meeting up with the people who had let him into their lives for a year; he finds that most remain strong and resilient.

This book is not without faults. The prose throughout the book is idiosyncratic. For example, on page 20 McAuley argues that ‘economic and social policies designed to target young people living in deprived urban areas are based on a principle of evil’ (page 20). He certainly can’t be accused of fence-sitting. In addition: the frequent sub-headings don’t always appear directly relevant to the text that follows; Ellis Cashmore is not an African American as stated on page 163. He is ‘White British’ (more Birmingham, West Midlands, than Birmingham, Alabama). Nevertheless, McAuley should be congratulated; his personal investment in this ethnographic journey shines through and he succeeds in bringing out these people’s voices and their experiences of exclusion.


Davies, N (1997) Dark Heart: The shocking truth about hidden Britain, London: Vintage

Danziger, N. (1997) Danziger’s Britain: A journey to the edge, London: Flamingo


Dr Rob Mawby, Reader in Criminal Justice, Centre for Criminal Justice Policy and Research, UCE Birmingham. 

Imagining Security

Edition: 1st

Author: Jennifer Wood & Clifford Shearing

ISBN 10: 1-843920-74-3

ISBN-13: 978-1-843920-74-8

Publishers: Willan

Price £22

Publication Date: November 2006

Publisher’s Title Information

This book is concerned with the ways in which the problem of security is thought about and promoted by a range of actors and agencies in the public, private and nongovernmental sectors. The authors are concerned not simply with the influence of risk-based thinking in the area of security, but seek rather to map the mentalities and practices of security found in a variety of sectors, and to understand the ways in which thinking from these sectors influence one another. Their particular concern is to understand the drivers of innovation in the governance of security, the conditions that make innovation possible and the ways in which innovation is imagined and realised by actors from a wide range of sectors.

The book has two key themes: first, governance is now no longer simply shaped by thinking within the state sphere, for thinking originating within the business and community spheres now also shapes governance, and influence one another. Secondly, these developments have implications for the future of democratic values as assumptions about the traditional role of government are increasingly challenged.
The first five chapters of the book explore what has happened to the governance of security, through an analysis of the drivers, conditions and processes of innovation in the context of particular empirical developments. Particular reference is made here to 'waves of change' in security within the Ontario Provincial Police in Canada. In the final chapter the authors examine the implications of 'nodal governance' for democratic values, and then suggest normative directions for deepening democracy in these new circumstances.

Cutting-edge analysis of the nature of thinking of security and its wider implications

Leading scholars in the field

Widespread international interest in this issue

Imagining security
Imagining governance
Governance through force
Governing through enrolment
1 From state to nodal governance
Transformations in state governance
Governing through others: enrolment and alignment
Private governments
Nodal governance
2 Community security and local governance: waves in public policing
The place of the police
Waves in public policing
Policing as community-based
Policing as solving problems
The influence of neo-liberalism
Policing as restorative justice
Policing as fixing broken windows
Policing as intelligence work
Policing as reassurance
3 Human security and global governance
Imagining human security
Threats to human security
Strategies of human security governance
Fighting crime and terror
Protecting people in zones of conflict
Protecting human rights
Building peace
Developing communities and societies
The state security/human security nexus
4 Responding to governance deficits
Methods of power
Concentrate power nodally and use it to steer governance
Recognize and use all your power resources
Focus on nodes where one can be creative and assertive
Concentrate knowledge at nodes
Locate resources at nodes
Promote deliberative processes within nodes
Democracy in nodal governance
5 The governance of governance
Hybridity in state governance: the case of public policing
Legal accountability
Political accountability
The new regulatory state or regulatory capitalism
Thinking like a business
Hybridity in decentred governance: private policing and beyond
Nodal governance for the future
Explanatory themes
Normative themes
Legal cases

Crime Online

Edition: 1st

Author:  Edited by Yvonne Jewkes

ISBN-10: 1-843921-97-9

Publishers: Willan

Price £22

Publication Date: November 2006

Publisher’s Title Information

Crime Online is concerned to explore the dual capacity of the Internet to pervert and to democratize: it offers its users freedom, democracy, and communication with people around the world while at the same time generating anxieties concerning its potential to corrupt vulnerable minds and facilitate heinous crimes.

This book provides a highly authoritative account and analysis of key issues within the rapidly burgeoning field of cybercrime. Drawing upon a range of internationally known experts in the field, and representing several different disciplines, Crime Online focuses on different constructions and manifestations of cybercrime and diverse responses to its regulation. It will be essential reading for anybody with an interest in one of the most exciting and fast moving areas of crime, policing and legislation.

1 ‘Killed by the Internet’: Cyber Homicides, Cyber Suicides and Cyber Sex Crimes, Yvonne Jewkes
2 Cybercrime: Re-thinking Crime Control Strategies, Susan W. Brenner
3 The Problem of Stolen Identity and the Internet, Emily Finch
4 Biometric Solutions to Identity-related Cybercrime, Russell G. Smith
5 Internet Child Pornography: International Responses, Yvonne Jewkes and Carol Andrews
6 The Role of Computer Forensics in Criminal Investigations, Robert Moore
7 Teenage Kicks or Virtual Villainy? Internet Piracy, Moral Entrepreneurship, and the Social Construction of a Crime Problem, Majid Yar
8 In the back of the net: football hooliganism and the Internet, Stefan Fafinski
9 Constructing Crime: Stalking, Celebrity, ‘Cyber’ and Media, Maggie Wykes
10 Digital Undergrounds: Alternative Politics and Civil Society, Rinella Cere
11 Beyond ‘the Desert of the Real’: Crime Control in a Virtual(ised) Reality, Katja Franko Aas

The editor
Yvonne Jewkes is Reader in Criminology at the Open University.  She has written extensively on the problems of policing cybercrime as well as more generally about the relationship between new technologies, crime and deviance. Her books include Dot. cons: crime, deviance and identity on the internet (Willan, 2003) and Media and Crime (Sage, 2004).  She is also Editor of Crime, Media, Culture: an international journal.

Young People and Offending : Education,youth justice and social inclusion

Author: Martin Stephenson


Publishers: Willan

Price £19.50

Publication Date: November 2006

Publisher’s Title Information

The relationship between education and youth crime has long been recognised in terms of social policy and public opinion, the full extent of this and its implications has been largely neglected and unexplored: educationalists on the one hand and criminologists on the other have largely failed to engage meaningfully with one another on the issue, and there has often been a large gap between youth justice and educational provision.

This book seeks to remedy this deficiency, providing a critical survey of the research evidence, policy development and practical issues relating to education and offending by young people. It has the following objectives: to examine the evolution of social policy and institutions in relation to the relationship between education and offending by young people; establish the scale and nature of the problem and the characteristics of the young people involved; identify any evidence based approaches that could be adopted across education and youth justice; review the effectiveness of New Labour's education and youth justice reforms; propose a series of measures for social policy makers and practitioners in education and youth justice.
Young People and Offending will be essential reading for youth justice practitioners as well as students taking courses on youth crime and youth justice, or on youth justice or probation training courses.

1 Foreword by Rod Morgan (Chairman, Youth
Justice Board)
1 Background: theories and evidence
2 The Evolution of Education and Youth
3 Social Inclusion
4 Detachment: exclusion, absenteeism, non participation
and unemployment
5 Low Attainment and Under-achievement
6 The Influence of the School
7 Custody and Custodial Education
8 Stakeholders: public opinion, magistrates,
Yots, and young people
9 What Works in Youth Justice and
10 Social Policy
11 Conclusions


I was particularly interested in reviewing this book since my own work for over 20 years was in the prevention and treatment of young persons who were becoming delinquents and criminals. I ran a therapeutic community and school at Allington Manor, in Hampshire between 1977 and 1997 which individually assessed, treated and educated the young persons in my care, many of whom had already committed serious crimes. The author rightly brings into the open the devastating effect that a poor education has on children at risk who end up by becoming delinquents. This is due to the lack of adequate analysis of their problems in school and an appropriate educational curriculum to meet their needs.  This is why prisons spend a considerable period of time in educating young offenders through teaching them to read and write. This point was also made by Rod Morgan, Chairman, Youth Justice Board who wrote the foreword to the book.

Education is an important aspect to consider as it can both cause antisocial and delinquent behaviour and prevent it by an appropriate educational presentation to the child at an optimum time in his life. This book provides evidence of this as to the question of the importance of appropriate education for potential young persons who are likely to offend.This book therefore is likely to be of considerable value to Probation Officers, Youth Justice Practitioners, and those running Therapeutic Communities and Schools whether they be open or secure.

Mr Stephenson, the author, has extensive experience in education, youth justice and social care. He has been on the Youth Justice Board from 1998 onwards to 2002. He was a Chief Executive of the charity INCLUDE. This organisation provides education for excluded young persons.

The book is divided into three sections. The first provides background theories and evidence and the evolution of education and youth justice, as well as social exclusion and youth crime. Section 2 provides information on the impact on young persons due to an inappropriate education being presented to them. This often results in low achievement and eventually, coming into conflict with the Law. Part 3 concerns itself with what can be done about the situation and involves the work of Magistrates, the Youth Justice System, and social policy as well as social inclusion.

The book begins with a glossary of terms including such terms as Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD), Special Education Needs (SEN) and the Young Offender Institution (YOI). These terms are particularly employed in dealing with young people who offend.

The author points out what has been known for many years that young people who are disengaged from education are much more likely to be involved in antisocial and criminal behaviour. One might well ask whether the education system currently in vogue is responsible for much crime that could have been prevented had an appropriate method been included for young persons who cannot compete effectively with others in the school setting. Such youngsters then become severely handicapped in obtaining appropriate employment due to the fact that they have often failed to receive either education or training. This is often due to their "drop-out" from school and their having a string of offences before they are of school leaving age. This leads to low self-esteem and the tendency to seek gratification elsewhere. This is often by participating in a variety of criminal activities. Once such youngsters have been incarcerated their chances of finding employment of an appropriate kind becomes even more severely restricted.

The process is well known. Children initially find school work difficult, or meaningless, or both, and become children who are stressed and frustrated. This is followed by conduct disorders of various kinds. The next step is undoubtedly to avoid attending school or when attending school showing signs of considerable behaviour problems. Sometimes they bully and sometimes they become the target of bullying. They frequently turn to such behaviour as shoplifting, joy riding, drinking alcohol, and taking and selling drugs. Eventually they graduate to assaulting or robbing others. Sometimes even more serious crimes than that are committed by such young persons as they graduate from one antisocial activity to another. This book returns again and again to the connection between an inappropriate education and criminality. Quite early such youngsters become labelled and such labels stick. They tend to become worse as time and same antisocial cycle continues.

The author draws heavily on research carried out by such individuals as Farrington, Furlong, West and Pennell. This book continues to explore the relationship between education and offending. Efforts are made by the penal system rather belatedly to put right what has gone wrong before and to provide education for the young people who have failed to receive it earlier. One might well ask: "Would there be so many in prison today had they in the early stages received an appropriate and meaningful educational process?"

This book is well written. It is informative and well organised with summaries at the end of chapters and sections. In the final section the author puts forward some ideas that may be of value. He states in the final conclusions: "The only chances of significant improvement lie in a very significant reduction in the custodial population and complete reconfiguration of the juvenile secure estate." Hence the author encourages, except for the most grave of crimes, some other form of dealing with young offenders than utilising the prison system primarily. This I endorse most whole-heartedly.

L F Lowenstein

Problem-oriented Policing and Partnerships: Implementing an evidence-based approach to crime reduction

Edition: 1st

Authors: Karen Bullock, Rosie Erol & Nick Tilley

ISBN-10: 1-843921-39-1

Publishers: Willan

Price £26

Publication Date: September 2006

This book makes an important contribution to the literature on problem-oriented policing, aiming to distill the British experience of problem-oriented policing. Drawing upon over 500 entries to the Tilley Award since its inception in 1999, the book examines what can be achieved by problem-oriented policing, what conditions are required for its successful implementation and what has been learned about resolving crime and disorder issues.
Examples of problem-oriented policing examined in this book include specific police and partnership initiatives targeting a wide spectrum of individual problems (such as road safety, graffiti and alcohol-related violence), as well as organisational efforts to embed problem-oriented work as a routine way of working (such as improving training and interagency problem solving along with more specific challenges like improving the way that identity parades are conducted.
This book will be of particular interest to those working in the field of crime reduction and community safety in the police, local government and other agencies, as well as students taking courses in policing, criminal justice and criminology.

1 Introduction: problem-orientated approaches to crime reduction and policing
2 Experiences of problem-orientated policing implementation
3 Mainstreaming problem-orientated policing implementation
4 The implementation of problem-orientated projects in the UK
5 Resources for improving problem-orientated policing and partnerships
6 The changing context of British problem-orientated policing
7 Conclusions: problem-orientated policing and Evidence Based Policy and Practice

Holding Your Square

Masculinities,  Streetlife and Violence

Edition: 1st

Author: Christopher Mullins

ISBN: 1843921944

Publishers: Willan

Price £40

Publication Date: September 2006

Publisher’s Title Information

This book is about the meanings of masculinities within the social networks of the streets of an American city (St Louis, Missouri), and how these shaped perceptions and enactments of violence.  Based on a large number of interviews with offenders the author provides a rich description of life on the streets, contextualizing criminal violence within this deviant subculture, and with a specific focus on issues of gender.  The book provides one of the most detailed descriptions yet of the forms masculinity takes in disadvantages communities in the United States.  It establishes how street based gender identity motivated and guided men through violent encounters, exploring how men’s relationships with women and their families instigated violence.  One key issue addressed is why men resorted to violence in certain situations and not in others, exploring the range of choices open to them and how these opportunities were interpreted.  The book makes a major contribution to the study of the relationship between masculinities and violence, making use of a much larger sample than elsewhere.

Preface and acknowledgements
Foreword by Jody Miller (University of Missouri St Louis)
1 Doing crime, doing gender
2 Gender's omnipresence: methodology
3 Real men and punks: masculinities on the streets
4 Every motherfucker gonna try to punk you: masculinity challenges
5 One's man 'ho' is another man's sister: men's relationships with women and families
6 Is it being smart, or just a punk ass move? The contradictions of street masculinity
7 Masculinities, streetlife and violence


Holding Your Square is one of the first offerings as part of Willan publishing’s new crime and ethnography series.  However the title is interesting in so far as it is not what one would expect of ethnographic research because its author, Christopher Mullins is not the ethnographer.  Rather he has drawn on a staggering array of work undertaken by a collective of academics at the University St Louis, Missouri as part of an ongoing academic project aimed at mapping the particular criminal’s practices and cultures around a number of black American men from an excluded community where opportunities are limited.  To that end, much of the material has already been used and published, for example as texts on ‘Street Justice’ (Jacobs and Wright 2006) and ‘Robbing drug dealers’ (Jacobs 2000).  Indeed one of the disappointing aspects of this book, is that those who have read the various offerings of the St. Louis academics might well feel a sense of déjà vu.  While Mullins can claim to have used an innovative methodology, whether his using ethnographic data from a range of different projects towards a singular end (examining masculinity and crime generally) really offers anything theoretically new is debatable.  Indeed, I found his inductive theory coupled with a re-evaluation of existing ethnographic data to be far less interesting than the original studies. 

Mullins text is a little repetitive; there are very few basic observations; that gendered power on the streets is not simply men’s patriarchal dominance over women, and such gendered roles should not simply be taken for granted; the meanings of masculinities within the social networks of the streets are shaped by perceptions and enactments of violence; and that there is a distinct street culture that is largely masculine and highly stylised.  The book is best when it charts these and lets the ethnographic material flow, and provides a rich description of the sub cultural life of criminals on the streets.  However, empirically, it has more to say than it does theoretically, and the way in which Mullins deals with the issues of gender after a while becomes rather repetitive.  While it might be true that there are highly stylised masculine roles on the streets amongst offenders, the theoretical dressing that accompanies this seems to offer little that is new.  Criminals are driven by hedonism; they hold particular perceptions of masculinity based around violence; they are fatalistic; there are hegemonic and subordinate male roles; it is bad to be called a ‘punk’.   None of this strikes me as particularly relevant or new.  When compared with the way the data had originally been employed (for example in Jacobs and Wrights accounts of street justice mentioned above) it is not nearly as interesting or accessible.


Jacobs, Bruce A. 2000. Robbing Drug Dealers: Violence beyond the Law. New York: Aldine de Gruyter

Jacobs, B and Wright, R (2006) Street Justice: Retaliation in the Criminal Underworld.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

James Treadwell

Title: The Price of Sex, Prostitution, policy and society

Author: Belinda Brooks-Gordon
Edition: 1st
ISBN-10: 1-843920-87-5
ISBN-13: 978-1-843920-87-8

Publishers: Willan

Price £22

Publication Date: July 2006

Publisher’s Title Information

As a society we are buying more sex than ever before. Adult sex shops now take their place amongst retailers in the high street and lap dancing clubs compete for an increased share of the leisure economy. Hotel chains offer sexually explicit films as part of their standard service, the party selling of adult toys to women in their homes has become a mainstream activity. And at the traditional end of the sexual service economy, prostitution has experienced new growth.
Along with this has come new legal measure and attempts to regulate the sexual leisure economy, and far more comprehensive plans than ever before to regulate prostitution, in particular in the form of the new Sex Offences Act. This book seeks to address the range of issues and contemporary debates on the sex industry, including the demand by customers who buy sex, the policing of women who work in the street sex industry, and the violence that pervades prostitution. It shows how these issues have been addressed in policy terms, the problems that have emerged in this, and how a social policy might be formulated to minimize harm and enhance public understanding.
Overall the book aims to provide a critical perspective on prostitution policies and the legal chaos and complexities that surround this.

Society buys more sex than ever before

Focus on issue of how society deals with the selling of sexual services and how it is to be regulated

Provides a critical perspective on recent legislation and the chaos surrounding attempts to regulate it
1 How prostitution became a legal problem
2 Understanding prostitution policy
3 Understanding sexual demand
4 Policing street prostitution
5 Violence, victimisation and protection
6 Motives, method and morality
7 Conclusion


This is the latest in the rapidly expanding specialist series of Willan books on themes relating to sex and society. It addresses a real gap in terms of current texts and understandings in relation to the problem of prostitution and specifically the legalization of commercial sex work. The author sets her stall out right from the start asserting that recent Government reforms to control prostitution are counter-productive in not only failing to meet their desired objectives, but in creating a number of unanticipated ancillary social problems. She has also been fortunate to draw on the expertise and help of a number of leading criminologists  and practitioners in the field,  including Betsy Stanko, Keith Soothill, Helen Self, Lorraine Gelsthorpe and the Metropolitan Police Vice and Clubs Unit. This gives the book not only considerable academic integrity, but embeds the discussion in a practical and real life context as well.

The first chapter provides a brief historiography of societal responses to commercial sex as both an actual and perceived problem, from initial public acceptance in Roman times to an increasingly less tolerant and more repressive regime. Reference is made to moral repression, the role of the church, the hypocrisy of the Victorians and associated vice and vigilance campaigns, through to the Wolfenden Report and the Sexual Offences Act 1956. From then the increasing use of more punitive strategies aimed at ‘eradicating’ the ‘problem,’ primarily the kerb-crawling provisions of 1985 are covered, culminating in the Sexual Offences Act 2003.

In the second chapter Brooks-Gordon analyses the integrity of the Government’s investigation into the current problem of prostitution; analysing its Consultation Document Paying the Price 2004 and subsequent Co-ordination Strategy on Prostitution January 2006. The consultation report maintains the premise that prostitution must be controlled despite the fact that it is not illegal. The author challenges the Government’s approach on the basis of its failure to even ask the question whether sex-work should be legitimate and its automatic assumption that it is and should be a crime. The consultation exercise is subjected to considerable criticism, particularly the lack of any historical perspective post-Wolfenden in the literature review and the subsequent failure to consider the wider contextual and socio-cultural changes of the past 50 years. The failure to address the psyche of male sex clients and the reasons why they choose to engage in commercial sex is identified as another shortcoming.  Existing research on these themes is also underutilised and remarkably the Home Office is alleged to have misrepresented its own previously commissioned research.  Further condemnation emanates from the Government’s failure to fully consider policy initiatives introduced elsewhere, particularly Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands and New Zealand, and where reference has been made the author claims it has been misinterpreted or misread.  Finally, in relation to domestic ‘re-education schemes’ and ‘conditional cautioning’ the claimed successes of the Home Office are not, she argues, supported by its own research and statistics.

Thus not only is it claimed that there appears to be a considerable amount of spin but also that the Government’s approach lacks integrity in its failure to analyse the problem of prostitution in light of the not inconsiderable debates that have been taking place in sociological discourse. Brooks-Gordon questions the failure to utilise any legal discourse (i.e. legitimacy and  legal theory),  feminist discourse (traditional moral discourse, sexual domination discourse, sex work discourse) or social policy discourse (public nuisance discourse, moral order discourse, market discourse) which given the subject matter displays either extreme ignorance or extreme arrogance and the author is right to point this out. Instead she asserts that the discourse adopted is one where sex work is constructed as a crime, and that adult prostitution and child prostitution are confused through the emphasis on both being labelled as ‘victims’ and subjects of abuse, when patently with adult prostitution this is not always the case. While the subsequent Co-ordination Strategy contains some positive changes such as the removal of ‘common’ prostitute, referral medical services for street sex workers (albeit under threat of failure to comply) and redefinitions of and co-operation between brothels etc; the lack of vision including the dismissal of safety zones is in her view very disappointing.

Brooks-Gordon also offers some interesting commentary on the police perspective questioning police (primarily The Met) neutrality (at higher levels) in terms of intervention and politicization. She also alleges that the police are complicit in maintaining a high moral tone about commercial sex aligning themselves with some unfamiliar partners:  ‘The Strategy is a curious alliance of views which melds those of the police and the tabloids with those of radical separatist feminists, who along with the religious right, had a vested interest in running exit programmes linked to a new moral agenda (p.73).’

The book then moves on in chapter three to analyse some empirical research conducted by the author with men who pay for sex, preceeded by a summary of the limitations of previous research in this field. The chapter maps out the characteristics and patterns of 518 cases of kerb crawlers stopped in London over a 2 year period categorized according to ethnicity, age, employment, offence circumstances, vehicle use etc confirming a number of (mainly unsurprising) assumptions and correlations. For example it was found that most street business occurs mid-week, that there was a significant proportion of diplomats and taxi drivers, tourists were treated more leniently than UK nationals, and many men were as interested in voyeurism as commercial sex etc.. The findings are used to highlight the practical problems of enforcing law and policy espoused in chapter four which reflects on police responses and perceptions as evidenced in patrolling practices. Writing in the aftermath of the Macpherson Inquiry the author seems to be somewhat surprised that there was a ‘necessary awareness of gender’ in the Vice Squads she followed and had expected to find more examples of institutionalized racism and sexism.  Such assumptions from academics highlight the damage that findings of ‘institutionalized racism’ can create where all personnel are so-defined and the difficulties for the police service in endeavouring to overcome such labelling.  The research also revealed the dilemma held by many specialist officers that while they did not perceive prostitutes to be in the same class as other criminal offenders they acknowledged the need to respond to residents’ concerns. The result was that this could often lead to a selective and undesirable charging strategy. On the other hand police officers, particularly female officers, were more dismissive of kerb crawlers and reported that dealing with them had led to a more sensitive understanding of the issues faced by sex workers.

From her fieldwork, four typical responses of kerb crawlers to any police approach are identified - admission, admission to cruising, denial and failure to stop. These are reinforced by a distinctive 5 Phase order which matches, in 95% of the incidents observed, the interactions between the police and the kerb crawlers in the sample. These are labelled as the Bemused Phase, Excuse Phase, Indignant Phase, Confrontational/Pleading Phase and Indication of Future Intent. These signifiers are used to explain the tactics and strategies adopted by the kerb crawlers leading to the (not unexpected?) conclusion that kerb crawling is ‘not only more sophisticated and rule-governed behaviour than previously thought, but also perhaps more deeply rooted in the psyche …’ It is then strongly suggested that this model has implications for policy and practice such as in determining appropriate prosecution strategies.

Chapter five is a short chapter that summarizes the incidence of violence against prostitutes. Again, unsurprisingly, the author concludes that levels of reporting violence against sex workers are low, that 73 sex workers were killed 1990-2002 and that current sentencing practice is therefore not working. The case is briefly made that this justifies the promotion of a safer environment for sex workers and that only a seismic shift in public policy towards commercial sex will have any significant and positive impact. No doubt Brooks-Gordon is right in this context, but it appears unlikely that the Government will offer a sympathetic ear at the moment. Perhaps of more interest is the tentative suggestion that there could be a link between those who kerb crawl and those who perpetrate serious acts of violence against prostitutes, albeit in a very small number of cases.

The main conclusion drawn is that recent policies have increasingly criminalized the client and constructed the sex worker as victim causing conflicting tensions and dilemmas for police professionals. ‘Client’ groups are treated differently by the police and consequently the law is neither applied consistently or neutrally, undermining its integrity. The utility of criminalizing kerb crawlers is strongly challenged and the argument made that more non-criminal alternatives should be considered. A considerable number of (controversial?) suggestions for reform are proposed including the decriminalization of sex work and introduction of rights for those who choose to engage in what should be legitimate work, whether as part of a small worker-run establishment or larger business concern. Safety zones should be designated for street workers to operate in and laws protecting sex workers introduced so that civil remedies can be brought against those who abuse or harass them. Overseeing this should be a Home Office Sex Industry Inspectorate. While not everyone will necessarily agree with all of the recommendations and proposals suggested they are worthy of serious debate and introspection. This book should therefore provide the catalyst to generate the broader debate that Government in its consultation seemingly wished to avoid, whether deliberately or otherwise.

Kim Stevenson

Forensic Identification and Criminal Justice

Forensic Science, Justice and Risk

Edition: 1st

Author: Carole McCarthy

ISBN: 1-84392-184-7
ISBN-13: 978-1-843-92184-4

Publishers: Willan

Price £35

Publication Date: July 2006

Publisher’s Title Information

Analyses development of forensic identification technologies and impact on legal system

Considers human rights implications

Focus on national DNA database and its implications

This book provides an account of the development of forensic identification technologies and the way in which this has impacted upon the legal system. It traces the advent of forensic identification technologies, focusing on fingerprinting and forensic DNA typing, and their growing deployment within the criminal justice system. It also elucidates the ways in which these new technologies are accelerating procedural changes to investigative practices, and shows the ways in which in some areas human rights (such as privacy rights and rights against discrimination) are coming under threat. The use of forensic evidence in criminal investigations and trials is analysed in detail.

This book uncovers the way in which this new reliance on forensic technologies has gained a foothold within the criminal justice system, and the risks and dangers that this can pose. The National DNA Database provides a particular focus of attention. The author seeks to move beyond an approach that has seen forensic DNA profiling as error free, situating her analysis within broader risk discourses.

1 Forensic identification: the legal framework
Police investigations and forensic identity evidence
Fingerprints and DNA sampling: the legal framework
2 Forensic identification: the criminal investigation
DNA and police investigations
The DNA Expansion Programme
DNA and criminal detection rates
Forensic science and criminal investigation: a case for caution?
Conclusion: forensic identification and the criminal process
3 Forensic identification: the criminal trial
The criminal trial: fairness or truth?
Identity 'matches': acceptance of fingerprint and DNA
The criminal trial: certainty and rectitude
Conclusion: forensic identification and the criminal trial
Forensic Identification and Criminal Justice
4 The development of forensic identity databases
The development of forensic identity databases
Fingerprint databasing
A sceptical approach to forensic identity databases
Forensic identity databases: some new risks
Forensic identity databases: current problems, future risks
Conclusion: the endangerment of innocence in the pursuit of security
5 Forensic identification in other jurisdictions
Pan-European developments
New Zealand and Australia
Conclusion: England and Wales - leading the way?
6 The future of forensic identification: issues and prospects
Fingerprints and DNA in the 'fight against crime'
Future applications for forensic identification technologies
Forensic identification: human rights and civil liberties
Forensic identity databases: issues and prospects
The 'infallibility' of forensic identification
The information society: heading for 'information overload'?
Conclusion: Cause for optimism, pessimism, or scepticism?


The first few pages of this book set out how the Government, the criminal justice system, and many others view forensic science.

The author quotes the House of Lords Committee on Science and Technology, which outlined the task of forensic science as ‘to serve the interests of justice by providing scientifically based evidence relating to criminal activity’. The author then quotes the Forensic Science Service, (FSS), which states that its mission is ‘to provide forensic science information and expertise to support the investigation and detection of crime and the prosecution of offenders, and so to contribute to the prevention, deterrence and reduction of crime’. Also quoted is the FSS mission, which is ‘to realise the full potential of forensic science to contribute to safer and more just society’.

The book concentrates, but not exclusively, on the only two methods of positive identification that science can provide, which are DNA and Fingerprints. The book gives the reader a brief history of forensic science and then fingerprints and DNA, before discussing whether or not the latter two are as infallible as many perceive them to be. The arguments for and against are well presented and the author draws on many references, interviews and other sources. I was pleased to see the author state that whilst DNA is hailed as the ‘holy grail’ of identification techniques, the humble fingerprint retains its status as the most commonly utilised method of forensic identification.

The legal framework of police investigations and forensic identity evidence is discussed, including the legal provisions for obtaining samples and the potential for a suspect to refuse to supply samples.  The various Acts of Parliament, Codes of practice, Law reviews and stated cases are discussed and commented on.

Figures quoted in the book show how Government expenditure on the DNA programme has expanded at a massive rate during the last decade, but rightly questions whether this expenditure has brought comparable results. The author does not answer this question. My answer to the above question is no, and my reasons for this is something that is not directly mentioned in the book. The Government has spent millions of pounds, (over £300 million to date), on a DNA database and everything that goes with it, but then installs ‘budget managers’ in police forces. The result of this, all over the country, is that crime-scene examiners are returning from major crime scenes with, for example twenty five exhibits for examination by the FSS, only to be told by the budget manager, (who is neither a scientist or police officer), “we can only afford to send three samples for examination”.

The author also discusses the impact of the National DNA Database on crime figures, and this is neatly summed up by one interviewee who states, “DNA will never affect crime figures.  It could mean that more guilty people are convicted, however, these days getting caught doesn’t matter to the majority of criminals, because hardly any punishment fits the crime”.

The book then looks at recent developments in DNA profiling, changes in the law that have occurred to accommodate these developments and asks what the future is. The fact that it is now legal to retain, on various databases profiles of persons who are not charged or who are later acquitted, (this concerns me a great deal), is discussed at length. Biometrics, their reliability and feasibility, identity cards, the information held on Government databases and much more is written about in the chapter entitled ‘The future of forensic identification: issues and prospects’. Part of this chapter also makes reference to the security of the various databases, especially the DNA database, who has access to it and who may have access to it in the future. At the moment the FSS are the custodians of the National DNA Database, but what happens, the author asks, if, in the future, the FSS is privatised and the entire stock of DNA samples are handed over to a public limited company?

I have to confess however, that I personally found this book difficult to read. The author draws on many references, interviews and websites and I believe, too many. There are no less than twenty pages of references, many being quoted numerous times. I have no doubt however, that this book, which contains so much information and comment about all aspects of forensic identification and criminal justice, will prove to be an invaluable tool for scientists, lawyers and police officer

Andy Day 2007

Captured by the Media

Prison discourse in popular culture

Edition: 1st

Author: Edited by Paul Mason

ISBN: 1-84392-144-8

Publishers: Willan Publishers

Price £18.99

Publication Date:  November 2005

Publisher’s Title Information

This book turns on the television, opens the newspaper, goes to the cinema and assesses how punishment is performed in media culture, investigating the regimes of penal representation and how they may contribute to a populist and punitive criminological imagination. It places media discourse in prisons firmly within the arena of penal policy and public opinion, suggesting that while Bad Girls, The Shawshank Redemption, internet jail cams, advertising and debates about televising executions continue to ebb and flow in contemporary culture, the persistence of this spectacle of punishment - its contested meaning and its politics of representation - demands investigation.

Alongside chapters addressing the construction of popular images of prison and the death penalty in television and film, Captured by the Media also has contributions from prison reform groups and prison practitioners which discuss forms of media intervention in penal debate.

This book provides a highly readable exploration of media discourse on prisons and punishment, and its relationship to public attitudes and government penal policy. At the same time it engages with the 'cultural turn' within criminology and offers an original contribution to discussion of the relationship between prison, public and the state. It will be essential reading for students in both media studies and criminology as well as practi­tioners and commentators in these fields.

The editor

Paul Mason lectures at the School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies, Cardiff University. He has written extensively in the field of crime and media, and is the editor of Criminal Visions: media representations of crime and justice (2003) and co-author (with Frank Leishman) of Policing and the Media: facts, fictions and factions (2003), both published by Willan Publishing. He is Editor of [jc2m] Journal of Crime, Conflict and Media Culture.

The contributors

Rob Allen, Jamie Bennett, Steve Chibnall, Chris Greer, Brian Jarvis, Yvonne Jewkes, Helen Johnston, Anna King, Shadd Maruna, Paul Mason, Mike Nellis, Mick Ryan, Enver Solomon.


1 Turn on, tune in, slop out, Paul Mason, Cardiff University
2 The function of fiction for a punitive public, Anna King, Keele University and Shadd Maruna, Cambridge University
3 Red tops, populists and the irresistible rise of the public voice(s), Mick Ryan, University of Greenwich
4 Crime sound bites: a view from both sides of the microphone, Enver Solomon, Prison Reform Trust
5 What works in changing public attitudes: findings from rethinking crime and punishment, Rob Allen, Rethinking Crime and Punishment
6 Delivering death: capital punishment, botched executions and the American news media, Chris Greer, Northumbria University
7 'Buried alive': representations of the separate system in Victorian England, Helen Johnston, University of Hull
8 Undermining the simplicities: the films of Rex Bloomstein, Jamie Bennett, Deputy Governor, HMP Whitemoor
9 Creating a stir? Prisons, popular media and the power to reform, Yvonne Jewkes, The Open University
10 The violence of images: inside the prison TV drama Oz, Brian Jarvis, Loughborough University
11 The anti-heroines of Holloway : the prison films of Joan Henry and J. Lee Thompson, Steve Chibnall, De Montfort University
12 Relocating Hollywood's prison film discourse, Paul Mason, Cardiff University
13 Future punishment in American science fiction films, Mike Nellis University of Birmingham


At the present time of writing, prisons and prisoners seem to be hardly, if ever, out of the news. Both the popular press, and mainstream TV news, have given high profile to a series of concerns including - convicted offenders who are sentenced too leniently, the re-offending with sometimes tragic consequences of  prisoners freed on license and parole, and the 'scandal' of foreign prisoners released without being considered for deportation.

Many criminologists would argue that the public is not particularly well served by this style of reporting, which tends to infer that our criminal justice system is 'soft on crime' - despite the fact that Britain already has more life-sentenced prisoners than any other European country, who are increasingly serving longer and longer sentences than would have been the case ten or twenty years ago.

The power of the media to set the climate within which penal affairs are debated is a key theme of this collection edited by Paul Mason. The book claims to address how prison is portrayed in a range of media - including both the news media and fictional portrayals in film and television, but perhaps has most success in addressing the former. Yvonne Jewkes, for example, provides a chapter attempting to assess the significance of the TV dramas Bad Girls and Porridge, in contrast to the view of prisoners provided by the news media. Do these two popular TV portrayals have any practical impact or effect? Jewkes thinks not - suggesting that their relatively sympathetic portrayals of inmates are simply drowned out by the weight of news media portrayals of notorious inmates who have committed heinous crimes - the Ian Huntleys and Harold Shipmans of the prison population.

Other contributors to this volume follow a similar line of enquiry. Both Mick Ryan and Enver Soloman identify the ways in which reporting the 'notorious and heinous' is an easy option for news makers, whilst perhaps also conceding that public opinion on crime and punishment is not as simplistic as the newspaper tabloid editors would have us believe. But, both believe that, at present, the news media misinforms the public about the make-up of the prison population, the character of their offences and the viability of alternatives to prison. And both suggest that there is a need to engage the public with a more rounded appreciation of prisons and prisoners.

This is perhaps where this book is weakest. Having recognised the need for alternative ways of engaging the public in debate about prison, the authors tend to ignore or decry those media portrayals which attempt to do just this. Jamie Bennett offers an insightful examination of the work of documentary film-maker Rex Bloomstein. Bennet is able to show how Bloomstein's Lifer: Living With Murder  undermines simplistic perceptions of what life-sentenced prisoners are like and whether they  can  and should be eligible for parole. But this chapter is one of the few in this collection to find some value in sympathetic portrayals of offenders, in contrast to the more usual media stereotypes.

More generally, this collection is biased towards  'prison media pessimism' - believing that media portrayals of  prison and offenders have an impact when supporting a drift toward tougher penal policy, but decrying the extent to which  media portrayals can contribute towards more empathetic and less punitive responses to offending. It would have been nice to see an appreciation of the recent round of offender-centred docusoaps - Make Me Honest, Brat Camp, Bad Lads Army, Real Bad Girls, etc., although one feels that these would be unlikely to receive a sympathetic appreciation from authors generally committed to disapproval of media portrayals.

Given the present state of the way prison policy is presented within the popular media, it is perhaps understandable that the contributors to this collection tend towards criticism of media portrayals of prison. Although one perhaps might have liked to see more discussion of ways in which the media products we do have could be used as a springboard for debate (eg. Is it possible to use popular film and television in offence confrontation work?). As it is, this collection will appeal most to academics already interested in this area of study, and is likely to win few new converts to the cause of prison reform. For lecturers who teach courses on 'Crime and the Media' it is worth ordering a copy of Captured By The Media for your library.  Students may well find the papers collected here a stimulus for starting to think about how prisons and prisoners are portrayed within our culture - an important area of study as our society looks set to continue the trend towards an ever higher prison population.

Sean O’Sullivan

Centre for Criminal Justice Policy and Research

UCE Birmingham

Organised Crime

Edition: 1st

Author: Alan Wright

ISBN: 1-84392-140-5

Publishers: Willan

Price £17.99

Publication Date: December 2005

This book aims to provide an accessible introduction to the study of organised crime - about those who commit it, the effect it has on individuals, businesses and states, and the ways in which states and the international community have sought to contain it. It explores all facets of what has become one of the key problems facing governments, policy makers and law enforcement agencies in the early twenty-first century.

Organised Crime has four predominant themes:


The nature and central concepts of organised crime


The specific activities with which it is associated


Its origins and growth nationally, regionally and globally


The efforts by the international community and law enforcement agencies to contain, regulate and control the risks that it poses

The book contains a number of detailed case studies illustrating the growth of organised crime at national, international and transnational levels, ranging from the mafia, criminal gangs in the UK through to the new wave of organised crime in Russia and the post-Soviet states. It will be essential reading for both students and practitioners in the police and other law enforcement agencies who have a concern with organised crime worldwide.

The author

Alan Wright was formerly a police officer with the Metropolitan Police, where he worked on the Kray case and on other gang crime and homicide cases. He later lectured at the Institute of Criminal Justice Studies, University of Portsmouth, and is currently an Honorary Research Fellow at Keele University. He is the author of Policing: an introduction to concepts and practice (Willan Publishing, 2002).

Preface and acknowledgements


1 Mapping rough terrain: the contested concept of organised crime
2 The gang as a violent way of life
3 Dirty business: the political economy of organised crime
4 The magic roundabout: traffic in the global village
5 Organised crime: its 'traditional' forms
6 Land of opportunity: organised crime in the US
7 New waves
8 Home firms: the British experience
9 Tackling organised crime: possibly together Conclusion


As an academic 'specialism', 'organised crime' tends to be addressed in the most part in a plethora of writing originating in the United States.  Elsewhere, when it is discussed in relation to the U.K, the majority of texts are not academic, but penned either by unrepentant 'hardmen' who are often repetitive, stereotypical and self aggrandising; or by crime reporters and journalists whose shameless voyeurism is often barely disguised.  Both of these types of study can be quickly located in the section marked 'true crime' in a book shop.  In contrast criminological accounts are a little thin on the ground.  Academics who write about organised crime (normally the usual suspects of Mike Levi, Dick Hobbs and Vincenzo Ruggiero) have tended to produce excellent contributions, but these can be either difficult to obtain, or more specialist texts.   For both the criminology tutor and student alike ‘organised crime’ literature can be a rather odd and eclectic mix, and a good textbook has been sadly lacking.  This is perhaps a little ironic given increased concern about organised criminality (for example people and drug trafficking) and newcomers to the subject can be met by quite complicated texts, which anecdotally are often viewed as very challenging by students.  Beyond that, introductions (usually coming in the form of a chapter in a more general textbook) often display a tendency towards rendering the subject arid and distant, quite removed from the realities of criminal practices.  Wrights book is exceptional in so far as it contains a good theoretical introduction to the topic that is both accessible and relevant, and with some excellent illustrative examples.   

The text states on its back cover that its purpose is to 'provide an accessible introduction to the study of organised crime' and this book certainly can be judged by its cover.  It is an excellent textbook, it is free of the type of obscure sociological jargon that can plague some of the 'journal article' material on organised crime, and conveys a clear and insightful overview of the topic extremely well.  Indeed, I would go so far as to say it is one of the best texts I have encountered for some time in that respect.  In addition, Wright’s experience (as a former police officer with the Metropolitan Police who worked on the Kray brothers’ murder case) perhaps underscores the use of particular examples of organised crime as a practice (both national and international) that are very patchy in some textbook chapters dedicated to the subject. 

The text is logically structured and all have been well considered, adding to the book’s appeal.  It begins with a consideration of organised crime as a contested and controversial attempt to trace the contours of the subject.  It moves on to examine the ‘Criminal organisation and the gang as a violent way of life’, a chapter that is a welcome addition, as to his credit Wright recognises the importance of the broader academic criminology and applies the work of a number of authors to organised criminality.  Wright also recognises the political economy of organised crime and in the third chapter offers a considered yet succinct analysis of enterprise crime across the spectrum.  At the fourth chapter the book moves into more specifics –offering excellent chapters on globalisation and traffic trades; traditional forms of organised crime; organised crime in the U.S, UK and Europe.  The book contains a number of case-studies and blends overarching discussion with underpinning examples to excellent effect.

As an introductory text, the book offers a great deal.  It fills a clear void in the market, but beyond that it is informed, and extremely accessible.  Wright does not descend into hyperbole, nor does he simplify the subject matter. The result is an excellent book, and an extremely valuable introduction that should be required reading for anyone seeking to learn more on the topic.

James Treadwell

Hate Crime

Crime and Society Series (Series editor: Hazel Croall, Glasgow Caledonian University)

Edition: 1st

Author: Nathan Hall

ISBN: 1843921308

Publishers: Willan

Price £18.99

Publication Date: August 2005

In recent years 'hate crime' has rapidly ascended political, policing and wider criminal justice agenda, and an increasing range of legislative measures have been implemented in the UK, the US and elsewhere to combat it. Yet research and writing on the subject has largely failed to keep up with these new realities, especially in the UK.

This text aims to fill this gap by examining various aspects of 'hate crime' in a predominantly British context, but situating this within the wider international criminological and policing literature on the subject. The book looks in detail at the way the police have responded to hate crime, and the policies and practice now being adopted to respond to it.

Text on increasingly high profile subject of hate crime

Focus on police and community service policies and measures to deal with the problem
UK focus but set in context of international literature on hate crime
Foreword by John GD Grieve, former Head of the Racial and Violent Crime Task Force, Metropolitan Police Service
1 Defining and conceptualising hate crime
2 Prejudice and hatred
3 A history of hate crime
4 Hate crime victimisation
5 Hate crime perpetrators
6 Extreme hatred
7 Legislating against hate
8 Legislating against hate: the theoretical and moral debate
9 Policing hate crime in New York and Philadelphia
10 Policing hate crime in London
11 Policing Hate Crime: problems, challenges and solutions
12 Community responses to hate crime


First, I should declare an interest; I have known the author and admired his work for some years. I therefore came to this book with high expectations and I was not disappointed. The author, Nathan Hall, has produced a detailed and serious study of hate crime, its causes, effects and some of the solutions being tried, but still a book that remains accessible to the practitioner reader.It is not, and explicitly states it is not intended to be, a book of answers. What it sets out to do is to provide a detailed overview of key work in the field, including contradictions, and point out the need for ongoing study in this critical area of criminology.

In the conclusion to chapter one of this book the author sets out the purpose of criminology in seven stages.  It is worth quoting them in full;  'What is the problem'?  How much of it is there?  Who is involved or affected?  Where and when is it occurring?  Why is it occurring?  And, crucially, what should we do to make the situation better?  The answer to the last six questions are to a great extent determined by the answer to the first.’ 

Following his own definition, the author begins by detailing the complexities of defining hate crime; not, as he quickly establishes, an easy task.  Nevertheless, we are left with a fair idea of what is meant by the term in various discourses.  He then examines reasons for prioritising hate crimes in relation to the effects on victims.  If one were seeking support for this argument, there is plenty of evidence provided through reference to important pieces of academic work.

In the chapter on hate crime perpetrators the author, most importantly in my view, establishes that there might well be insufficient attention paid to the complex causes of ‘hate’, or prejudice, being transformed into criminal conduct.  With so much effort being put into policing hate crime, this of all areas cries out for more detailed examination.

About a quarter of the book is a fascinating comparison of policing hate crime in New York and in London.  Again, the importance of clearly defining terms is shown in terms of how hate crimes are categorised and investigated differently in the two jurisdictions.

The book ends with an examination of ‘problems, challenges and solutions’, and ‘community responses to hate crime’.  This again is comprehensive and underlines the complexity of the subject and its potential solutions.  More importantly, particularly for policy-makers, it spells out the difficulties of translating policy into practice.

From my experience in the field of diversity within the police, much of the failure to effectively translate policy into action, particularly when driven by training, has been caused by paying far too little attention to the first of the author’s seven questions, 'defining the problem'.  As has been said of the police, they are a great 'can-do' organisation but rarely a 'why-do' one.  I would contend that unless you have a detailed idea of the problem to be tackled there is little chance of picking the right tools.  This book certainly prompts some questions about the effectiveness of some of the tools hitherto in use in combating hate crime and should be required reading for anyone working in the field.  In addition, as an academic work it makes a first class reader in the subject and because of its breadth, I can see it becoming a standard introductory text for criminology students.

Jeremy Wheeler

Changing Policing Theories for the 21st Century

Edition: 2nd 2005

Author: Charles Edwards

ISBN: 1862875375

Publishers: Published by Federation Press, distributed by Willan Publishing

Price £24.95

Publication Date: 2005

This book is a thorough revision of the 1999 edition, incorporating the changes that have occurred in crime and policing during the first years of the 21st century. The book examines the history, philosophy and practice of policing in Australia, Great Britain and the United States, showing how the constitutional structure of the three countries give rise to different policing structures and different styles of policing.

The book also looks in depth at crime and its effect on society, and the effect the media has on public perceptions of crime, and, as a result, the way in which police strategies are closely reported by the media. Successive approaches to policing since the second world war are closely examined, and the current community policing methods considered. The book also analyses various forms of police accountability, both of individual officers and of police organisations as a whole.
The final part of the book is completely new, examining changes in the way police organisations are managed and political imperatives, including the war on terrorism, and the effect this has on policing and the public. It also examines some specific 21st century crime problems.

Part 1 The Social and Historical Contexts of Policing
The Triangle of Tension
The History of Policing
Crime - A Police Problem or a Social Problem?
Part 2 The Changing Styles of Policing
The 1960s 0n - Policing Responses to Social Change
Current Police Responses to Crime and Disorder
The Hidden Cost of Modern Policing Strategies
Ethical Concerns for Modern Policing Strategies
Ethics, Discipline, and the Behaviour of Individual Police Officers
Part 3 Accountability
Control, Independence and Accountability in Policing
Police Accountability in Australia
Police Accountability in Britain
Police Accountability in USA
Part 4 Policing in the 21st Century
Issues in Crime in the 21st Century
Control of Policing
Policing the 21st Century
Bibliography/ Table of Statutes/ Table of Cases/ Index

Reviewer Wanted

Would you be interested in reviewing this book? (The Book Above) If you are interested in providing a review in about 600/800 words within 3 months then please contact me by e-mail at robjerrard@aol.com providing a small CV and your interest in this particular book.

For an indication of what is required please see this site, which contains hundreds of examples. "Internet Law book Reviews" welcomes all categories of reviewers.

Football Hooliganism

Edition: 1st

Authors: Steve Frosdick & Peter Marsh

ISBN: 1843921294

Publishers: Willan

Price £18.99 RRP UK

Publication Date: 2005

This book provides a highly readable introduction to the phenomenon of football hooliganism, ideal for students taking courses around this subject as well as those having a professional interest in the subject , such as the police and those responsible for stadium safety and management. For anybody else wanting to learn more about one of society's most intractable problems , this book is the place to start .

Unlike other books on this subject it is not wedded to a single theoretical perspective but is concerned rather to provide a critical overview of football hooliganism, discussing the various approaches to the subject. Three fallacies provide themes which run through the book: the notion that football hooliganism is new; that it is a uniquely football problem; and that it is predominantly an English phenomenon.
The book examines the history of football-related violence, the problems in defining the nature of football hooliganism, the data available on the extent of football hooliganism, provides a detailed review of the various theories about who hooligans are and why they behave as they do, and an analysis of policing and social policy in relation to tackling football hooliganism.

The authors
Steve Frosdick is Principal Lecturer at the Institute of Criminal Justice Studies at the University of Portsmouth, where he teaches courses on safety and security at sports grounds. A former police officer, he has been Director of IWI Associates since 1996 , and is a founder member of the Football Safety Officers' Association.
Peter Marsh
is a director of the Social Issues Research Centre and MCM Research, and has studied football hooliganism since the 1970s. He was previously co-director of the Contemporary Violence Research Centre at the University of Oxford, and lectured in psychology at Oxford Brookes University.

Foreword by
Jim Chalmers(President, Football Safety Officers' Association)
Part 1 Introduction
1 Introduction
2 Football violence in history
Part 2 Defining football hooliganism
3 The nature and extent of football hooliganism
4 Levels of violence in Europe
5 European fan profiles and behaviour
Part 3 Explaining football hooliganism
6 An overview of British theories of football hooliganism
7 British theoretical perspectives in detail
8 Theoretical approaches from Europe and beyond
9 The media and football hooliganism
10 Football violence and alcohol
11 Racism and football fans
Part 4 Tackling football hooliganism
12 Policing football hooliganism
13 Repressive social controls
14 More proactive and preventive measures
References and selected bibliography Useful websites

Reviewer Wanted

Would you be interested in reviewing this book? (The Book Above) If you are interested in providing a review in about 600/800 words within 3 months then please contact me by e-mail at robjerrard@aol.com providing a small CV and your interest in this particular book.

For an indication of what is required please see this site, which contains hundreds of examples. "Internet Law book Reviews" welcomes all categories of reviewers.

Workplace Violence

Edition: 1st

Authors: Edited By Vaughan Bowie, Bonnie S Fisher and Cary Cooper
ISBN: 1843921340

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price £27.50

Publication Date: 2005

This book examines some of the key issues around violence at work which have emerged in the new millennium, including the events of September 11th 2001 and other terrorist-related incidents, identifying these as an extreme form of workplace violence. It builds upon the expanded typology of workplace violence in Violence at Work (Willan, 2001), and identifies four types of workplace violence: intrusive, external violence including terrorism; consumer/client-related violence; staff-related violence; organizational violence.

This book also addresses some key emerging and controversial issues facing those concerned with workplace violence, including staff who abuse those in their care, domestic violence spilling over into the workplace, violence against aid and humanitarian workers, and organizations who are themselves abusive to their staff and service users as well as oppressive of their surrounding communities.
Workplace Violence goes beyond the current emphasis on equipping 'primary responders' (e.g. police, fire ambulance, etc) to react to terrorist-related and other workplace violence incidents, paying attention to the 'secondary' responders such as human services workers, managers, human resources staff, unions, occupational health and safety professionals, humanitarian aid workers and median staff - and their training and support needs.

The editors
Vaughan Bowie lectures at the University of Western Sydney in Australia, has carried out both research and training in the prevention of workplace violence, and is the author of Coping with Violence: a guide for human services; Bonnie Fisher is a Professor in the Division of Criminal Justice, and Senior Research Fellow at the Center for Criminal Justice Research, at the University of Cincinnati, and is also a co-editor of the Security Journal; Cary L. Cooper is Pro Vice Chancellor (External Relations) and Professor of Organizational Psychology and Health, University of Lancaster, England, and the author of over 100 books and 400 scholarly articles.

Introduction 1 Workplace Violence: new issues, trends, and strategies Vaughan Bowie, Bonnie S Fisher and Cary Cooper
Section 1 National and International Trends and Responses to Workplace Violence
2 A cross-national comparison of workplace violence and response strategies Vittorio Di Martino
3 Organizational factors and psychological aggression: results from a national survey of US companies Paula L Grubb, Rashaun K Roberts, Naomi G Swanson, Jennifer L Burnfield, and Jennifer H Childress
4 Reforming abusive organisations Charlotte Raynor
Section 2 Identifying and responding to at risk groups
5 Staff violence against those in their care Charmaine Hockley
6 Domestic violence and the workplace: do we know too much of nothing? Bonnie S Fisher and Corinne Peek-Asa
7 Caring for those who care - aid worker safety and security as a source of stress and distress: a case for psychological support? Ros Thomas
8 Not off the hook: relationships between aid organisation culture and climate and the experience of workers in volatile environments Barb Wigley
Section 3 Terrorism: a new type of workplace violence
9 Organizational violence: a trigger for reactive terrorism Vaughan Bowie
10 Preparing, training, and supporting human service workers to respond to terrorist events David F Wee and Diane Myers
11 Workplace preparedness and resiliency: an integrated response to terrorism Nancy T. Vineburgh, Robert J. Ursano, and Carol S. Fullerton
Section 4 Bullys at work
12 Workplace bullying: individual pathology or organisational culture Stale Einarsen, Helge Hoel, Dieter Zapf and Cary L. Cooper
13 Cyber-harassment in the workplace Monica T Whitty and Adrian N Carr
14 Where to from here? countering workplace violence in the new millennium, Vaughan Bowie, Bonnie S. Fisher, and Cary Cooper

Reviewer Wanted

Would you be interested in reviewing this book? (The Book Above) If you are interested in providing a review in about 600/800 words within 3 months then please contact me by e-mail at robjerrard@aol.com providing a small CV and your interest in this particular book.

For an indication of what is required please see this site, which contains hundreds of examples. "Internet Law book Reviews" welcomes all categories of reviewers.

Treating Sex Offenders

An introduction to sex offender treatment programmes

Author: Sarah Brown

ISBN: 1843921227

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price £18.99

Publication Date: 2005

Publisher’s Publicity

This book aims to provide an introduction and overview of sex offender treatment programmes, designed for students and practitioners coming to this field. It seeks to describe the development, theoretical underpinnings, treatment goals and operation of cognitive-- behavioural and other programmes to an audience unfamiliar with this form of rehabilitation. In addition, it aims to examine the effectiveness of these programmes and the difficulties associated with assessing this, the public response to treatment and also the effects on staff responsible for implementing them.

The book is concerned particularly to assess the operation of sex offender treatment programmes in the UK context, considering also the issues associated with implementing programmes developed in other contexts, especially the USA and Canada. It will be of interest to practitioners, particularly those who are beginning work on sex offender treatment programmes, or others (such as health workers, social workers, probation officers) who come into contact with these programmes indirectly.

2 History and development of sex offender treatment
3 Current use of cognitive-behavioural sex offender treatment
4 Theoretical underpinnings of programmes
5 Treatment ethos and effects on staff
6 Programmes and aims of cognitivebehavioural programmes
7 Are programmes effective? (1) Difficulties in evaluating programmes
8 Are programmes effective? (2) Research evidence
9 Are programmes effective (3) What works?
10 The future of treatment programmes




As the author asserts, little has been written on the effectiveness and operation of sex offender treatment programmes (SOTPs) in addressing sexual recidivism rates, this book is therefore timely and of interest.  Brown explores and analyses the range of practices and programmes used and throughout the book conducts an exhaustive and impressive review of the available research and literature, drawing on both English and American sources.  Her arguments are convincing and well-supported with evidence and authorities, the style is fast paced, accessible and generally avoids the use of self-indulgent language, apparent in some of the other books in Willan’s series about sex offending.

The initial chapter starts by destroying the tired and over-perpetuated myth that sex offenders are 'evil monsters’ and the perception that sexual recidivism rates are higher than for other offenders. Brown effectively summarizes the scale of the problem of sex offending and recidivism, highlighting the dilemma for many sex offenders that the factors likely to precipitate re-offending are often the static ones, over which they have no control such as poor parenting, historical abuse, educational levels etc.  Chapter 2 assesses the empirical evidence used to justify or dismiss the efficacy and availability of alternative treatment programmes.  It traces the historical development of SOTPs from the early North American ‘psychopath’ legislation, which committed sexual deviants as patients rather than criminals; to the modern cognitive-behavioural-based approaches, which focus not just on the external environment but the offender’s perceptions of it. Chapter 3 reviews the current use of SOTPs primarily in England and Wales, but also makes reference to Scotland, Ireland Australia and New Zealand.  Separate and diverse provision by the prison and probation service is now becoming more integrated and co-ordinated with the merger of these two institutions.  Some 1,000 places are available at 27 penal institutions and a further 2,000 in three regionalised groupwork programmes in community settings, which are currently being evaluated. Government is attempting to bridge the two with residential community provision but this is sparse, as is the availability of programmes targeted at female offenders, who make up less than 1% of the sex offender population.

The next three chapters explore and evaluate the work of those who have sought to identify and explain the causal behaviour of sex offenders highlighting the fact that such theories, whether mono-causal or multi-causal, offence specific or generic, have tended to offer more confusion than clarity. Most theories predate the early 1990s and their importance now serves more as an experimental record than useful template. More recent work includes that by Ward and Seighart (2002) who identify four psychological mechanisms, which they claim are present in all child sex abusers – intimacy deficiency, sexual arousal, poor emotional regulation and anti-social perceptions and attitudes (cognitive distortions) particularly towards women and children. While these factors are nothing new, their ‘pathways model’ offers  more individualistic potential, especially when combined with other models such as Ward and Hudson’s self-regulatory model (1998).

The discussion then challenges the use of the word ‘treatment’ in rehabilitative programmes, arguing that this erroneously suggests a voluntary, passive and healing approach whereas a more therapeutic, emphatic and ‘coerced’ paradigm is the norm. The difficulties and problems experienced by those practitioners who undertake such highly specialized work and the subsequent effect on their professional and personal lives are presented, but balanced against the positive aspects and rewards of such activities. The last of these three chapters (chapter 6) details the cognitive-behavioural strategies used in SOTPs to address the typical causation factors suggested by Ward and Seighart. As expected these include groupwork, role play and other self-evaluative discussion activities designed to address offence specific targets such as denial, minimization, cognitive distortions and victim empathy.

The last part of the book (chapters 7 to 9) examines the effectiveness of SOTPs starting with raising a caveat about the inherent difficulties in evaluating such programmes because of the lack of suitable methodology and comparison.  The preferred model to test interventive strategies generally (eg in a medical context) is the Random Control Trial, which compares the impact of a particular intrusion or treatment against a neutral control.  However, there are limitations with this approach when sex offenders are the subject because of the presence of individual and internalised psychological factors and their likely effect on both the selected group and the control group. Similarly, random selection may be unethical because it can deny an individual recourse to treatment which could be beneficial. Other alternatives include Quasi-Experimental Designs and Within Treatment Studies, but they too have significant weaknesses. Ultimately even if an appropriate methodology can be established the issue of what counts as success and how to measure it is just as problematic, thus it is not surprising that many findings and claims are controversial and scientifically valid results elusive. Such methodological quandaries about how to measure and evaluate SOTPs are surveyed in detail drawing on international experience, particularly that of the United States.  As Brown notes it is ironic that the negative perception of many of these trials is based on the criticism by others of the methodology adopted, yet those external validators have no greater claim to justifying the most appropriate approach. She advocates the more pragmatic view that such research can never be methodologically perfect nor conclusive – but that does not mean it is less valid.

It is reassuring to learn that evaluative techniques are improving with the trend towards a more meta-analytical approach whereby a number of different types of trials are reviewed together to search out common denominators and distinguishers. Meta-analysis results so far appear to suggest that untreated sex offenders do have higher rates of recidivism and, not unsurprisingly, that programmes should be individually tailored to be more effective.  Arguably such outcomes do not tell us anything more than we already know, but at least they generate further understandings about offender profiles and patterns of offending, allowing identification of those more likely to drop out. They also suggest that paedophiles are more susceptible to treatment unlike rapists where the evidence is less impressive.  And for those that may need to justify the use of such strategies Brown provides some persuasive evidence from Canada and the US about the cost effectiveness of SOTPs – both tangible (200,000 Canadian dollars saved per re-offence) and intangible (an offender who reoffends will abuse at least two victims).

Considerable progress has been made in the last 35 years in both the availability and delivery of SOTPs but, Brown argues,  there is still room for improvement, particularly in shaping (often more complex) programmes based on individual need, addressing the tendency for some offenders to play the game rather than produce genuine responses and those who demonstrate high levels of denial. She also acknowledges that however good the programmes might be they can never eliminate sex offending.  Overall then this is a balanced and well executed discussion that underlines the significant – and largely under-publicised - progress that has been made in ‘treating’ sex offenders despite the apparent lack of public confidence in the state management of such individuals.  As SOTPs become more embedded in the criminal justice process the next challenge is to persuade the public that they are not a soft option, but one that can only work if properly integrated into an effective custodial and community strategy.

Kim Stevenson

The Forensic Psychologist’s Casebook

Psychological Profiling and Criminal Investigation

Author: Alison, L. (Ed)

ISBN : 1 84392 101 4

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price £26.50

Publication Date: 28th May 2005

Publishers Details

This book aims to demonstrate how forensic psychology contributes to police investigations, providing practical information about the type of reports provided by psychologists and behavioural advisers, and set within a broader theoretical context. It asks the question 'What do practitioners actually do when they provide advice for the police and the courts and how do they do it?'

The contributors to the book are all experts in the field of offender profiling and behavioural investigative advice. The chapters provide valuable insights into particular case details, the ethical and legal consequences of advice, coverage of the relevant theoretical context, explanations for conclusions drawn, practical difficulties in preparing reports, potential pitfalls, and an account of how cases are resolved.

Fascinating casebook material on offender profiling and criminal investigation

Contributions from leading academic authorities and practitioners in the field

Looks at a number of well known cases, ranging from Jack the Ripper to the Rachel Nickell murder investigation


This is a comprehensive book on a most interesting subject and is consequently labelled a casebook.  It is a book that should appeal to students of forensic psychology or criminology or those doing postgraduate work in that area and dealing with a variety of criminal activities.

The book is divided into two main parts, firstly the context of criminal investigations which includes trait based profiling and an interesting chapter dealing with a well known criminal; 'Jack the Ripper'.  There is also a chapter dealing with the psychological research and police investigations and another which looks into the investigation of sex offences.  Another chapter deals with the interpersonal dynamics of police interviewing followed by the role of psychologists in working with the police.  The final chapter offers advice in working with the courts and should appeal to those following, or hoping to follow a career as an expert witness.  This chapter I found particularly interesting.

The second part of the book looks at practical approaches to criminal profiling.  It also deals with the assessing of the reliability of interviews with vulnerable witnesses and the role of malingering or memory loss in suspects as well as victims and witnesses.

David Canter, a well known forensic psychologist provides a chapter on the suicide or murder theme and another chapter is concerned with stalking, an increasing problem in our society.  The penultimate chapter deals with domestic violence.  The book therefore covers a considerable range of criminal activities.  Many of the contributors work closely with the police; others are more involved with the academic side of forensic psychology such as experimentation and research.  In addition to psychologists, the book contains contributors in the sphere of law such as that of David Ormerod, who is also a barrister and Jim Sturman QC.

The main objective of the book is to provide information on offender profiling and the analysis of behaviour of criminals.  The book avoids fictitious or 'hunch type' profiling approaches and emphasises the cohesion of the academic and the practitioner in developing case based analysis and rigorous scientific investigations in order to develop profiling techniques that are effective.  

The book is based essentially on a number of case studies which provide greater confidence, in order to ascertain general trends in understanding criminal behaviour and attempting to identify it when the criminal is as yet unknown.  It is stressed that each case should be viewed as unique and that one should not attempt to generalise from them.  Hence while labels are useful, they can be faulty as well and so more individual descriptions of specific individuals and their criminal activities should not be neglected.  When discussing different kinds of serious crimes under the heading of 'organised vs. disorganised' or power assurance vs. power assertive rapists’ one must consider ultimately the individuality of each offender and crime.

In psychologists working with the police, it is vital to consider their area of expertises in line with the expertise of the police to help make the best possible decisions based on interviewing techniques, statement analysis, and other evidence.

Over the years it must be said that with psychologists and the police working together the interviewing techniques of the police has improved considerably.  Many coercive strategies used by the police have therefore disappeared.  In recent times, psychologists have even been involved in investigating police corruption.  Throughout the book it may be noted that law enforcement organisations have dove-tailed increasingly with expert witnesses including psychologists and psychiatrists.

This is a book with a wide ranging focus on many aspects of forensic psychology and is likely to also have some appeal to police officers working in close conjunction with expert witnesses, psychologists, psychiatrists and those supporting the police through their investigations.

LF Lowenstein

Illicit and Illegal, Sex Regulation and Social Control

Edition: 1st

Authors: Joanna Phoenix and Sarah Oerton

ISBN 1843920808
Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price £17.99 RRP UK

Publication Date: March 2005

This book is about the surprisingly neglected area of the regulation of sex. It describes and discusses the ways in which various sexual activities are controlled, regulated and made illegal and/or deviant and illicit. Its primary focus is upon the multiple and complex social controls (laws, statutory regulations, professional/occupational codes, normative frameworks) constructing, constituting and shaping how we 'do' sex, and deals with sex that is both illicit (deviant, illegal) and illegal (criminal, offending).

The book challenges the idea that early twenty-first century Britain is increasingly sexually 'liberated' by suggesting that this very 'openness' provides the conditions in which all sexual activities have become increasingly subject to regulation and control. By examining the policies and laws about various sexually activities, and the social conditions underpinning them, alongside existing research and theoretical literature the authors have provided an accessible text on the sociology of sex.

1 Introduction: Moral Authoritarianism and Official and Quasi-Official Discourses of Sex Part I: Deconstructing Official Discourse of Sexual Violence
Destructive Sex: Sexual Autonomy, Victimhood and the Problem of Men
3 Threatening Sex: Protection, Communities and Childhood
4 Commercial Sex: Consent, Coercion and Exploitation Part
2 Deconstructing Quasi-Official Discourse of Sexual Infractions
Nuisance Sex: Harassment, Collusion and Decency
6 Professional Sex: Ethics, Trust and Moral Guardianship
7 Transgressive and Digital Sex: Margins, Edges and Limitless Victims
8 Conclusion: Victims, Perpetrators and the New Sexual Enterprise


This book is about the social and official  'reality' of sex and sexual control in terms of how the 'problem' of sex is represented and communicated through both official and semi-official discourse, ultimately manifested into policies and legal rules. The authors set out their case very strongly and are not afraid to state their point of view - that there is a 'legitimation deficit' in official discourses on sex which deny the social realities of their own origins and that despite the positive intent of many recent objectives in practice, official policies fail to adequately address the sexual victimization of women and children, as for example reflected in the current conviction rates for rape. One of the sub-themes (p19), that the more sex is regulated the more it draws into itself and is perceived as, and expands into, a 'threat,' makes sense. As does the proposition that sex is perhaps the only contemporary arena where many individuals can achieve 'inter-connection' and reciprocity in a rapidly changing social order or as explained in more direct terms 'Society only gets together if it gets "it" together' (p20).

This then is not only a book that challenges, but also one that is challenging to read. A number of assumptions and assertions are made which can make it quite a frustrating read as this reviewer found.  Some the reader will no doubt agree with, but  in respect of others might say 'hold on a minute.' For example the authors claim that date rape and grooming are new and contemporary phenomenon (p9); while the descriptors may be new and there is greater awareness they are hardly C20 innovations - paedophiles have always sought to groom children and certain sexual predators have always 'seduced' women.

The writing is fast paced and the language errs towards the self-indulgent in places such as 'a bricolage of concepts' (! p3). The introduction is not particularly helpful in setting out the overall themes, as it  introduces quite difficult  concepts which clearly demonstrate the intellectual credentials of the authors, but sometimes at the expense of ensuring that the reader can keep up. Many words are encapsulated in inverted commas either for nuance, emphasis, as jargon or to flag up specific concepts which can be somewhat annoying.  As a result some seem to have automatically made their way into this review! Amongst this intellectual posturing there are more straightforward indicators. The book 'is about contemporary concerns that shape sex' (p8) but it is not until page 21 that it really becomes clear that ‘the more sex opens up the more regulation proliferates’ and that it is this regulation and associated discourse that is fundamentally what the book is about.

 The individual chapters are much better and the authors identify some key questions and issues about the current direction of the law in relation to sexual offences, particularly the Sexual Offences Act 2003 and how it maps against Home Office pronouncements and key consultation papers such as ‘Setting the Boundaries and Paying the Price’.  They also question whether the reforms address traditional  feminist concerns about the previous law being largely phallocentric, arguing that the gender neutralization in the 2003 Act, decontextualises rape and that many of its provisions relating to child sexual abuse have created a form of 'moral authoritarianism' which has removed much parental and familial autonomy and transferred it to the state. Thus they make some harsh judgments on the law, that it is more fluid, extending the remit of the criminal justice system into private lives and fundamentally challenging the authority of parents and family to protect and police the boundaries of acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. The 'anonymization' of sex offenders is also highlighted.  That on the one hand such offenders are more closely monitored and surveilled, but that they are also less identifiable, partly because, the authors assert, everyone now including children ('proto-adults'?) are potentially sex offenders according to the legislation. Further chapters make just as interesting challenges about ‘nuisance’ sex (indecent exposure) and issues related to sexual harassment.  Codes of Ethics for medical, social welfare and religious professionals viz-a-viz their clients are also the subject of introspection, drawing conclusions that they often serve to obfuscate the perceived rights and wrongs of what could be properly classified as 'unacceptable' and inappropriate behaviour in such relationships. In the final chapter the Government is criticised for its 'novel' inventions of new sexual offences in the Sexual Offences Act and the opportunities for virtual witch-hunts in its desire to control and regulate all manifestations of sex; ‘… The hunt is on not just for more and more sex which can be subjected to regulation, but more and more 'non-sex' that can be reconfigured, regulated and controlled as ‘sex’.

To be fair, and as the authors acknowledge, they did not have the advantage of seeing how the 2003 Act has been enforced but have perhaps rather critically pre-empted the likely responses of the prosecution agencies and the police who inevitably have adopted a more pragmatic and discretionary approach to the legislation. There are also some errors which should have been corrected, for example the reference to Operation Awe and the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 1885.  Similarly some minor typographical errors suggesting that the publication was rather rushed. However, despite the criticisms levelled this is a book that must surely form part of any criminological or sociological analysis into the law relating to sexual offences and for all who work in the field it raises a number of challenges and interesting assertions  that cannot be ignored. Each individual professional needs to consider, test and reflect upon in the light of the official expectations imposed upon them in practice. At the very least the book is an invaluable and compulsory source for those responsible for the training of such professionals and  providing some excellent material for group exploration and constructive discussion

Kim Stevenson

Policing - Key Readings

Edited by Tim Newburn

ISBN 1-84392-091-3


Published by Willan Publishing

Price £28.50 RRPUK

This text is 834 pages long and consists of 45 chapters split into 6 sections. This edited collection of classic essays is aimed at scholars and practitioners who are now able to find these texts all in one publication. Edited by Professor Tim Newburn - The London School of Economics the chapters, as the title suggests are key readings from the great and the good, who have written about policing. Many of the chapters relate to policing in North America but others correlate to the British and Australian experience.  

The 6 sections are; Part A The Emergence and Development of the Police, Part B The Role and Function of the Police, Part C Police Culture, Part D Policing Strategies, Part E Deviance, Ethics and Control and Part F The Emergence Pattern of Policing.

The Emergence Pattern of Policing.

In 'The Emergence and Development of the Police' takes a backward look and considers the creation of police from its earliest times in the USA, UK and Australia. Within these chapters the issue of colonial policing and the export of Anglo-American models are briefly explored. The central questions here focus on why the police emerged when they did, and in what form they did.

In Chapter one Silver explains how in the mid-nineteenth century there was relief from widespread fear of riot and rebellion – a legacy of expanding urban poor in emerging industrial nations such as France, England and the USA. A sophisticated garrison force emerged to deal with an internal enemy - the poor, who experienced widespread intrusions by the new professional police into their daily life.

Chapter three by Miller shows that whilst this may have been the experience in England - policing developed in different forms in a variety of places. In England the path towards policing was twofold. The first required the maintenance of order under difficult circumstances whilst the second was to quell people’s fears of police oppression. Yet in New York the police officers authority was more personal, resting on closeness to the citizens and their informal expectations of his power instead of formal bureaucratic or legal standards as established in London. The distinction between the two was the use of force where the police in New York were less obviously constrained than the London police - hence the truncheon instead of the pistol.

The next three chapters relate to the importation of colonial policing to Australia and Ireland with a critique by  Styles of Brogden in Chapter six. Styles suggests that there was no one exclusive notion of policing - British or colonial but there were unformalised police institutions in the City of London, Italy and France. In Chapter seven Kelling and Moore explored the evolution of policing strategies and styles in the USA. They identified  three distinct eras each characterised by a particular strategy of policing, e.g. the political, the reform and the community problem solving periods. This identification of ideal types or pragmatic models of policing is helpful in not only making sense of some of the key transformations within the USA but also acts as a starting point for the identification of commonalities and differences.

Kelling and Moore do have their critics, the most trenchant are Williams and Murphy. In Chapter eight Williams and Murphy suggest that the issues of slavery, segregation, discrimination and racism have been major determinants in the experience and development of policing within minority communities in the USA. The history of the police can not be separated from the histories of particular societies.  

The Role and Function of the Police

This next section derives or builds on the work of Michael Banton - arguably the first observer of the police in terms of function and role. Banton - in these select seven pages taken from his much larger work, argues that the police are not the only agents of social control but are one of a number. He highlights how the police are rather ‘peace officers’ helping and providing assistance rather than as ‘law enforcers’.

In Chapter ten Westley explores the police role by reproducing Volmers (incomplete) list of tasks carried out by Police. Westley indicates that each city finds in their police particular functions that no other group can perform.

Bayleys Chapter eleven asks what do the police do? Whilst worldwide, policing is similar in approach he focuses on two tasks. Firstly, authoritative intervention and secondly symbolic justice. Bayley also supports the notion of others that the police spend relatively little time on crime and if the public never called them they would have to re-invent their job. He suggests it’s the same work irrespective of the social circumstances they confront.

Patrolling and Beat working (especially the poorest neighbourhoods) as the core of policing is the central notion ascribed by Muir in Chapter thirteen. Here he explains how domination and violence form the centrepiece of what patrolmen call dirty work. Muir places community policing as the heart of the matter with communication - mankind’s passion for talking to and about one another.

Manning in Chapter fourteen sets out to explain that the police have marked out their role - crime prevention, crime detection and apprehension of criminals, a vast and unmanageable task which can not be accomplished. Their inability to achieve this task has led to the manipulation of appearances. The police work towards their own ends rather than towards the concerns and needs of the community. In the minds of the public crime control is fixed as the central activity.

Ericson in chapter fifteen also shows how police spend a tiny fraction of their time on dealing with crime. Ericson adopts the views of Foucault in his interpretation which suggest that rather than provide a new order the police transform troublesome, fragile situations back into normal or efficient state. In doing so the police classify, record and manage populations and phenomena with the corollary being the reproduction of social order over everything else. 

Police Culture

Much has been written about the police culture including Skolnicks Chapter seventeen on the ‘police personality’which defined three central elements. These were ‘the potential danger, linked authority and set within the context in which efficiency is demanded. Police officers pay particular attention to the signs for danger, violence and law breaking. The element of danger produces and re-enforces solidarity and reinforces police social isolation. Emotionally and politically conservative the police also tend to be suspicious and emotionally attached to the status quo. Enforcing sets of rules implies that they become a part in affirming them.

In Chapter eighteen Van Maanens work focuses on suspiciousness and through their shared experiences labelling of the public by stigmatising them using a range of titles from asshole to shithead.

Studying police precincts in New York is the focus of Chapter nineteen by Reuss-Ianni and Ianni with the identification of the two cultures of policing - street cop and management cop. This chapter shows how in different ways, both cultures deal with and relate to change.

Sheering and Ericson in Chapter twenty both ascribe to the notion that rules guide action. Here they demonstrate how the police stories rather than the rules themselves become the guidance. This storybook dictates action and influences the culture.

Themes of changing the police culture are picked up by Chan in chapter twenty-one. Chan borrows from Bourdieu’s terms of ‘field’ and ‘habitus’ to distinguish between the structural conditions of police work (the field) and the cultural knowledge deployed by police officers (the habitus).  Both these dynamics are used for the basis of analysing change in the New South Wales Police Force.

The last chapter in this section relates to the canteen (sub) culture written by Waddington. It considers the literature of police culture and concentrates on those negative aspects or matters which are problematic. Here he unpacks whether talk is transferred into action by re-considering the story telling aspects of Shearing and Ericsons chapter. Here he seeks an appreciative understanding that expressive behaviour within the private domain of the canteen plays in sustaining occupational esteem through performance.  These stories form a self-help additive where policing is understood to be exceptional and this way actors normalise and glorify their ‘dirty work’. Accordingly, we need to not to analyse what police officers say but in what they do and the circumstances under which they act.

Policing Strategies

Gradually policing has moved towards problem solving as a central strategy. Goldstein’s problem orientated policing chapter (twenty-three) brings into sharp relief how problem orientated policing has over the last thirty years spawned a variety of related policing models. Here management competence questioning policing strategies, police research, resistance to change and financial  problems are all explored.

Eck and Spelman pick up Goldsteins theme of Problem Orientated Policing (POP) in their chapter by using a micro study of two neighbour and two non neighbourhood cases. Here they understand the nature of crimes and deviant behaviour committed within these jurisdictions by examining the strategies employed to deal with the problems.

Klokars in Chapter twenty-six critiques community policing by suggesting that policing is understood in the context where the purpose is towards circumlocutions - whose purpose is to conceal, mystify and legitimate the distribution of non-negotiable coercive force. The centre of his argument is that the community policing movement employ a series of rhetorical devices like community, decentralisation, reorientation of patrol, civilianisation to produce unreal romanticised of the nature and likely impact of policing. As Klokars suggests, ‘Community Policing is therefore about a  number of good things which we might gladly wish but which can not be’.

The next chapter by Wilson and Kelling focuses on ‘Broken Windows’ and begins with the conundrum that increased foot patrols didn’t appear to reduce crime although it did increase the local citizens security. Here the authors ascribe to the fact that the local public place a high value on the importance of public order and that at the community level, disorder and crime are inextricably linked. This means that untended disorder (un-mended broken windows) breeds crime ‘serious crime occurs where disorderly behaviour goes unchecked’. The notion of Broken Windows has not only become famous because of its success in New York but it demonstrated at the same time how communities have an important role to play. When linked with zero tolerance police strategies and the management of crime by COMPSTAT (or crime analysis) shows how levels of crime can drop spectacularly. Dixon in chapter twenty-nine considers the New York experience and suggests this ‘good practice’ may not be transferable because of very different criminological, political and cultural circumstances.

Chapter thirty-one by Moore reviews the success of COMSTAT, which seems to have been exported out of the USA to other areas. Here he suggests that crime analysis in this way can have management control over field operations for the first time.

The central tenant to effective modern policing is the management and utilisation of information. Ericson and Heggerty in chapter thirty-two describe the police as knowledge workers who operate within the risk communications systems of other organisations.  Policing therefore operates in a situation of fear and insecurity which are resolved by using increased surveillance, increased security technologies and trading information about potential risks. Contrary to other scholars they suggest that such circumstances make them engage in numerous kinds of institutionalised publicity that makes their work an exercise in high visibility. 

Deviance, Ethics and Control

This next sections deal with five chapters relating to police deviance. The first of these by Skolnick and Fyfe considers the high profile video taped public beating of Rodney King - a black man by a number of white LAPD police officers using astonishing levels of violence. This quickly became a ‘cause celebre’ which eventually saw a trail and acquittal of several errant police officers. The authors argue that the notion of the rotten apple under these circumstances is misunderstood when one considers the history of the LAPD since it is not the apples that are rotten but the barrel itself.

The next chapter by Klokars considers the situation of Inspector (Dirty Harry) Callahan in the eponymous film. Here we see the good triumphing over evil however in achieving this aim rules are broken exposing the moral dilemma of ‘the ends justify the means’. Here, Klokars critically examines a possible way out of this dilemma.

Kleinig in chapter thirty-four considers the issue of taking gratuities as a means of police deviance. Within this chapter gratuities are viewed within the notion of corruption. He reviews the literature and the recent history on corruption. He concludes by stating the issue of ethics plays a fundamental part of policing and that there may be circumstances where a gift of a cup of coffee may be acceptable.

The issue of ethics should form a fundamental aspect of police training. In chapter thirty-six Marshall examines the issue of accountability. Here two models are identified - 1. Subordinate and obedient 2. Explanatory and co-operative. Here the discipline model shown first where authority went unchallenged has largely given way to greater individual accountability based on negotiated coercion.

In the final chapter by Dixon he explores the meaning and the idea of the rule of law to policing. Here he argues that this notion this idea will be expressed differently in different jurisdictions. The issue of legal regulation and its limits are considered. One of the core issues is what kinds of rules, principles, contexts and objectives inform their production. Dixon shows how traditional legalism tends to overstate the potential for constraining officer’s discretion through legal regulation.

The Emergence Pattern of Policing.

The chapters in this last section looks at the future trends of policing. The first chapter in this section by Reiner considers the image and substance of policing. Here he answers this question by stating that the police represent ‘the social litmus paper’ reflecting in a subtle and mediated manner the changes affecting modern societies. Reiner sums up by suggesting that policing now reflects the processes of pluralism and fragmentation, which have been the hallmarks of the post modern.

In Chapter thirty-nine O’Malley picks up Reiners post modern perspective by questioning the characteristics of what has now become known as ‘post modernity thesis’. O’Malley takes these characteristics - diversification, globalisation and consumerism by challenging the assumptions linked to these characteristics and showing that these are not symptomatic or reflective of the new order of policing. O’Malley adopts two lenses of analysis - a neo-liberal political rationale and social technologies of management. The author suggests that by using these twin views one allows for a more grounded, less abstract, level of explanation which provides for ‘a far more politically deployable knowledge. Reiner and O’Malley take different routes to explaining the same changes in policing.

In Chapter forty Bayley and Sheering suggest that modern democratic countries like the USA, Britain and Canada have reached a watershed in the evolution of their systems of crime control and law enforcement. The fragmentation of policing has allowed less a of a grip by state monopoly’s because of the creation of a host of private  and community based agencies involved in crime prevention and detection. They suggest that not only is this monopoly broken but that the police monopoly on expertise has ended with policing now belonging to everyone.

Chapter forty-one by Jones and Newburn strongly challenges these notions. They argue that current developments are best understood as representing a major qualititative shift with the past. Of particular issue is the breaking of the state monopoly has been overstated. Jones and Newburn accept the growing pluralisation but argue that the degree that the state police dominated policing in the post-war years. The authors suggest that policing in modern times is best understood as part of ‘a long term process of the formulation of secondary social control activities’.

The issue of policing has been overtly masculine yet women have more of a prominent role and are more visible than they used to be. In Chapter forty-two Heidenshon considers male ownership of social control agencies and suggests that women are frustrated with the lack of political and legal power. She puts forward  the suggestion that perhaps they need to ask men why this is.

In Chapter forty-three Marx considers the ‘maximum surveillance society’ by reviewing the technological advances made. He argues that the issue of public and private boundaries have been obliterated in what he describes as a Orwellian in its scope and penetration. Marx suggests that with all this technology there is a likelihood towards misuse of the system.

In chapter forty-four Dunlap considers the growing intervention of the military in domestic policing. By taking the experience of the USA Dunlap considers the war on drugs in the 1980’s and brings us up to date with the war on terrorism. Military capability has been hard to resist. Terrorism is now high on the political agenda meaning that it will shape the future direction of both international and domestic policing.

In the final chapter Brodeur carries on the argument considered in the previous chapter - the relationship between ‘cops and spooks’. This is the policing of political activities or as Brodeur claims ‘high and low policing’. If policing is surveillance and risk assessment then this will involve the military. Surveillance in the policing of trans-national serious crime etc will attract increased military involvement.  

This publication is a collection of valuable resources into what is regarded as an increasingly important and popular subject. Commentators agree that the role and function of the police is a complex phenomenon. Just what the police do and how they do it fails to attract equal agreement amongst criminologists and practitioners alike. Exploring the police function through this rich compendium of new and original sources will help contextualise the theoretical, social, political and academic debates on the nature of policing. Thoroughly recommended.

Dr Peter Kennison

Middlesex University

29th December 2004

Policing A Short History

Author: Philip Rawlings

ISBN:  1903240263

Publishers Willan Publishing

Price:  £17.99

Publication Date: August 2001

Philip Rawlings' Policing - a Short History makes a distinction between 'police history' and 'policing'. Policing, he says, is not just what the police do but an act of social control; the latter being loosely defined as the organised ways in which society responds to those perceived as problematic.

In the first chapter Mr Rawlings comments on how Tom Critchley, in his A History of the Police in England & Wales 900 - 1966, appeared to belong to the group of writers who saw the early nineteenth century as providing the main impetus for policing.  To make his point he observes that Critchley dealt with the first 929 years to 1829 in 57 pages and the remaining 137 years in 265 pages.  By contrast Mr Rawlings takes 600AD as his starting point reaching the 1820s in a little under 100 pages with a further 120 plus pages to arrive at the Millennium.

So what is one to make of Mr Rawlings' comparison of his approach to that of Tom Critchley's?  Probably this.  Those of us who consider ourselves 'police historians' approach the subject according to our own experiences. Tom Critchley; for example, was a senior civil servant at the very heart of government involvement in the way individual police forces were run. His book was written largely from that standpoint. Philips Rawlings is a senior lecturer in law and has written extensively in the field of social, legal and criminal justice.  This too comes through in his work on 'policing'.  By contrast, an historian who happens to be a police officer, at the ‘sharp end’ so to speak, of ever-changing legislation and with first-hand experience of how the citizens respond to change, will have yet a differing point of view.

Mr Rawlings' book is an attempt to use the idea of 'policing' as a route into the state's involvement in policing.  It considers questions such as, what shaped that involvement, its objectives and methods, and how those have changed.  He takes us from a point in early history where policing was seen as a ‘local’ responsibility to the present time.  Almost every aspect of today's policing is subjected to central government scrutiny and approval - both through legislation and an assumption of authority.

The areas in which he has least to say concern the impact of immigration into the UK over the years and the ever-increasing drug trafficking and addiction. For over a century neither attracted the attention of central government. In the case of drugs it was left largely alone until it reached epidemic proportions and became one of the main causes of crime.  At that point misuse of drugs legislation started to come into being.  With immigration, which has a much longer history, this too had gradual beginnings culminating in the need for a series of race relations statutes in the second half of the twentieth century and the Macpherson Report more recently.  The government has sought

to limit immigration while, at the same time, opening up the borders to even larger groups of potential newcomers.  Both problems, drugs and immigration, have had an enormous impact on the way -policing is done on the streets and the way central government eventually proceeded to 'police' both problems. In both cases rather late in the day - when Whitehall decided that additional powers and provisions were politically desirable.

There is another area in which one would have liked Mr Rawlings' research to have followed in some depth. This is the question of 'security' from the 'final' stages of IRA terrorism through to the perceived dangers international terrorism. Security has had had a tremendous impact on 'policing' in the widest sense and most forces currently place it at top of their list of objectives. Mr Rawlings’ treatment of other issues is excellent and it would have been fascinating to see how he would have treated immigration, drugs and security problems. Of course; it may not have been part of his objective to consider these or to take a crystal ball view of the future, but his researches must have given him some fascinating food for thought.

To the newcomer to 'police history' the book is an exceptionally well-written and analytical work in an 'easy to read' style.  So how does it compare with Critchley's work?  It starts at a point three hundred years earlier but, importantly, it takes the reader from the point at which Critchley left off in the aftermath of the Royal Commission of 1960 through to the new millennium.  A welcome thought-provoking look at the social aspect of ‘policing’ and equally a useful addition to 'police history'.


26th June 2004

Policing Images

Policing, communication and legitimacy

Rob C. Mawby

Published January 2002 ISBN 1903240719 Hardback

During my service as a PC at Bishopsgate Police Station, London EC2 (City of London, we had a large framed signed photograph of Jack Warner dressed as George Dixon (I wonder what happened to it).  It perhaps disappeared with what many of us call "The Golden Years"

As well as other periods this book recalls those years:-

"The period that followed (1945 through to the end of the 1950s) has been called the 'golden age' of policing when police folk heroes such as Fabian of the Yard (Fabian 1955) and PC George Dixon (first introduced in The Blue Lamp in 1950) were established as police icons, symbolic of the British police officer and an idealised police/public relationship. Reviewing The Blue Lamp, C.H. Rolph  (Chief Inspector Bill Hewitt, City of London Police) proclaimed it to be 'the first time the police of this country have been adequately presented on the screen ... Jack Warner is an entirely convincing Metropolitan Policeman' (Police Review 27/1/50). The former Commissioner, Sir Harold Scott, concurred that the film was a 'faithful picture of the policeman's life and work' (Scott 1954: 91). Not all commentators agreed. For example, The Blue Lamp is not remembered for its depiction of a society fearful of a post-war crime wave (Berry et al. 1998: 213-14; see also Loader and Mulcahy 2001a: 44) or for the way the children who recover the gun used to kill Dixon suspiciously regard the police constable who questions them - the children clearly regard him as the 'tangible "or else" of society' (Bittner 1990: 10). Similarly the television programme Dixon of Dock Green in its run from 1956 to 1974 never achieved top ten viewing status until 1973-74 and Sgt. Dixon became an anachronism long before he bad his last 'evening all'".

Even in Devon when I see police officers walking (not very often - in fact the wife and I always remark, "better make a pocket book entry about that"), they appear dressed for War - I cannot help thinking how glad I was to have served when you could and did walk about dressed smartly without looking as if running would be an impossibility.

If it was an anachronism, it was at least fun.

In his Review, Robert Reiner (London School of Economics) says of it, "A stimulating analysis of a pivotal aspect of social control in our mass-mediated age"

In recent years the police have become one of the most watched and most visible organisations, and across the media there has been constant interest in the police. In such a situation the police themselves have been intensely concerned with promoting, projecting and protecting the police image.

This book is concerned to document and to explain this image work, the activities in which the police engage that construct and project images of policing. Drawing upon first-hand research with the police themselves (including such examples as the way the South Yorkshire Police handled the Miners Strike and the Hillsborough stadium disaster), the book includes a detailed look at police press and public relations officers at work, and at operational policing and police work. Its broader argument is that image work has the capacity to both legitimate policing and to mask problems of legitimation.

At a time of intense debate about the future role and nature of the police this book makes a key contribution, and raises important questions about the implications of police image work for both democratically accountable policing and the wider transformations in society being brought about by the media and its management.



1 The history of police image work 1829-1987

2 The professionalisation of police image work since 1987

3 The national picture: systems of police image work

4 Police image work at the local level: a force and itsmission

5 Press and public relations officers at work

6 Image work and operational policing

7 Conclusions: image work, police work and legitimacy



Rob C. Mawby is senior lecturer and head of the Centre for Public Services Management and Research at Staffordshire University. He has worked on many policing and public sector projects, has written extensively in this field, and is one of the co-authors of Practical Police Management.

Rob Jerrard

Policing: an introduction to concepts and practice

Policing and Society Series

Willan Publishing

ISBN 1-903240-17-4 Paperback £16.99 / US $27.50

ISBN 1-903240-18-2 Hardback £40.00 / US $59.95

Dr Alan Wright

(University of Portsmouth)

The role of the police and the nature of policing have become the focus of both debate and controversy among politicians, the media and the public alike. Policing is often perceived to be in a state of crisis. Major enquiries and miscarriages of justice have undermined public confidence in the police. There has been little agreement on what the police should do and how they should do it.

The aim of the book is to provide an introduction to the ideas and concepts underlying these debates. It analyses what are generally regarded as the main functions of policing. It looks systematically at the role of the police in relation to its key modes of activity, namely peacekeeping, crime prevention, crime investigation, risk management and the promotion of community justice. It also explores possible future directions.

At the same time, Policing: an introduction to concepts and practice raises questions about the meaning and conceptual contestability of policing, linking its analysis to the broader criminological literature, which has provided an extensive critique of the subject. It will be essential reading for students, practitioners and others with an interest in policing debates and issues.

This book provides a highly readable introduction to the role and function of the police and policing, examining the issues and debates that surround this. It looks at the 'core functions' of the police, the ways in which police functions have developed, their key characteristics, and the challenges they face.

From the outset questions are asked about the conceptual contestability and ambiguity of policing, and different views of police roles are addressed in turn; policing as social control, crime investigation, managing risk, policing as community justice, and as a public good.

a much needed introduction to policing, a rapidly growing area of study covers the debates surrounding the 'core functions' of the police, the roles they play, the challenges they have faced with recent miscarriages of justice, the likely impact of human rights legislation.


1 Introduction;

2 Policing as rational function: back to basics?

3 Keeping order: policing as social control;

4 Policing as crime investigation;

5 Policing as the management of risk;

6 Policing as community justice;

7 Policing as a public good;

8 Policing futures;



The author

Alan Wright was until recently Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Portsmouth. He has published widely on police governance, ethics, human rights and police management, and has carried out research on policing in transitional societies, particularly those of the former Soviet Union.

Title: Women and Punishment The struggle for justice

Author: Contributors: Pat Carlen, Barbara Hudson, Anne Worrall. Joanna Phoenix, Kate De Cou, Jenny Roberts, Sally Poteat, Jackie Lowthian, Kathleen Kendall. Kelly Hannah-Moffat.

Edited by Pat Carlen (Keele University)

Foreword by Sir David Ramsbotham

ISBN:  1-903240-57-3

Publishers Willan Publishing

Price:  £17.99 paperback

Publication Date: April 2002

The book tells us that in the last decade there has been growing international concern about the increasing numbers of women in prison, the effects that imprisonment has on their children, the realisation that gaoled women have different criminal profiles and rehabilitative needs to male prisoners and the seeming intractability of the associated problems. In response there has been an overarching policy concern in many countries to fashion and co-ordinate gender-specific policies towards female offenders which aim both to slow down the rate of their offending and/or imprisonment and also to engender flexible programmes which will reduce the time spent in custody and/or away from their young children.

The major objective of this book is to describe and analyse contemporary opportunities for, and barriers to, both the reduction of female prison populations and the reduction of the pain of those women who continue to be imprisoned. It assesses the most important recent attempts to reduce both women's imprisonment and the damage it does, identifying and analysing cross-jurisdiction and gender-specific lessons to be learned, and the unexpected consequences of some of the reform strategies.

This book brings together leading scholars and practitioners in the field, providing a critique of the reform initiatives which have taken place, and a much-needed theorization of cross-national policy in this area. It will be essential reading for all with an interest in prisons and prison reform.

It has to be said that police officers would be the first to admit this is not a subject they spend much time analysing in detail - however your Reviewer did study the treatment of offenders as part of his LLM and a visit to Hollaway was an eye-opener, as was some interviews with inmates.  Books of this nature should be in police libraries in order that we can all see the broader picture.

It could be said, we put them there, so what happens next?

Sir David Ramsbotham, GCB CBE (HM Chief Inspector of Prisons, 1995-2001) says of this book:

"I hope that Professor Carlen's book will be read, marked, learned and inwardly digested particularly by those who, by failing to take remedial action in the past, have precipitated the present crisis. If they exploit all the thought and care that she and her admirable team of contributors have put into its production, the current crisis will be infinitely easier to resolve. But they must make it their business to listen to, and not ignore, such advice in the future, so that the damage that imprisonment causes to women is eliminated, the public are protected, and no one has to struggle for justice"

Pat Carlen is Visiting Professor of Criminology at Keele University, and has written on a wide range of criminological topics. She was a founder member of Women in Prison, and in 1997 was awarded the Sellin-Glueck Prize by the American Society of Criminology for international contributions to criminology.

In the course of preparing for the subject, "sentencing and treatment of offenders" on my LLM, I visited many prisons including Holloway, this would have been in about 1980. I also recall going there as a police officer, probably even earlier in date; like Sir David Ramsbottom, it was an experience that will stay with me for the rest of my life.

Policing and the Media Facts, fictions and factions

Edition: 1st

Authors: Frank Leishman and Paul Mason Series Editors: Les Johnston, Frank Leishman, Tim Newburn

ISBN:  190324028x

Publishers Willan Publishing

Price:  £16.99

Publication Date: 2003

Factual, fictional and factional representations of policing in the media are for many people a key influence in shaping perceptions not only about the nature of policing but also broader opinions about crime and law and order more generally. This important new book aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the changing dynamics and dimensions of the relationships that exist between the police and the media, focussing on the concepts of reality, realism and representation.

Policing and the Media explores the nature and effects of media images of crime and policing, and examines the ways in which the police promote themselves through the media. In tracing the history of the TV police drama, the authors offer a reassessment of fictional depictions, including recent series like Cops and Liverpool One. They argue that it is the reality TV show which now conveys the dearer image of good versus evil once expressed by Dixon of Dock Green, but no longer provided by the more morally ambiguous modern police drama, where the distinction between crime and law enforcement appears increasingly blurred.

The authors also consider the issue of 'trial by media' and speculate on the likely implications for the police and justice process of the increased use of cameras in courtrooms. The book will be essential reading for those with an interest in policing, the media and the relationship between the two.

An interesting book, chapter 4, "Patrol, Plods and Coppers" takes us back to "Dixon of Dock Green", to many people still "the golden years".  I have to admit I have never watched a single episode of, The Bill, but I remember George Dixon with affection.

In the book it quotes, "It is fitting that a discussion of fictional portrayals of policing should begin with Dixon of Dock Green, for no series has encapsulated the bobby on the beat more completely. So resonant was the image of PC George Dixon walking the beat in Paddington Green that it became a symbol for a particular style of policing. Clarke (1986) notes the headline in the Financial Times following inner-city riots across the country in 1981: 'We can't leave it to old George any more'".  What a pity.

The book adds, "George Dixon would not recognise many aspects of modern police work, but he would still find there, the old fashioned values of commitment, responsibility and team work".   Let us hope this always remains true. George Dixon first appeared as police constable 693 of Paddington Green in the Ealing Studio film The Blue Lamp in 1950.

The authors

Frank Leishman is Professor of Criminology at the Southampton Institute, and formerly served in the Lothian and Borders Police, where he worked in the fields of both criminal investigation and media relations. Paul Mason is Reader in Criminology within the Faculty of Media, Arts and Society at the Southampton Institute. Both authors have written extensively in the areas of policing, crime and the media.

Rob Jerrard

Crime Reduction and Problem-Oriented Policing

Authors: Edited by Karen Bullock and Nick Tilley

ISBN:  1-84392-050-6

Publishers Will Publications

Price:  £25 RRP UK

Publication Date: 2003


Evidence-based policy and practice are currently in vogue, and some may say about time too.  The UK government took a major step in promoting this in the crime control field when in 1998 they launched the Crime Reduction Programme (CRP) which ran from 1999 to 2002.  It involved the expenditure of some £400 million, though only £250 million was originally allocated. The programme represented a brave effort at implementing and building an evidence-based response to crime and disorder problems.  It began with a review of the research base for crime prevention (Goldblatt and Lewis 1998).  It attempted to fund work for which there was either already evidence of effectiveness or for which further evidence was deemed necessary.

To begin with 10% of the £250 million budget was earmarked for systematic evaluation in order to build up the evidence base. The announcement of such a significant investment, together with the promise of evaluation, generated a great deal of interest and support in the academic community. Although practitioners were faced with a plethora of bidding opportunities for various funding streams arising from the programme, they too supported its principles.

Many of the products of the CRP are now coming off the assembly line and it is time to take stock and ask what was learned, what could have been done better, where do we go from here? The chapters of this book, which is the second to be published in the Crime Science Series, contribute to that process. This volume reports the main findings from one stream - the Targeted Policing Initiative - which was concerned specifically with implementing problem-oriented policing. Several of the following chapters bring out how difficult it is in practice. Large-scale funding

Crime Reduction and Problem-oriented Policing

regimes where there is an understandable impatience for action and results are not necessarily best placed to yield carefully crafted, research ­based project designs, that are then conscientiously and systematically implemented, monitored, adjusted and tracked to try to find out what is working for whom in what circumstances. Instead they can lead to opportunistic bidding, poor project design, hasty and inconsistent implementation, weak record keeping and disappointing results.

Crime science and problem-oriented policing are natural bedfellows. Problem-oriented policing calls for the routine application of the scientific method to policing. Crime science requires a problem-oriented police service to deliver on many of its findings. Problem-oriented policing begins with problems.  It then tries to understand those prob­lems well enough to work out what to do to deal with them - to eliminate them, reduce the harm caused by them or manage them more effectively. It draws on careful analysis of the presenting problem and systematic research that has worked out effective responses.  It then checks whether the responses have been effective and adjusts them as necessary.  Its focus is on police-relevant community problems.  It will entertain any of a variety of ethical means for dealing with them. The problem and working out what to do about it takes precedence over all else in problem-oriented policing; in this it is akin to evidence-based medicine. Both are unremittingly concerned with drawing on the best evidence to deal with significant problems. Both call for professional, well-trained, thoughtful and open-minded practitioners. Both realise that strong research is essential to continuing improvements. In both, at their best, reflective practitioners work alongside applied researchers to forge improvements in understanding and treatment.

Crime science is an emerging discipline which, like problem-oriented policing, takes crime problems as its starting point. As with medical science its focus is on understanding conditions calling for attention in ways that will improve responses. Crime science potentially speaks to those in a host of organisations. Product designers, architects, planners, and managers of public and private sector organisations, for example, all also have much to learn from crime science.  All are implicated in creating conditions that may either facilitate or disable crime.  But crime science has a special relationship to those who have a specific responsibility to address crime and disorder problems: the police, Crime and Disorder Partnerships, and the various non-police agencies of the criminal justice system. These agencies and organisations have a duty to address crime issues, and in most cases the evidence base for what they do is far from strong.  Much discretion is exerted in terms of issues focused on and in terms of the responses chosen. Tradition and agency culture play a large part in habitual ways of defining and dealing with issues. For the police this tends to favour detection, enforcement and deterrence as methods of dealing with problems. It also tends towards dealing with incidents one at a time rather than looking at potential forms of aggregation that can open the door to non-standard preventive responses. Problem-oriented policing and crime science are united in their pursuit of wide-ranging preventive responses to crime problems making use of analyses of aggregate data which isolate families of incidents that can be pr­e-empted.

There is a danger that moves towards the adoption of an analytic approach to dealing with crime problems, and to learning how better to deal with them, will be discredited through programme design and operation shortcomings. It is crucial for the successful implementation of problem-oriented policing and for complementary work in crime science that space and resources be provided for well-designed, strongly implemented and systematically evaluated action projects to address the perennial crime problems that confront us. In this way a robust body of knowledge can be developed to improve treatment of crime problems, along lines similar to those found in much modern medicine.

There is a global appetite for crime prevention and for problem­ oriented policing. There are some excellent examples of well ­documented research projects that have produced substantial achievements, for example Forrester et al (1988, 1990), Braga et al (2001), and Clarke and Goldstein (2002). There are a growing number of invaluable problem-specific guides produced by the United States Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. Finally, the Centre for Problem-Oriented Policing has launched an excellent website at  www.popcenter.org where existing and newly emerging materials relating to problem-oriented policing can be found.

The coming years should provide rich opportunities for delivering problem-oriented policing and for engaging in the research entailed by it. Capitalising on the potential benefits from this work will require money and patience from government departments, consistency and commitment from police and other agencies with crime prevention responsibilities, and flexibility and engagement by the crime scientists who will need to participate in and report results from individual initiatives.

Gloria Laycock

Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science University College London July 2003

The Editors

Karen .Bullock is Senior Research Officer in the Research Directorate at the Home office, where her research has focussed on the evaluation of programmes and projects that aim to reduce crime and implement problem-oriented policing,

Nick Tilley is Professor of sociology at Nottingham Trent University, Visiting Professor at the Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, University College London, and formerly a consultant to the Home office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate.

The Contributors

Chris Hale, Jalna Hanmer, Charlotte Harris, Matt Hopkins, Tim John, Bethan Jones, Gloria Laycock, Mike Maguire, Mario Matassa, Tim Newburn, Ken Pease, Jan Stockdale, Michael Townsley, Steve Uglow, Barry Webb, Christine Whitehead.

The New Politics of Crime and Punishment.

Author: Edited by Roger Matthews & Jock Young

ISBN:  1903240913

Publishers Willan Publishing

Price:  £17.99 RRP UK

Publication Date: 2003

Editors’ Preface

The political climate in the United Kingdom has changed dramatically over the past decade, and the expectation has been that this would result in a significant shift in government policy on crime and punishment. This expectation has in part been met, although the nature of the changes which have taken place are not always those that were expected.

When New Labour swept to power in 1997 it was widely anticipated that this would lead to a less punitive, more informal and community ­based approach, which would place greater emphasis on crime prevention and addressing the causes of crime, particularly since there was growing evidence of a decrease in most forms of crime. The popular slogan 'tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime', which was coined by Tony Blair, signalled his desire to make New Labour the party of 'law and order' and his commitment to take crime seriously, because he believed that this issue was a priority for the electorate.

During the first period of administration there was a predictable emphasis on young people, who increasingly came to be seen as responsible for a disproportionate amount of crime. There was also a growing focus on the protection of victims as well as the development of inter-agency partnerships and “evidence-based” policy. There was a clear commitment to increasing police numbers and to addressing growing concerns about police effectiveness, particularly following the publication of the Macpherson Inquiry and claims about institu­tional racism. At the same time, the continuing increase in the number of people imprisoned led many critics to claim that New Labour had in fact adopted a largely Conservative agenda, and that in their attempt “to get tough on crime” they had moved increasingly to the right.

In the first few years of the new century, however, the assessment of government policy has become more diverse and more positive. The passing of the Crime and Disorder Act (1998) has increasingly been identified as a watershed in policy, by its linking of crime with disorder and its placing them both within a broader framework of community safety. This, in turn, has broadened the focus from crime control to issues of social and distributive justice. It has also involved a realignment of the major regulatory agencies, with responsibility for crime control and community safety shifting increasingly to local authorities. Within this changing context, crime and disorder are increasingly linked to issues of urban decline and regeneration. This broadening of the focus of intervention has resulted in a growing interest in the dynamics of social inclusion and exclusion.

The main objective of this book is to examine these developments and to assess their significance. In doing so the authors are faced with the perennial task of distinguishing rhetoric from reality and appearan­ces from underlying processes. A cursory examination of recent policy, however, indicates that the Labour government is no longer offering “more of the same” and simply trying to outdo its Conservative predecessors. In fact, there is a growing realization that New Labour is now, moving in a different direction, involving different priorities, methods and objectives. A more complex and differentiated strategy is emerging, which no longer simply mimics 'get tough' policies, but which is in the process of developing a more diverse approach, which will undoubtedly have profound consequences not only on “law and order” but also on social life in this country in general.

All of the contributors to this volume have a close association with Middlesex University. The criminology group at Middlesex have regularly contributed over the past two decades to the ongoing debates on the politics of crime and punishment, and have attempted to contribute to the development of policy. It is also 30 years since the Masters Programme in Criminology was introduced at Middlesex, and a number of those who have studied on this pioneering course are now involved in developing and implementing the policies discussed in this volume.

The editors

Roger Matthews is Professor of Criminology at Middlesex University; Jock Young is Professor of Criminology at Middlesex University and Distinguished Professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and the Graduate Centre of the City University of New York.


Anthony Goodman, Lynn Hancock, John Lea, Roger Matthews, Denise Martin, Jayne Mooney, John Pitts, Patrick Slaughter, Betsy Thom, Catriona Woolner, Jock Young.

Policing, Surveillance and Social Control CCTV and police monitoring of suspects

Authors: Tim Newburn And Stephanie Hayman

ISBN: 1-903240-50-6

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price £30 RRP UK Hardback

Publication Date: 5th Sept 2001<

This book reveals what happened when CCTV was introduced into the custody suite of a busy police station in north London.  In a unique experiment, cameras were installed in the cells to monitor continuously the behaviour of all people in the custody suite - the most thorough use of CCTV in a police station anywhere in the world.  Alongside extensive interviews with suspects, police officers, solicitors and others involved in the care of detainees, a detailed examination of police records adds context to a revealing picture of life inside a custody suite.

The experiment represents a marked departure from most previous uses of CCTV within criminal justice and crime control, and the book raises important new questions about the nature and impact of new technology. At the same time the book addresses a range of broader concerns about the human rights implications of the use of such technology, and challenges the ways in which the role of the police, their governance and the use of CCTV are currently conceptualised in criminology and social theory.  It raises key questions not only about the treatment of detainees in custody but about the future of policing more generally.

A key theme of the book is an emphasis on the need to move away from a narrow focus on the negative, intrusive face of surveillance. As this study demonstrates, CCTV is Janus-faced.  It intrudes, but in watching it also has the potential to protect. The authors argue that both faces of CCTV need to be examined and analysed simultaneously in order to understand the impact and implications of electronic surveillance.

Extracts from Reviews

“An absolutely fascinating story, which has surprising and thought-provoking findings.” Clive Norris (University of Hull)

“This is an excellent book. It is interesting, well written and insightful. It addresses a range of important issues concerning CCTV, privacy and protection in the distinctive conditions found in police custody suites.” Nick Tilley (Nottingham Trent University)

Selling Security, The Private Policing of Public Space

Author: Alison Wakefield

ISBN: 1-84392-049-2

Publishers: Willan Publishing

Price £30 RRP UK

Publication Date: 10 October 2003

Private security personnel play a large and growing role within public social life. Teams of private security officers now routinely patrol facilities such as shopping malls, leisure parks and transport terminals, which rely commercially on free, safe and reliable access by customers, service providers and the public at large.

Alison Wakefield conducted a unique study of security teams in three locations, each typical of the places where the public spend much of their leisure time. Examining a shopping mall, a retail and leisure complex and a cultural centre in turn, she addresses such questions as:

1          How do centres respond to public needs for comfort and security in their design, management and security strategies?

2          What functions are security officers expected to perform?

3          What is the nature and quality of the relationship between private security and the police?

In Selling Security, Wakefield provides a detailed account of trends in urban planning, public policy and the commercial world that have promoted the expansion of private security. She considers changes in retail and leisure patterns leading to the emergence of large, multi-purpose developments, the implementation of town centre planning strategies to create more attractive and secure high street retail and leisure facilities, and the extension of CCTV and security patrols as tools for managing social settings.

The book also takes account of the challenges posed by these developments to conventional law enforcement agencies, most notably the erosion of the state's virtual monopoly on policing and the need for governments to develop new strategies that harness the efforts of alternative policing agencies. At the same time, Selling Security makes an important contribution to theoretical debates about the role of private security in the late modern era.

Author’ Preface

While private security is certainly no longer a subject that languishes on a forgotten scholarly back burner, it remains surprisingly under researched. Despite its obvious importance to the governance of security, scholars continue to focus far more attention on the police than they do the various other agents and agencies that provide for security. Indeed this might have become worse in the post-September 11th environment, as states seek to respond more effectively to established threats that can no longer be ignored, even though it should be obvious to everyone that if ever it was important to mobilise and integrate a wide variety of resources to govern security, now is the time to do it.

Of course, if these resources are to be mobilized and integrated in effective and ethical ways, it is necessary to understand what they are and how they operate. The most obvious, sizable and widespread of these resources is private security. Private security is a global phenomena that rivals the reach of police agencies.

While private security's importance is now widely recognized - and while there are now many studies of it - we still know remarkably little about it. One of the things needed to remedy this is fine-grained analyses of the operation of private security in a wide variety of contexts. In choosing to explore the work of private security within the context of mass private property - that is, the common spaces that cut across the private-public distinction, Alison Wakefield has chosen to explore what is in many ways private security's most emblematic terrain.

In preparing the reader for the empirical explorations she has undertaken, Alison Wakefield travels effortlessly through several general governance literatures as well as across the policing literature. This bears considerable fruit. Not only is her discussion well informed but it is also full of insight - for example, her bringing together the issues of collective feelings of insecurity, shifts in spatial configurations, along with shifts in structures and patterns of social control in a series of orienting problems that prompt challenging research questions.

She uses these insights with considerable skill to elucidate her material in an empirical study that is full of subtlety and nuance that only careful observation and great familiarity can provide. She then goes further to build and expand upon the theoretical resources upon which she relies.

By the time she has completed her journey, she leaves us with a new appreciation of one of the "patches" that private security fills within Richard Ericson's "security quilt" in ways, that helped me to better understand Bottoms and Wiles "bubbles" of security as bubbles of governance. In drawing upon and then elucidating the many other theoretically central concepts she canvases, Wakefield does more than simply provide a descriptive account. She extends our theoretical understanding of nodal governance. Through the window of private security she shows how governing entities operate within a patchwork of assemblages that cut across spaces to link together governing knowledges and resources. This takes us one step closer to understanding the rich tapestry of institutions, mentalities and technologies that govern security.

An empirical study that is full of subtlety and nuance that only careful observation and great familiarity can provide. . . an important and a significant contribution.

Professor Clifford Shearing (Australian National University).

Alison Wakefield is Lecturer in Security and Risk Management at the Scarman Centre, University of Leicester.

·         "Internet Law Book Reviews" Copyright Rob Jerrard 2007