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IAAP Handbook of Applied Psychology
Publication Date: April 2011
Publisher's Title Information
The IAAP Handbook of Applied Psychology, an up-to-date and authoritative reference, provides a critical overview of applied psychology from an international perspective.
Brings together articles by leading authorities from around the world
Provides the reader with a complete overview of the field and highlights key research findings
Divided into three parts: professional psychology, substantive areas of applied psychology, and special topics in applied psychology
Explores the challenges, opportunities, and potential future developments in applied psychology
Features comprehensive coverage of the field, including topics as diverse as clinical health psychology, environmental psychology, and consumer psychology
About the Editors.
About the Contributors.
Part I: Professional Psychology.
1. Clinical Child Psychology: Research and Practice Applications (Michael C. Roberts, Bridget K. Biggs, Yo Jackson and Ric G. Steele).
2. Clinical Psychology: Adult (Terry Wilson).
3. Clinical Health Psychology (John Weinman, Ronan O'Carroll and Keith J. Petrie).
4. Health Promotion (Charles Abraham, Gerjo Kok, Herman Schaalma and Aleksandra Luszczynska).
5. Clinical Neuropsychology (Ronald Ruff and Christina Weyer Jamora).
6. Counselling Psychology (Fred Leong, Mark Savickas and Mark Leach).
7. Autonomy in Learning and Instruction (Roots, Frames and Concepts of a Basic Issue (Peter Nenniger).
8. Vocational Psychology (David Blustein, Kerri Murphy, Maria Coutinho, Christine Catraio and Faedra Backus).
9. Work Psychology (Robert Roe).
10. Organisational Psychology (Robert Wood, Victoria Roberts and Jennifer Whelan).
11. Personnel/Human Resource Psychology (Cynthia Fisher).
12. Occupational Health Psychology (Jose Maria Peiro and Lois Tetrick).
13. Human Factors and Ergonomics (Jose J. Canas, Boris B. Velichkovsky and Boris M. Velichkovsky).
14. Technical Advances and Guidelines for Improving Testing Practices (Ronald Hambleton, David Bartram and Tom Oakland).
15. A Century of Psychology and Law: Successes, Challenges and Future Opportunities - James Ogloff).
16. Applied Sport Psychology: Beware the Sun, Icarus (Peter C. Terry).
Part II: Substantive Areas of Applied Psychology.
17. Applied Geropsychology (Rocio Fernandez-Ballesteros and Martin Pinquart).
18. Environmental Psychology (includes climate change) (Robert Gifford, Linda Steg and Joseph Reser).
19. Community Psychology (Carolyn Kagan, Karen Duggan, Michael Richards and Asiya Siddiquee).
20. Behavioural Economics Applied: Suggestions for Policy Making (Gerrit Antonides).
21. Cross-cultural Psychology in Applied Settings: Passages to Differences (Kaiping Peng and Susannah Paletz).
Part III: Special Topics in Applied Psychology.
22. Traffic Psychology: A State-Of-The-Art Review (Ian Glendon).
23. Applied Cognitive Psychology (Alice Healy and L. Bourne Jr).
24. Rehabilitation Psychology (William Stiers, Kathryn Nicholson Perry Paul Kennedy and Marcia J. Scherer).
25. Psychology and Societal Development (Girishwar Misra and Janak Pandey).
26. The Psychology of Religion and Religious Experience (David Fontana).
27. Media and Consumer Psychology (Frank Kardes, Perilou Goddard, Xiaoqi Han and Bruce Pfeiffer).
28. Psychology Applied to Poverty (Stuart C. Carr and Chiwoza Bandawe).
29. Psychology Applied to Terrorism: Psychological Treatment for Victims of Terrorist Attacks (Maria Paz Garcia-Vera and Jesus Sanz).
30. Psychology and Forced Migrants (Zachary Steel and Catherine Robina Bateman Steel).
31. The Evolution of Ethics in Psychology: Going International and Global (Janel Gauthier and Jean Pettifor).
Part IV: Conclusions.
32. Applied Psychology in the International Context: What More Needs to be Done? (Paul R. Martin).
33. Applied Psychology: Epilogue (Michael C. Knowles).
Paul R. Martin is Professor and Head of the School of Psychology at Griffith University, Australia.
Fanny M. Cheung is Chair Professor of Psychology and Director of the Hong Kong Institute of Asia Pacific Studies at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Michael C. Knowles is past President of the International Association of Applied Psychology.
Michael Kyrios Professor of Psychology and Director of the Brain and Psychological Sciences Research Centre (BPsyC) at Swinburne University of Technology, Australia.
Lyn Littlefield is Executive Director of the Australian Psychological Society.
J. Bruce Overmier is Professor of Psychology, Neuroscience, and Cognitive Science at the University of Minnesota, USA.
José M. Prieto is Professor of Psychology at Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
The IAAP Handbook of Applied Psychology is a reference book that no applied psychologist can do without. It covers all the areas of applied and professional psychology, with leading scholars throughout the world. It is a masterpiece of outstanding quality by a team of distinguished international psychologists. A must buy for all applied psychologists. Professor Cary L. Cooper, Lancaster University
This up-to-date reference compendium on professional psychology, in all its specializations and on applied psychological research, is a landmark resource for every behavioral scientist-practitioner. Dr. Kurt Pawlik, University of Hamburg
Seldom do we see a handbook covering the entire field of applied psychology from an international perspective, and never before have I seen such a comprehensive volume with as many distinguished editors and contributors. With coverage of not only clinical and counselling, but also such emerging fields as traffic psychology, psychology applied to poverty, psychology applied to terrorism, and psychology applied to forced migrants, this book will be an invaluable resource for psychologists working in any area of applied psychology. David H. Barlow,Boston University.
The origins of this Handbook go back to the successful bid by the Australian Psychological Society (APS) to host the 27th International Congress of Applied Psychology (ICAP) on behalf of the International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP), in Melbourne in July, 2010. The bid was led by the APS President at that time (Paul Martin) and the APS Executive Director (Lyn Littlefield), and they wanted the 27th ICAP to stand out and to have an impact beyond the event itself. This led to discussions with publishers with respect to bringing out a volume in association with the Congress. Agreement was reached with Blackwell (subsequently Wiley-Blackwell) to produce an international handbook that would cover the whole spectrum of applied psychology. The goal was to track down leading authorities in each of the domains of applied psychology, and invite them to complete two complementary tasks: write chapters for the Handbook; and deliver state-of-the-art addresses at the Congress.
The link between IAAP and the Handbook was there from the beginning as ICAP is the Congress of IAAP. As the project progressed, however, the Handbook evolved into the IAAP Handbook of Applied Psychology. Distinguished psychologists from different continents were invited to join the original Australian editors to ensure that the editorial group was international and had the range of expertise and knowledge necessary for successful completion of this wide-ranging task.
The Handbook was designed to provide a critical overview of applied psychology. Each chapter would focus on one field of applied psychology, and the goal was to provide the reader with a stimulating overview of the field highlighting key research findings. The chapters would be a combination of historical overview, practical examples, and state-of-the-art findings. The.chapters would adopt an international perspective, and would include topics such as:
Defining the field, scope of the field (e.g., speciality areas), what do academics practitioners do in this field, and where do they do it?
Trends in the field and key developments.
Future developments in the fieldwhat needs to happen in terms of the research literature and practice?
The structure of the Handbook took into account the 17 Divisions of IAAP but the larger Divisions gave rise to multiple chapters, and additional chapters were added to provide the comprehensive coverage of applied psychology that was the goal of the Handbook. The names of prospective authors were solicited from a number of sources including the Divisions of IAAP and the professional Colleges of APS. Most individuals approached to be authors accepted their invitations,, and the Handbook finished up with 78 editors and authors from 11 countries. All contracted chapters were submitted except for the one on "political psychology."
We are deeply grateful to all the authors who have written what we believe are excellent chapters. We would like to thank the reviewers of the original proposal who helped shape the structure and content of the Handbook. We would also like to acknowledge Wiley-Blackwell who were always constructive and supportive throughout this marathon project.
Paul R. Martin on behalf of the Editors: Fanny M. Cheung, Michael C. Knowles, Michael Kyrios, Lyn Littlefield, J. Bruce Overmier, and Jose M. Prieto.
This book has been published in association with the International Association of Applied Psychology. It therefore provides a critical overview of applied psychology from an international perspective and it combines an historical overview of the field, with many practical examples, and key research findings. Each chapter is written by leading researchers and practitioners, indeed there are seven Editors and seventy two contributors. As can be appreciated this provides a comprehensive account of an area of applied psychology, covering topics as various as clinical health psychology, environmental psychology, and consumer psychology. This is an up-to-date and authoritative source and an essential and very desirable resource for all those working in the fields of applied psychology. The text provides inspiration for later work.
The content is divided into four parts which focus on professional psychology, substantive areas of applied psychology, special topics in applied psychology, and conclusions. Each chapter includes key definitions, trends, challenges, and opportunities in the field, as well as anticipated future developments. It is a large book, however it is provided with a Name Index and a full Subject Index.
Age Estimation in the Living: The Practitioner's Guide
Authors: Sue Black, Anil Aggrawal and Jason Payne-James
Publication Date: Sept 2010
Publisher's Title Information
This book summarizes and explains the main approaches to age estimation in the living, defining when a parameter may be of use and raising awareness of its limitations. This text ensures that practitioners recognize when an assessment is beyond their area of expertise or beyond verification depending upon the clinical data available. Each key approach to age evaluation has been allotted a single chapter, written by an international leader in the particular field. The book also includes summary chapters that relay readily accessible data for use by the practitioner, and includes important ageing milestones.
Glossary of Abbreviations.
1 An Introduction to the History of Age Estimation in the Living (Andreas Schmeling and Sue Black).
1.2 Dental Development.
1.3 Skeletal Maturation.
1.4 Secondary Sexual Development.
2 Immigration, Asylum Seekers and Undocumented Identity (Heather Law, Lorraine Mensah, Sue Bailey and Julia Nelki).
2.1 Asylum Seeker to Refugee.
3 Clinical and Legal Requirements for Age Determination in the Living (Philip Beh and Jason Payne-James).
3.2 Contrasts between Age Assessment in the Living and the Deceased.
3.3 Reasons for Age Estimation of Bodies and Human Remains.
3.4 Reasons for Age Estimation of Living Individuals.
3.5 Assessment Techniques.
3.6 How Age May Be Specifically Documented.
3.7 Birth Certificates.
3.8 Identity Cards.
3.9 Driving Licence.
3.11 Age Verification Cards.
3.12 Other Documents.
3.13 Medical Issues.
3.13.1 Duties to Examinee.
3.15 Summary and Conclusions.
4 Legal Implications of Age Determination: Consent and Other Issues (George Fernie and Jason Payne-James).
4.2 Principles of Practice.
4.3 Duties of the Examining Practitioner.
4.4 Criminal Issues in Age Determination in the Living.
4.5 Practical Implications.
5 The Challenges of Psychological Assessments of Maturity (Julia Nelki, Pete Grady, Sue Bailey and Heather Law).
5.1.1 Current Status in the UK.
5.2 Need for Determination of Maturity.
5.3 Psychological Maturity as a Concept.
5.3.1 Child Development.
5.3.2 Middle Childhood.
5.3.4 Ethical Framework.
5.4 Current Practice.
5.5 Suggestions for a Framework for Good Practice.
5.6 Summary and Conclusion.
Appendix 5.A Proposed Framework, Based on Common Assessment Framework (Department of Schools Families and Children, 2007).
6 Principles of Physical Age Estimation (Sue Black and George Maat).
6.1 Intra-uterine Growth and Development.
6.2 Birth and Infancy.
6.9 Growth Studies.
7 Growth, Maturation and Age (Noel Cameron and Laura L. Jones).
7.1 Growth, Maturation and Age.
7.1.1 The Concept of Time.
7.1.2 Maturity Indicators.
7.1.3 Maturational Variation.
7.1.4 Uneven Maturation.
7.1.5 Sexual Dimorphism.
7.1.6 Maturity and Size.
7.2 Assessment of Maturation.
7.2.1 Skeletal Maturity.
7.2.2 Dental Maturity..
7.2.3 Secondary Sexual Development.
7.2.4 Independence of Methods.
7.3 Secular Trends.
7.4 Worldwide Variation in the Timing of Maturation.
7.4.1 Secondary Sexual Development.
7.4.2 Dental Development.
7.4.3 Skeletal Development.
7.5 Factors Associated with the Timing of Maturation.
7.5.1 Genetic Variability.
7.5.2 Demographic Factors.
7.5.3 Biological Factors.
7.5.4 Environmental Factors.
8 Practical Imaging Techniques for Age Evaluation (Andreas Schmeling, Sven Schmidt, Ronald Schulz, Andreas Olze, Walter Reisinger and Volker Vieth).
8.2 Radiation Exposure in X-ray Examinations for the Purpose of Age Estimation.
8.3 Radiological Examination of the Hand.
8.4 Radiological Examination of the Teeth.
8.5 Radiological Examination of the Clavicles.
8.6 Summary and Conclusions.
9 External Soft Tissue Indicators of Age from Birth to Adulthood (Anil Aggrawal, Puneet Setia, Avneesh Gupta, and Anthony Busuttil).
9.1 Growth Patterns.
9.2 Anthropometric Parameters in Children.
9.2.1 Growth Charts.
9.2.2 Developmental Milestones.
9.3 Pubertal Changes.
9.3.1 Stages of Pubic Hair Development Derived from Tanner (1962).
9.3.2 Stages of Axillary Hair Development Derived from Tanner (1962).
9.3.3 Stages of Development of Male Genitalia Derived from Tanner (1962).
9.3.4 Stages of breast development as derived from Tanner (1962).
9.3.5 Age of Menarche.
9.4 Areas of New Research.
10 Age Evaluation and Odontology in the Living (Jane Taylor and Matthew Blenkin).
10.2 Overview of the Development of the Dentition.
10.3 Techniques of Dental Age Estimation.
10.4 The Sub-adult Dentition.
10.4.1 Sub-adult: Physical/Anatomical.
10.4.2 Sub-adult: Radiographic.
10.4.3 Sub-adult: Destructive.
10.5 The Adult Dentition.
10.5.1 Adult: Physical.
10.5.2 Adult: Radiographic.
10.5.3 Adult: Destructive.
11 Age Evaluation from the Skeleton (S. Lucina Hackman, Alanah Buck and S. Black).
11.2 Fetal Age.
11.5 Age Estimation from the Skeleton in Living Adults.
11.6 Medial Clavicle.
11.7 Sternal Ribs and Costal Cartilages.
11.9 Skull Sutural Closure.
11.10 Laryngeal Cartilages.
11.11 Other General Ageing Features.
12 Age Evaluation after Growth Cessation (Anil Aggrawal, Puneet Setia, Avneesh Gupta and Anthony Busuttil).
12.3.1 Pubic Bones.
12.3.2 Long Bones.
12.3.3 Skull Sutures.
12.3.4 Costal Cartilages.
12.3.6 Laryngeal Cartilages.
12.5 Soft Tissues of Face.
12.6 Genetics in Age Estimation.
12.7 Physiological and Biochemical Parameters for Age Estimation.
12.8 Areas of Future Research.
12.8.1 Small Long Bones.
13 The Presentation of Results and Statistics for Legal Purposes (David Lucy).
13.2 Evidence and Intelligence.
13.3 Statistical Methods in Age Estimation.
13.4 Classical, or Frequentist, Approaches.
13.5 Bayesian Approaches.
13.6 The Relevance to Age Estimation.
13.7 Likelihood Ratio Approaches.
13.8 Errors of Interpretation.
13.9 Concluding Comments.
Appendix 13.A Age-Related Data from Gustafson (1950).
14 Key Practical Elements for Age Estimation in the Living (Sue Black, Jason Payne-James and Anil Aggrawal).
14.1 The Four Pillars of Age Estimation.
14.1.1 Pillar 1: Social and Psychological Evaluation.
14.1.2 Pillar 2: External Estimation of Age.
14.1.3 Pillar 3: Skeletal Estimation of Age.
14.1.4 Pillar 4: Dental Estimation of Age.
Author Interview: Professor Sue Black July 14, 2010
It is argued that immigration and human trafficking have raised the importance of age estimation techniques in recent years, why is this?
A significant number of people around the world do not have any legal document to prove when or indeed where they were born.As the human population has become more mobile, so this causes a problem for countries that expect proof of such identifiers. In some instances the movement of people is to avoid war or hardships and in some cases it is through illegal trafficking where concealment of the truth may occur.
How do you regard the standard of age estimation techniques currently used in the British legal system?
The standards are good but they are not precise.We ideally would all want a cookbook situation where the presence or the absence of a feature indicates a specific age - but that is unachievable and unrealistic. As a result, we have to ensure that we place a range of age possibilities that carries a high certainty that the individual will be placed within that range.This is quite different to assigning a specific age that will satisfy a legal definitive age.Are healthcare practitioners typically experienced with these techniques when called as expert witnesses? Whilst some clinical practitioners do have some expertise within this field, the willingness to provide forensic testimony may not be strong and the understanding of the importance of the limitations of the approach may not always be at the level of admissibility.
Do you support proposals to increase the age of criminality in the UK from 10 to 12?
This is a very difficult question and, not having a legal background, I am not sure that I am qualified to answer that one.Would the two year difference have any impact on age estimation practitioners? Yes it would have a difference as by 12 years of age a significant number of girls in particular will have embarked on pubertal changes.These changes cause considerable variation in the age assessment and so although it will raise different questions for the practitioner, it will not necessarily be any easier or more difficult - just different.
Your work as a Forensic Anthropologist took you to Kosovo in 1999 how was the experience of working with an international war crimes tribunal different from working within a national legal system?
This was a very different and challenging experience on so many fronts.Firstly was the fact that you were working to international law and with international teams. The rules of evidence gathering and the importance of the chain of evidence were not different but the scale of operations was huge.The conditions were hard and the security was always a concern and working solidly in these conditions for 6 weeks at a time was tiring but at all times attention to detail could never waver.
Your other international projects have included work in Sierra Leone, Iraq and Thailand, how do the standards of age estimation techniques and practitioners understanding vary internationally?
There is no doubt that each country has its own views on methodologies, their application and their relevance.However the world of forensic anthropology is pleasingly homogeneous and therefore although there is room for individuality, the standards are largely international.It is important to always work to the highest possible standard that the situation permits.
The aim of BAHID, post Kosovo, was to bring together practitioners from a variety of disciplines into a very informal atmosphere where discussion, debate and new research may be sparked. It has been operational now for nearly 8 years and we have a very loyal member set.It has proved to be an exceptionally valuable networking capability and our second textbook is underway.
The 'CSI effect' is credited with making not only forensic science, but science in general, 'cool'. Do you think this has had a positive impact attracting students to forensic anthropology?
Unfortunately whilst it may have what is viewed as a positive impact it also engenders unrealistic expectations. Many students are seduced by the popularity of this type of media and are therefore largely unprepared for a highly demanding scientific programme where there is no guarantee of work being available as a career. The other downside is that juries now believe they are more forensically aware than they have ever been in the past and that also engenders unrealistic expectations.
What advice would you give to students about to embark on a career in forensic anthropology?
Students must be very realistic about the likelihood of embarking on a career in this subject.It is a fascinating subject but the majority will not end up in this field of work.It is difficult to get into and the student needs not only to have ability, but commitment and luck. Perseverance is unfortunately the name of the game because there is just no easy way and neither should there be because this discipline seeks to train niche expert witnesses for UK and International courts.
When I was asked to review this book, my first reaction was that it was not within my field of expertise. However, I read the Author Interview on the website, and decided that this publication would be of great interest not only to me, but also to many others.
I have to admit that I did not realise what a significant problem age estimating in the living is. This book brought home to me the fact that a significant number of people around the world do not have any legal documentation to prove when or even where they were born. Add to that the fact that human population has become so much more mobile in recent years, and the many reasons and causes for this mobility, and one begins to understand just how important this subject is.
There are, of course, a large number of situations where people are either unable to tell the authorities when or where they were born, or who wish to persuade them that they are either older or younger than in fact they are.
In the UK it is the local authorities who are under a statutory duty to provide accommodation for any child in need within their area, and the statute states that a child for this purpose means a person under the age of 18. This is just one of the many world wide situations requiring age estimation in the living that is illustrated in this publication.
Who decides on a person's age when no documentary evidence is available? What methods are used? How are disputes resolved and who is the final arbiter? All these questions and subjects are fully explained and explored in this book.
These are not simple questions to answer. Age-estimation requires a multi-professional skill set, and sometimes these frameworks may conflict. There are of necessity also ethical and legal frameworks in which they must operate, and these obviously vary from country to country.
In the Preface to the book the three Editors state that “There is no simple test for age estimation”.
There are many and varied approaches to age estimation, and the Editors have enlisted the skills, knowledge and expertise of twenty four other international learned professionals in addition to their own, to complete this publication. Each of the key approaches to this subject is allotted a single chapter written by those with particular skills and authority in that individual field. The references used in each chapter are helpfully inserted at the end of the chapter, rather than as in most publications, being left to the last pages of the book.
Each of the 14 chapters of the book is divided into sub sections for easy reference.
I have to confess that I was not fully aware how complex this subject can be, how often age estimation is required, and by whom. Apparently it is an increasingly common request that is being placed before scientists, clinicians, pathologists and anthropologists. There are no universally agreed minimum standards with relation to data collection on this subject and no universally accepted data upon which to base any age estimation conclusions.
This is precisely where this publication fills a unique gap in this branch of science.
In bringing together the many and varied experts in these sometimes hitherto unrelated disciplines, the Editors have created a publication that covers every aspect of age estimation in the living, (and incidentally more besides).
The book is generously illustrated with charts, diagrams, photographs, data and tables etc. to assist and enlighten the reader. Case studies are used throughout to demonstrate relevance.
The book is of value by advising not only what can or should be done in certain situations, but by also stating what ought not to be done. It also pushes home the message that formal age evaluation must never be put in the hands of the inexperienced or ill equipped practitioner. It will also, hopefully, help practitioners to recognise when an assessment is beyond their expertise or verification. The publication continually reiterates the message that it almost certainly may not be possible to achieve the kind of precision that is attainable in other branches of science. However, in the right hands and with an informed understanding of all the various aspects of this subject, age estimation can get very close to it.
This publication will, I believe be of great value to the many professionals engaged in this field world wide, and will also be an excellent reference tool.
Andy Day, 2011.