Books from Charles C Thomas Reviewed in 2009
Traumatic Stress In Police Officers: A Career-Length Assessment from Recruitment to Retirement
Authors: Douglas Paton, John M Violanti, Karen Burke & Ann Gehrke
ISBN: 978 0398078935
Publishers: CC Thomas
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher's Title Information
The objective of this book is to demonstrate how adopting a career perspective can provide a more comprehensive conceptualization of traumatic stress processes as they apply to police officers and agencies and provide a framework that can be used to guide research and intervention agenda in ways that reflect the changes that can occur over the course of a police career that can span decades. The book examines the nature and effectiveness of the police role in dealing with adverse events as they unfold within a career perspective. It begins with pre-employment experiences and their implications for operational well-being and concludes with a discussion of the implications of a police career for disengagement or retirement from this role. It draws upon empirical research to provide an evidence-based approach to traumatic stress risk management and well-being in contemporary policing. Based on state-of-the-art research, the book provides a framework that police agencies can use to develop their officers and their organizations in ways that enhance their capability to confront an increasingly uncertain future in ways that maximize the interests of front-line policing. Areas of discussion include incorporation of police trauma into a life-career course perspective; changing context and nature of police work; recruitment, selection, and socialization in the context of critical incident and terrorist work; changing gender balance; training in uncertain times; managing risk and vulnerability; organizational context; family dynamics; inter and intraorganizational teams; health and mental health; consequences of long-term exposure to hazards; and disengagement and retirement. The text will be of significant interest to police organizations and agencies whose officers face a high risk of experiencing disaster and traumatic stress, law enforcement managerial and supervisory personnel, human resource and health and safety professionals, and mental health professionals and consultants. The text will also be relevant to those researching traumatic stress, disaster stress, and emergency management as well as other protective services.
Table Of Contents
1. Conceptualization: The Police Career Course And Trauma Stress
The Life-Course Model
Life-Course Theory and Trauma
Important Life-Course Theory Concepts and Issues
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Life-Course Impact
Police Career Pathways and Trauma
An Early Example: Stress “Stages” of a Police Career
The Impact of Pre-employment Trauma
Assimilation into the Police Role
Coping Efficacy and the Acquired Police Role
The Police Role and Relationships
Increased Trauma Potential
External Life Events: Transitions to Depression
After the Battle Is Over: Retirement and Trauma
2.Organizational Influence On Critical Incident Stress Risk
Identifying Sources of Diversity
The Influence of Organizational Life
Risk in Operational Co
Organizational Climate and Culture
Operational and Organizational Risk
3. From Civilian To Recruit: Selecting The Right Stuff
Dimensions of the Five Factor Model
Personality and Police Performance
Comparing Police and the Public
The Personality Profile of Police Recruits
Comparing Recruits and the General Population
Deciding to Enter Police Work: Motivations and Expectations
Pre-employment Traumatic Experience
Prior Traumatic Experience
4. From Recruit To Officer: Transition And Socialization
Prior Traumatic Experience
Prior Trauma and Vulnerability
Prior Trauma and Resilience
Prior and Early Career Traumatic Experience
The Number of Operational Critical Incidents
On Versus Off-Duty Experiences
Hassles and Uplifts and Posttrauma Outcomes
The Influence of Pre-Employment and Operational
Traumatic Experience on Posttraumatic Growth (PTG)
Adjusting to Work in a Police Agency
Administration and Procedures
Public Understanding and Expectations
5. Maladaptive Coping During The Police Career
Police Coping Efficacy
Coping Impact: “Acting Out” the Police Role
Trauma and Police Suicide
Trauma Risk Management
The Intervention Role of the Police Supervisor
Peer Support Programs in Law Enforcement
6. Gender Difference In Policing
Police Culture and Women Officers
Women Officers and Critical Incident Stress Risk
Gender and Social Support
7. The Changing Nature Of Exposure During The Police Career: Terrorism And Trauma
Terrorist Response as a Sequential Process
MobilizationResponse to Terror Events
Stress Risk During Response to Acts of Terrorism
The Interagency Environment
Managing Risk After the Event
8. Accommodating Terrorism As Risk Factor: The Organizational Perspective
Acts of Terrorism and the Environment of Contemporary Policing
Organizational Learning, Change and Future Capability
Organizational Influences on Officer Thinking, Well-Being and Performance
Agency Planning and Officer Deployment
The Multiagency and Multijurisdictional Context
Organizational Influence on Response Schema
Organizational Influence on Managing Risk after the Event
9. The Life Of Established Officers
Satisfaction and Its Antecedents
Organizational Climate and Job Satisfaction
Occupational Experiences and Individual
Emotional Social Support
Established Officers: Perceptions of Police Life
Family and Friends
Camaraderie and Support
Critical Incident Response
10.Managing Critical Incident Stress Risk:Integrating Person, Team, And Organizational Factors
A Life Course Critical Incident Intervention
Integrating Officer, Team, and Organizational Factors
Organizational Characteristics, Coping, and Resilience
Empowerment as an Enabling Process
Critical Incidents, Incident Assessment,and Behavior
Empowerment Schema and Resilience
Access to Resources
Modeling Empowerment and Resilience
Senior Officer Support and Empowerment
Peer Cohesion and Empowerment
Hardiness and Empowerment
11. Disengagement From Police Service: The Impact Of Career End
Police Retirement and Feelings of Loss
Vestiges of Trauma After Disengagement
Residuals of Police Occupational Trauma
Addiction to Prior Occupational Trauma
Prior Trauma and the Loss of Group Support
The Police Family: Issues of Left-Over Trauma
Benefits and Limitations
Lessons and Implications
About the Authors
Mentoring In The Criminal Justice Professions:Conveyance of the Craft
Author: Frank A Colaprete
ISBN: 978 0398078645
Publishers: CC Thomas
Price: $62.95 US
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher's Title Information
The tradition of moving from one job to another in the criminal justice profession with the belief that on departure a new person will be brought in to assume the duties of his or her predecessor is archaic and ineffective. It is rare to replace someone and have the benefit of his or her counsel and experience in learning the nuances of the job and its responsibilities. Mentoring provides a framework, whether informal or formal, to interact, support, transfer knowledge, and guide the protégé to the desired goal. This book provides a blueprint of mentoring theory and practice, testing, evaluation, research, and a knowledge of what works and what does not that will strengthen both the employee and the employer far beyond most other types of training and development that are offered. Methods to develop mentoring programs and systems in the varied criminal justice professions of law enforcement, corrections, probation, and parole environments are discussed, including the groundwork for a sustainable program of mentorship. Filled with comprehensive and critical information, this text provides personal examples of successful mentoring and exercises to bring the concept to practice and thereby assist with the transfer of learning. Precepts are presented, which involves the positive and negative aspects of mentoring, and the insight to prevent loss of valuable knowledge and experience that transitions out the door when it is most needed. This book is a must read by all who seek and receive promotions and those who hold positions of trust and responsibility in an organization.
Table Of Contents
Chapter 1: An Introduction To Mentoring
Historical Perspective of Mentoring
Definition of Mentoring
The Concept and Theory of Mentoring
Development Versus Assessment
The Nature of Interpersonal Relationships
Psychosocial and Cultural Aspects of Mentoring
A Model of Transformational Learning
Phases or Stages of the Mentorship
The Five Constructs of Mentoring
Mentoring in the Criminal Justice Professions
Chapter 2: The Positive And Negative Aspects Of Mentoring
New Employee Recruitment
Personal and Professional Benefits of the Protégé and Mentor
Business Process Level Advantages
Managing Generational Cohorts
The Negative Aspects of Mentoring
Chapter 3: The Mentor
Characteristics and Behaviours of the Mentor
Mentor Roles and Responsibilities
Types of Mentors
Readiness and Potential to be a Mentor
The Leadership Component
The Communication and Translation Components
Mentor Recruitment Processes
Mentor Selection Processes
Chapter 4: The Protégé
Characteristics, Behaviours, and Responsibilities of the Protégé
Protégé Recruitment and Selection Processes
Protégé as a Source of Learning
Self-Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Needs
Chapter 5: Mentor Program Framework And Criteria
The Process and Organizational Framework of Mentoring
The Protégé Selects the Mentor
Mentor Program Models
Informal, Formal, and Hybrid Programs
The Models of Mentoring
The Efficacy of Hybrid, Multiple Model, and Multidimensional Systems
Chapter 6: Mentor Program Logistics, Development, And Evaluation
Needs Assessment and Logistical Issue
Custom Built for the Organization
The Stigma of “Program” Development
Voluntary Versus Mandatory Participation
Management Buy-In and Organizational Support
Mentor Program Committee, Administrators, and Coordinators
Program Vision, Mission, Goal, and Objective Setting
Program Planning Components and Strategies
Policy, Procedure, and the Training Manual
Journals, Newsletters, and the News Media
Matching and Pairing
Trust and Confidentiality
Protégé Development Plan
Commitment of Time
Relationship Termination and Closure
Graduation and Award Ceremonies
Turning Job Improvement into College Credit
Developing the Budget
Mentor Program Evaluation
Chapter 7: Mentor And Protégé Training
In-House Versus Consultant or Subject Matter Expert Development
Mentor Program Train-the-Trainer
Mentor Program Orientation Training
Basic and Advanced Curriculum Recommendations
Training Delivery Systems
The Mentor Professional Development Plan
Mentor In-Service and Workshops
Chapter 8: Building Our Future
It is All About People
Do it Right the First Time
Leaving Your Legacy
Appendix A: Sample Mentor Program Plan Package
Appendix B: Actual Program Evaluation
Appendix C: Sample Program Evaluation
Dr. Frank A. Colaprete is the owner and lead consultant of Justice Systems Solutions, LLC. He is also an adjunct faculty member of Keuka College, Norwich University, New England College, Nova Southeastern University, Walden University, the Civic Institute at Mercyhurst College, and the Justice and Training Research Institute at Roger Williams University. Dr. Colaprete
spent 20 years in policing, retiring at the rank of Police Lieutenant, and is currently teaching, training, consulting, and conducting independent criminal justice research in myriad topics. He has published another textbook, entitled Internal Investigations: A Practitioner's Approach (also with Charles C Thomas, Publisher, Ltd.), and numerous journal articles in police
management, training, and investigations. His work in criminal investigations and mentoring protégé investigators has garnered the Top 10 Finalist Award from the IACP/Motorola Corporation Webber Seavey Award process. His work has also been featured in the National League of Cities database for successful municipal programs.
Major Case Management: A Guide for Law Enforcement Managers
Author: Daniel S McDevitt
ISBN: 978 0398078744
Publishers: CC Thomas
Price: $59.95 US
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher's Title Information
Managing a major case is among the most challenging managerial functions that anyone in law enforcement can perform, and there are numerous pitfalls to avoid. It is the goal of this book to provide law enforcement managers with the necessary tools and strategies they can use in managing their next major case. Many of these strategies were learned through trial and error. It begins with a look at the various elements of the investigative process. Organization of the investigative unit, whether it is a general assignment or highly specialized unit, is discussed as well as how to determine proper allocation of resources. Selection of investigative personnel is discussed at length, and selection strategies and a structured selection process are outlined very clearly. Methods of developing new investigators and mechanisms to train personnel for potential assignment are also covered. Each chapter critically examines the types of major cases and obstacles to success, the use of task forces, major case management planning, effective management strategies, information management, personnel management, sources of information including victim and witness issues, administrative and logistical considerations, non-homicide major case obstacles, media strategies, liaisons, pre-planning, and after-action critiques. This book contains a number of case studies, which will highlight both the good and the bad decisions taken on a variety of major cases in a variety of settings. Additionally, the appendices contain a wealth of information regarding model formsan intergovernmental agreement for a major crimes task force, by-laws of the major crimes task force, major case management planning checklist, a lead sheet and lead assignment control log, investigative summary report, intelligence report, major case after-action critique, concluding with a general overview. This book will address many skills and strategies to better prepare law enforcement professionals to successfully meet the challenges of managing major case investigations.
Table Of Contents
Chapter 1. Major Cases: General Overview
Common Attributes of Major Cases
Routine vs. Major Case Investigations
Primary Goals and Key Elements of Success
Chapter 2. Types of Major Cases and Obstacles to Success
How Police Become Involved
Major Case Police Responses
Errors and Obstacles in the Major Case Investigation
Case Study #1: Multiple Murder Task Force
Chapter 3. The Use of Task Forces in Major Case Investigations
Mutual Aid Agreements
Memorandums of Understanding
Historical Perspective on Task Forces
Major Case Task Forces
Pros and Cons of the Task Force Approach
Informal “Ad Hoc” Task Forces vs. Formalized Task Forces
Task Force Planning
Task Force Funding
Task Force Organization
Case Study #2: Multiple Offender Murder
Chapter 4. Major Case Management Planning and Organization
Goals and Objectives
Chain of Comman
Key Tasks or Functions
Major Case Organization
Operational Functions and Positions
Support Functions and Positions
Case Study #3: Multiple Offender Robbery/Murder
Chapter 5. Effective Management Strategies
Key Management Tasks for the Major Case Manager
Guidelines for Managing a Major Case
Maintaining Situational Awareness and Decision-Making
Building and Maintaining Team Unity
Chapter 6. Information Management
Management of an Investigative Leads System
Paper-based Leads Management Systems
Computer-based Information and Leads Management Systems
Intelligence Analysts in the Major Case
Major Case Reporting
Case Study #4: Multiple Offender Gang Murder
Chapter 7. Sources of Information and Victim/Witness Issues
Use of Confidential Informants in Major Case Investigations
Use of Rewards
Family Issues In Major Case Investigations
Chapter 8. Personnel Management
Personnel Acquisition and Allocation
Span of Control Over Investigators
Selection of Personnel
Major Case Manage
Investigative Personnel Selection
Teaming or Partnering of Investigators
Team Approach in Multiple Incident Investigations
Major Case Personnel Supervision
Avoiding a Premature Shutdown
Maintaining Focus of Personnel
Case Study #5: Mass Child Molestation
Chapter 9. Administrative and Logistical Considerations
Command Post Facilities
Command Post and Data Security
Additional Logistical and Administrative Considerations
Case Study #6: Officer-Involved Shooting
Chapter 10. Non-Homicide Major Case Obstacles
Major Financial Crimes
Mass Child Molestation Investigations
Major Property Crimes Investigations
Major Narcotics Investigations
Officer-Involved Shooting Investigations
Case Study #7: Mass Child Molestation
Chapter 11. Major Case Media Strategies
Interviews During the Major Case Investigation
Scheduled Press Briefings
Unscheduled Press Briefings at Emergencies
Media Rules for Survival
Case Study #8: Multiple Officer-Involved Shooting
Chapter 12. Liaisons, Pre-Planning, After Action Critiques
Major Case Liaisons
After Action Critiques
Appendix 1: Intergovermental Agreement - Major Crimes Task Force
Appendix 2: By-laws of the Major Crimes Task Force
Appendix 3: Major Case Management Planning Checklist
Appendix 4: Lead Sheet
Appendix 5: Master Lead Sheet
Appendix 6: Lead Assignment Control Log
Appendix 7: Investigative Summary Report
Appendix 8: Investigative Summary Report (Completed)
Appendix 9: Intelligence Report
Appendix 10: Major Case After Action Critique
About the Author
Having spent the majority of my 35-year law enforcement career supervising or managing various types of investigative units, I had the opportunity to manage a number of what could arguably be considered “major cases.” The definition of a major case will be discussed
in Chapter 1, but most people could figure out on their own what it means. Where I come from, we call these “heater cases,” and the name is very accurate. The reason we call them heaters is because whoever is tasked with managing these major cases is due to catch a great deal of heat (criticism, second-guessing, controversy, etc.) from a variety of sourcesthe media, the public, elected officials, and at times even other law enforcement personnel. There are two very important things to remember when thinking about major cases: the first is that “Yes, it can happen here” and the second is “It's usually not a matter of if, it's usually a matter of when you'll catch a major case.” The fact is that major case investigations have occurred in some very unlikely places, and there are many chiefs and many more former chiefs that found out the hard way that sometimes very bad things happen in very nice places. Unfortunately for them, this often resulted in situations in which law enforcement agencies were not prepared for major cases that have occurred in their communities. In many of these cases, the lack of preparedness has cost them dearly.
There are numerous examples of major cases that have occurred in communities that historically had very little serious crime, and the law enforcement agencies in those communities were sometimes lulled into thinking that major cases always happen in “the other community
or on the other side of the proverbial tracks,” and not in their community. These agencies lulled themselves into thinking that the types of “routine cases” that they are used to investigating are the only type they are likely to see.
Another sad fact relating to many of these major cases is the person managing them just can't win, no matter how well the case is investigated. This just seems to be the nature of the beast, and there seems to be very little that can be done to avoid it. There will always be someone
who will criticize the type of response, the manner in which the investigative leads were followed, the way the police dealt with the media, and the list goes on and on.
Perhaps the best example that comes to mind involves what is arguably one of the most high-profile major cases in United States history, the “Beltway Sniper” investigation. In 2002, two individuals placed the states of Virginia, Maryland, and the Washington, D.C. area in the grip of real terror. There were ten murders and three people were critically wounded, and the crimes seemed extremely indiscriminate. The fact that the cases occurred within a year of September 11th, 2001 (the worst terrorist attack in American history), added an
additional element to the scenario. Was this the work of a terrorist organization? Was this the beginning of widespread killings throughout the country by a radical group? People were afraid to leave their homes or send their children to school. Gas stations covered their driveway areas with opaque plastic so that their customers wouldn't become targets, and the terror continued.
The manner in which the investigation was addressed included the formation of a multiagency task force, which included several Federal, state, county, and local law enforcement agencies. The fact that agencies from several levels were included made the investigation more
difficult, as did the media frenzy. In my opinion, the spokesperson for the task force, Chief Charles Moose of the Montgomery County, Maryland Police Department, did a superb job handling the media, in keeping the public informed of the progress of the investigation, and
in assuring the public that the matter was being professionally handled. And yet, throughout the investigation Chief Moose was criticized for a variety of reasons. At one point Chief Moose became somewhat irritated with the media and was criticized. At another point when discussing
a child who had been shot he became very emotional and in fact had tears in his eyes, and again he was criticized. Who could blame him for either? In fact, he was being criticized for being a caring human being and a conscientious cop. I have had personal conversations with members of the Beltway Sniper Task Force, which provided some material for this book, and I also recommend the publication Managing a Multijurisdictional Case by Gerard R. Murphy and
Chuck Wexler, published by the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF), which outlines in detail many aspects of the investigation.
Some of those details are also included in this text. Having been in the position myself of managing a number of major cases, case studies of many which are contained in this book, I was sometimes subjected to a great deal of criticism. As far as I'm concerned, this criticism seems to come with the territory, and it cannot seem to be avoided. During a past assignment as Commander of a Child Sexual Exploitation Unit, our unit arrested one of the very first priests in a large Midwestern Roman Catholic Archdiocese for child molestation. His offenses were horrendous, as they involved victimization of young boys by someone who was in a position of spiritual trust and leadership. These offenses had taken place in two states, and this individual's activities were compounded by the fact that he had a fellow priest in the adjoining state, who was also molesting these same young boys. The case was very difficult, as some of the parents refused to cooperate with the investigation, which often happens in these types of cases.
In addition, many members of the unit, myself included, were Roman Catholic. Many of us had attended Catholic schools ourselves, and some of us had our own children enrolled in Catholic schools and were active in our respective parishes.
While walking out of Mass one Sunday, I was confronted by a fellow parishioner, an older woman. She loudly asked how I could claim to be a “good Catholic” and still have participated in the arrest of this “fine priest.” She continued to berate me, in front of a group of people,
until I excused myself and walked away. It didn't seem to matter to her that the evidence against this individual was enough to convince both the prosecutor's office and a Judge that he had in fact committed the crimes in question, nor did it matter that the lives of these victims
would be forever changed. The fact was, in her opinion, I was wrong for having done my job and managed this major case. Like I said, no matter how well you manage these investigations, sometimes you can't win.
Managing a major case is among the most challenging managerial functions that anyone in law enforcement can perform, and there are many pitfalls to avoid. It is the goal of this book to provide the law enforcement manager with some tools and strategies that they can use
viii Major Case Management in managing their next major case. Most of these tools and strategies have been used by myself and my associates with some level of success, and many of the pitfalls that will be examined were learned the hard way, by actually making the mistakes that I will now attempt to caution the reader to avoid.
There are many operational and administrative elements of managing a major case, and if these are not addressed properly chaos can occur. The amount of chaos will be correlated directly to the gravity of the offense(s) being investigated. This too, can be avoided by insuring well-planned and organized efforts right from the start. This book will attempt to examine all the various elements that go into an appropriate response to a variety of types of major cases.
Managing a major case can be overwhelming to many law enforcement managers, but if the manager carefully considers all of the necessary functions and resources that go into a major case, it need not be overpowering. By conscientiously preparing as much as possible before the major case hits, these cases will be investigated from the onset in a much more organized manner. This book contains a number of case studies, which will highlight both the good and the bad decisions and actions taken on a variety of major cases in a variety of settings. The names of the victims or any photographs will not be used, out of respect for them and their families. The victimology, geographics, and actions taken on each of these cases will be examined, and most importantly the “lessons learned,” both good and bad, will be discussed.
Hopefully, this book will address many of these skills and strategies to better prepare fellow law enforcement professionals to successfully address the challenges of managing major case investigations.
A Law Enforcement And Security Officers' Guide To Responding To Bomb Threats: Providing a Working Knowledge of Bombs, Preparing for Such Incidents, and Performing Basic Analysis of Potential Threats
Author: Jim Smith
ISBN: 978 0398078706
Publishers: CC Thomas
Price: $45.95 US
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher's Title Information
This expanded new edition continues to demonstrate that all law enforcement and security officers should have a working knowledge of bombs, explosives, suspicious devices, chemical-biological-radiological incidents and other threats for their own protection. A lack of this working knowledge can be a contributing factor to injury, death, or the inability to mitigate these incidents. The text points out, in a clear and concise format, the critical steps that should be taken by the first arriving personnel in order to allow the general law enforcement and security practitioner to respond to such incidents. Chapter topics include the basic techniques for risk assessment, target and hazard identification, the common methods of bomb delivery, bomb construction and methods of triggering. Letter bombs, vehicle bombs, and high-risk facilities such as aircraft, airports, medical facilities and schools are examined.
Countermeasures and defensive efforts are addressed in sufficient detail to allow the public safety, law enforcement and security professional to make recommendations and to assess any actions taken. One feature of the book is that it shows the practitioner how to perform basic threat analysis of potential threats by groups or persons. A section with protocols for emergency medical service personnel in treating those injured from blast, overpressure, shrapnel or chemical agents, as well as the resources that need to be identified along with a model bomb threat plan is included. Initial actions to be taken following an explosion and how to protect evidence is also discussed. Information is included on the threat of clandestine drug laboratories and the techniques to recognize the requisite signatures of such facilities. Of particular interest is the new material on the changing nature of bomb construction, targets and risk assessment, response to explosions and chemical, and biological and radiological devices. The reader will be able to use the information in this book as a general guide and develop local protocols to meet these incidents. This guide will be useful to all those in security and law enforcement in identifying suspect items and taking appropriate action until the bomb squad arrives.
Table Of Contents
1. The Role Of The First Responder
2. The Role Of The Bomb Squad
3. Types Of Bombers
4. Risk Assessment
5. Bomb Threats
8. Improvised Explosive Devices (Ieds) And Explosives
9. Vehicle Bombs
10. Domestic Bombings
11. Incendiary Devices
12. Protective Measures
13. Operational Security
14. Bomb Incident Management In A Health Care Facility
15. Bomb Threats In The School Environment
16. Responding To Explosions
17. Biological, Chemical, And Radiological Weapons
18. Clandestine Drug Laboratories
19. Logistical Support Of Bomb Squads
Jim Smith is the Police Chief of the Cottonwood, Alabama PoliceDepartment, a former commander of a regional police bomb squad and is an Executive Management graduate of the FBI's Hazardous Devices School. He also holds a Level 2 Certification from the International Society of Explosives Engineers. Smith has performed extensive research, and has published data regarding explosion and fragment mitigation using specialized Class A firefighting foam. He is an active member of the International Association of Bomb Technicians and Investigators and the American Society of Safety Engineers and a graduate of the United States Army's Chemical School Domestic Preparedness program.
Chief Smith is a prolific writer and has published more than fifty articles in refereed public safety journals and several law enforcement and homeland security textbooks. Smith teaches undergraduate and graduate criminal justice classes as an online facilitator for the University of Phoenix and other universities. He has more than 25 years of public safety experience as a law enforcement officer, EMT Paramedic, and is an Advanced Law Enforcement Planner, a Certified Emergency Manager, and is Certified in Homeland Security Level III. Smith has an AS degree in emergency medical technology, a BS in chemistry, and an MS in safety from the University of Southern California.
This text is designed to integrate information in a clear and concise format to allow the general law enforcement and security practitioner to respond to bomb threats, bomb incidents, or chemical-biological-radiological incidents. The text allows the reader to use the information as a general guide and develop local protocols to meet these incidents. With the current threat environment, increased vigilance and knowledge is incumbent upon all law enforcement and security officers whom must have a working knowledge of bombs, explosives and other threats for their own protection. The lack of knowledge can be a contributor to injury, death or the inability to mitigate these incidents. Bombs are far more likely to present a threat, however,
the potential for chemical, biological or radiological attacks should not be discounted, and a significant amount of material is presented in this regard.
The text allows preparation for such incidents and addresses specialty facilities that require advanced planning such as schools and medical facilities. It allows the practitioner to perform basic threat analysis of potential threats by groups or persons. The common methods to construct improvised explosive devices are covered. An emerging threat in many areas is clandestine drug laboratories. These threats are covered in detail along with techniques to recognize the requisite signatures of a clandestine drug laboratory. This text is not a substitute for trained and well-equipped bomb technicians but does provide the first responder critical information on what protective steps to take and when to seek outside assistance.
The average law enforcement or security officer will not encounter an actual bomb during their career. However, a probable scenario is officers will have to deal with suspicious packages, bomb threats and found explosives. In the post September 11, 2001 environment, what previously could be ignored or have minimal efforts directed to correct now must be reacted to with significant resources and considered a serious and valid threat. Biological threats have moved from the realm of possibility to a reality.
The current evolution of terrorist tactics mandates the full spectrum including chemical events such as the Sarin attacks in Tokyo and radiological incidents are likely to occur within the United States. No facility, location or person is immune from domestic or international terrorism. Those facilities with significant international ties, symbolic value or densely occupied are particularly vulnerable to attack. One must remember the thrust of terrorism has oriented toward soft targets such as schools as in the Beslan attack, theatres as in the recent event in former USSR and other non-traditional targets to facilitate a more deadly and larger scale attacks. This text is written to allow the average public safety official or security officer to deal with these incidents. This material is not a replacement for trained bomb technicians with sophisticated equipment.
Bombings, terrorist attacks and letter bombs have become more commonplace. Statistics published by the Federal Bureau of Investigation report that the actual numbers of bombing attacks have decreased but their lethality has increased. One of the more disturbing factors is the growth of domestic terrorists, including fringe and hate groups which use bombs and arson as an attack modality. The Earth Liberation Front is an example of a group which targets businesses and developments selectively with arson attacks. In the past, bomb threats could be ignored with impunity, however, in the current climate such actions may result in injuries or deaths.
Law enforcement, public safety and security professionals must plan for and respond to incidents that involve bomb threats, chemical-biological threats and suspicious objects. Officers must take the steps as the first arriving personnel which are proper. The failure to recognize and properly react to such an incident may result in catastrophic loss of life.
This text discusses the basic techniques for risk assessment, target and hazard identification. These are essential components in relating to the probability of a bombing attack and the potential outcome of such an attack. The common methods of bomb delivery, bomb construction and methods of triggering are discussed. Letter bombs, vehicle bombs and high-risk facilities such as aircraft, airports, medical facilities and schools are examined. The vulnerabilities and probable methods of attack are discussed.
The utilization of chemical, biological and radiological devices with the unique hazards associated with these devices is addressed. This text includes a section with protocols for emergency medical service personnel in treating those injured from blast, overpressure, shrapnel or chemical agents.
Countermeasures and defensive efforts are addressed in sufficient detail to allow the public safety, law enforcement and security professional to make recommendations and to assess any actions taken. Also included are the resources that need to be identified along with a model bomb threat plan. The initial actions to be taken following an explosion and how to protect evidence are also discussed.
This text is not a replacement for trained and well-equipped bomb technicians and is designed to allow the first responder to make identification of suspect items and take appropriate actions until the bomb squad arrives. The bomb squad should take definitive steps in relation to safe procedures.
Copicide - Concepts, Cases, and Controversies of Suicide by Cop
Author: John M Voilanti & James J Drylie
Publishers: CC Thomas (USA)
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher's Title Information
This book provides an important insight by poignantly establishing a much clearer definition of what has been known historically as "suicide by cop" or "SbC." As explored in the chapters of this book, "copicide" can be defined as an incident involving the use of deadly force by law enforcement agent(s) in response to the provocation of a threat/use of deadly force against the agent(s) or others by an actor who has voluntarily entered the suicidal drama and has communicated verbally or nonverbally the desire to commit suicide. Officers involved in copicide and use of deadly force experience a myriad of emotions before, during, and after these critical incidents, including Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Understanding and defining what did and did not occur in copicide is paramount to an officer's capacity for resilience.
A considerable amount of recent research has been conducted on suicide by cop. The purpose of this book is to bring together this research within the framework of issues involved with this phenomenon. Topics covered include: What is suicide by cop? Several definitions of the concept are characterized, with discussion of strong and weak points. A review of current research on SbC is outlined and discussed. A compilation of actual cases is presented, with an analysis of police situations in which they occur, descriptions of the perpetrator's background, and motivation to engage the police in this act. A typology for SbC is provided in a later chapter. The psychological aftermath of SbC shootings is also discussed followed by a discussion of suicide risk among police officers and the phenomenon of "suicide by suspect," referring to a police officer who intentionally places him/herself in harm's way in order to die. It is hoped that this book will help to provide a starting point for further discussions and development of a clear conceptual basis for suicide by cop, which is essential if we are to clarify this elusive concept that intermixes between suicide, homicide, and cause for blame.
Table Of Contents
Foreword by Cherie Castellano
1. Definitional Issues Of "Suicide By Cop"
2. Research On Suicide By Cop (Sbc)
3. Case Studies: Suicide By Cop
4. Developing A Typology For Suicide By Cop
5. Police Trauma: The Psychological Aftermath Of Copicide
6. Suicide By Suspect: Hidden Suicide Within The Police Occupation
7. Summary And Conclusions
Editing The Suicide Script: Changing A Cop's Life Story
'This book provides an important insight by poignantly establishing 1 a much clearer definition of what has been known historically as "suicide by cop." As explored in the chapters of this book, "Copicide" can be defined as: An incident involving the use of deadly force by a law enforcement agent(s) in response to the provocation of a threat/use of deadly force against the agent(s) or others by an actor who has voluntarily entered the suicidal drama and has communicated verbally or nonverbally the desire to commit suicide. The introduction of the "victim scripted behaviour" theory put forth by Dr. James Drylie allows the reader to quantify and qualify the incidence of copicide in simple practical terminology.
As a mental health clinician, with over a decade of counselling police officers and their families, I am compelled to consider the psychological implications of copicide for all involved. Much of the past relevant research and observations regarding this issue are reviewed in this book in an attempt to set the stage and script a new approach utilizing "victim scripted behaviour" theory. Psychologically, officers need to be in control (Reese & Castellano, 2007), and this remains a priority in policing throughout the country. Copicide has the potential of neutralizing the ability to control for an officer simply trying to protect and serve their communities. The scrutiny of police officers by the media based on the improper actions of a few, rather than the heroic efforts of our finest further complicate this issue. Officers involved in copicide and use of deadly force experience a myriad of emotions before, during, and after these critical incidents. Understanding and defining what did and did not occur in copicide is paramount to an
officer's capacity for resilience. This book writes a "script" to tell the real story of copicide.
From my perspective as a police officer's wife, every day I wake up, fully aware that my husband may leave for work and not return home as a result of the dangerous nature of his police work. This is another element of copicide that becomes clear in the pages that follow. The potential for shooting incidents and use of deadly force is always looming as a possibility in our experience as a police family. Society's apparent increase in violence, combined with an apparent irreverence for law enforcement, increase my worries and concerns for my husband's safety. My rationalization for the risks he may be exposed to is simple. He is a public servant and in doing so protects our community. To consider that his life and others may be risked in a copicide is infuriating and disturbing to my entire police family. The investigative and media pressures for any officer-involved shooting becomes a threat to their career and in turn to the families' financial and moral sustenance.
Copicide may present doubts and risks for an officer and their family simply because of the unpredictable nature of their behaviour as public servants. The "script" is presented in the police academy, rehearsed over the years in a career span perfected in a moment of crisis. Copicide depends on the script by selecting the cast and the "final scene." For the police officer, their families, and their career, they must carefully consider how, when, and why they enter a "script" in copicide. Ultimately, they may find themselves able to edit the script, and if not recognize they are not the star in a copicide. A police officer's life story is scripted for something much bigger involving service, compassion, and survival beyond this singular potential dramatic scene.
Current Issues In American Law Enforcement: Controversies and Solutions
Author: Harry W More
ISBN: 978 0398078232
Publishers: CC Thomas
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher's Title Information
Through the years, the police have performed the time-honored functions of controlling crime, maintaining law and order, and providing services. This comprehensive book redefines the police role in many communities, especially as police departments have moved toward the creation of a partnership with citizens, private agencies and other community service departments. Major topics include: (1) an added major development in the external review of police conduct with anticipation that police review boards will become more prevalent; (2) the fact that internal review will still be an important process of the organizational response to police misconduct acknowledging Internal Affairs is here to stay; (3) the trend for the courts at the federal level to intervene with Consent Decrees, Memorandums of Understanding, and Technical Assistance letters in cities from coast to coast; and (4) the use of deadly force that has reached the point where it is viewed as a recurrent police problem. Major cases such as the Rodney King beating, the Louima case, the James Bryd case, and the Mathew Shepard case are examined to see how these issues impacted our operational and legal system. The book also addresses the issues of profiling and vehicular pursuit that remain a major issue in many communities, and while remedies have cured some of these problems, it still remains a major issue. The text also focuses on the inroads that women in policing are making as more females enter law enforcement and ascend to positions of higher power. Law enforcement professionals, policymakers, investigators, attorneys, and the general public will find the book to be of special interest.
Table Of Contents
1. Policing A Free Society: What Role Should The Police Play?
2. Community Policing: Where Do We Go From Here?
3. Public And Court Review Of Police Conduct: Is it help, Or A Hindrance?
4. Internal Review Of The Police: Is It An Acceptable Process?
5. Police Use Of Force: Is It An Inevitable Component Of Enforcing The Law?
6. Hate Crimes: Do They Really Warrant Special Legal Consideration?
7. Murder And Injury Of Police Officers: Inevitable Or Can The Frequency Be Reduced?
8. Profiling: A Necessity Or An Enigma?
9. Police Conduct: Can It Be Controlled?
10.Women In Law Enforcement: Is It Possible To Breach The Male-Dominated Police Culture And The Glass Ceiling?
11.Vehicle Pursuit: Should We Pursue Or Not?