"INTERNET LAW BOOK REVIEWS" - Provided by Rob Jerrard LLB LLM

Books from Charles C Thomas


Sex Crimes: Perpetrators, Predators, Prostitutes and Victims

Edition: 2nd 2006  

Author: R Barri Flowers

ISBN: 0-398-07677-4  

Publishers: Charles C Thomas

Price $63.95

Publication Date: 2006


Publisher’s Title Description


Sex Crimes: Perpetrators, Predators, Prostitutes, and Victims provides an in-depth examination of sexual criminality, its nature, characteristics, dimensions, and ramifications in American society. Within this context, the book will address both recognized and little known sex crimes, the magnitude of such crimes, sex offenders and victims, theories on sexual criminality and sex criminals and the criminal justice system. The book is divided into seven parts. Part I examines sex-related homicides as a reflection of sexual criminality; Part II focuses on rape crimes, including forcible rape in general, marital rape, date and acquaintance rape; female, same sex rape, and statutory rape. Part III explores incestuous crimes, including father-daughter incest, mother-child incest, and other intrafamilial sexual abuse. Part IV studies sexual predatory crimes, including child molestation, pedophilia, pornography and sex crimes; sex trafficking and sexual slavery; and other sexual abuse and paraphilias such as exhibitionism, voyeurism, bestiality, coprolagnia, and ritual sex abuse. Part V examines female (women and girls) prostitution crimes, as well as male prostitution. Part VI explores theories on sexual criminality, and Part VII focuses on the criminal justice system, sex crimes and offenders, including sex crime laws, arrests and sex offenders, and incarcerated sex criminals. Additionally, the illustrations supplement the text in exemplifying relevant data on sex crimes, criminals, and victims.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface
Introduction
List of Tables
List of Figures

Chapter

PART I: SEXUAL MURDER CRIMES

1. Sex-Related Homicides

PART II: RAPE CRIMES

2. Forcible Rape
3. Marital Rape
4. Date and Acquaintance Rape
5. Female, Same Sex, and Statutory Rape

PART III: INCESTUOUS CRIMES

6. Father-Daughter Incest
7. Mother-Child Incest
8. Other Intrafamilial Sexual Abuse

PART IV: SEXUAL PREDATORY CRIMES

9. Child Molestation
10. Pornography and Sex Crime
11. Sex Trafficking
12. Other Sexual Abuse and Paraphilias

PART V: PROSTITUTION CRIMES

13. Women and Prostitution
14. Girl Prostitution
15. Male Prostitution

PART VI: EXPLAINING SEX CRIMINALITY

16. Theories on Sex Crimes and Criminals

PART VII: CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM AND SEX OFFENDERS

17. Sex Crime Laws
18. Arrests and Sex Offences
19. Incarcerated Sex Offenders


Review

This text is perhaps best described as something of a compendium on sex crimes. Its aim is to examine in-depth "sexual criminality, its nature, characteristics, dimensions and ramifications in American society" (p.vii) which is a hugely ambitious claim, especially with just 260 substantive pages to play with. The breadth of content is equally challenging divided into seven parts covering sexual homicide, rape, incest, predatory crimes, prostitution, criminal theory, the criminal justice system and punitive responses - any one of which could easily fill a book and more on its own. The chapters themselves are relatively short, accessible and easy to read, generally comprising an overview and historical summary of the relevant literature and research on a particular issue – therefore it is not so much the text itself that is in-depth but the intensity of references used and comprehensively of ground covered.

The book provides a useful directory to American sources, data, commentary and perspectives on an extensive range of issues relating to sexual offences and sex offenders. These include primarily academic papers, but also Government sponsored research findings, official statistics, Department of Justice reports, FBI profiles, US penitentiary reports and a range of support and voluntary organizations. A broad interdisciplinary approach is evident with references to work published in the disciplines of law, criminology, psychology, penology, medicine, history, and social sciences to name but a few. Definitions and interpretations of common sexual terms and labels are presented together with the more bizarre and unusual. Flowers identifies and sifts out the key findings and conclusions of commentators presenting them in an easily digestible format albeit in places the material can appear a little transient. Statistics abound and there is considerable emphasis on quantitative surveys and extrapolations providing readers with any amount of evidence and justification to support a particular argument or claim they might wish to proffer. However, given the notorious unreliability of numeric accuracy when determining the incidence of sexual violations, even when using official sources, readers must make their own judgment on the utility of such. Nevertheless there are plenty of mind-boggling numbers to digest: an estimated one million rapes occurring in the US each year of which 94,635 forcible rapes were reported to law enforcement agencies in 2004; 98% of victims never see their rapists arrested, tried or incarcerated, reflecting current concerns about UK conviction rapes and responses. Perhaps this is not surprising in light of the conclusion that researchers have identified 50 different types of rapists and some 16 typologies of forcible rapists within that, though each reduced to a rather simplistic two-line definition in the book. It is also suggested that 1% or 10,000 rapes are perpetrated by women annually, mainly as accessories, and that females constitute 94% of the perpetrators of statutory rape involving male victims.

The volume therefore provides fascinating sound-bites, data and information to aid understandings of levels and types of sexual violence in the US and official responses to it, but care is needed when utilizing the sources and references presented, as few caveats are included. For example, the author stresses this is a book that deals with sexual violation in the US but then includes references to non-US sources including work by the leading British psychologist Dr Gillian Mezey on victims of male sexual assault with little in the way of clarification or explanation. Ultimately its strength lies in the inventory of references and material collated and summarized from an impressive range of disciplines and sources which provide a useful starting point to commence and develop further research into sexually deviant behaviour in the US, providing interesting challenges, comparisons and perspectives for further investigation and critique.

Kim Stevenson



Search And Seizure: The Fourth Amendment for Law Enforcement Officers

Author: Robert Henley Woody

ISBN:0398076529

Publishers: Charles C Thomas

Price £24

Publication Date: 2006

Publisher’s Title Information


Search and seizure in law enforcement is an important area, and this book is devoted solely to that topic. This book aims to provide critical information about the U. S. Constitution, with special emphasis on search and seizure. It will help law enforcement officers to increase their legal knowledge about search and seizure and create a framework for effective problem solving and decision making in the field. It is practically written and focuses on practical ideas. To help the reader develop analytic abilities for practice, brief quotations from U. S. Supreme Court cases reveal legal reasoning by justices. An important feature of the book is the translation of the U. S. Supreme Court cases into practical guidance. Captions for sections allow the reader to locate materials on topics of concern, such as conducting search and seizure in a particular context. The organization of the book facilitates both learning and teaching. There are also legal and criminal justice terms that are defined for the reader. Close to one hundred U. S. Supreme Court cases are reviewed, and a list of cases by chapter is also provided. It will be useful to not only trainees and students but also to experienced veterans in providing an in-depth understanding of the Fourth Amendment and the underlying legal principles, which is essential for making effective judgments in real-life law enforcement situations. It also provides attorneys, forensic specialists, and law enforcement personnel already in the field with valuable information for professional development.



Evidence In Traffic Crash Investigation And Reconstruction: Identification, Interpretation and Analysis of Evidence, and the Traffic Crash Investigation and Reconstruction Process

Author: R W Rivers

ISBN: 0398076448

Publishers: Charles C Thomas

Price $86.95

Publication Date: 2006

Description
Evidence In Traffic Crash Investigation And Reconstruction begins with a detailed description of the entire investigation process. The material then graduates into the various phases and levels of investigations, showing the levels of training and education normally associated with the levels of investigations and consequently the duties and responsibilities of the investigator and reconstructionist. Using narrative, schematics, and photographs, the mechanical inspection process is described in detail by identifying various vehicle parts, explanations of their functions, and methods of identifying failures. Human-related factors in traffic crash investigations are discussed at length, including the traffic crash viewed as a systems failure. Looming vulnerability, a recently developed theoretical construct that helps to describe and understand social, cognitive, organizational, and psychological mechanism, is described. Discussed also is the role of vision in driver performance; perception as a four-way process; perceptions and reactions; driver’s reaction to stress; and the roles of pathologists, medical examiners, and coroners in traffic crash reconstruction. Who is an expert and expert evidence are described in detail. Errors that can occur in the investigation process and the tolerances that should be considered or allowed are explained. The manual also discusses the importance of calling upon the skills and advice of occupational specialists, such as reconstructionists, lawyers, traffic engineers, pathologists, medical examiners and others, to assist in the investigation and reconstruction of a crash that will ensure that the objectives of a thorough and complete investigation will be satisfied. Considerable effort has been made in the manual to explain how to identify, interpret and analyse all forms of highway marks and damages that can be used in the reconstruction of a vehicle-related crash. As a guide for investigators, prosecutors and defence attorneys, checkboxes are provided with many of the major topics that can be used as prompters in evaluating the thoroughness of an investigation or for those areas that might or might not need additional coverage at trial or litigation proceedings. To meet international requirements, mathematical references are described in both English (U.S.) and SI (metric) measurement systems, accompanied by various appendices covering symbols and mathematical conversions. Finally, there is a comprehensive quick-find index that takes the reader directly to any topic, formulae, or subject matter - or any combination of these.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword-Russell Arend
Preface
Chapter

1. INTRODUCTION TO TRAFFIC CRASH INVESTIGATION (R. W. Rivers)

2. HUMAN ERROR AND TRAFFIC CRASH INVESTIGATION AND RECONSTRUCTION (Martin I. Kurke & Anne M. Corbin)

3.THE ROLE OF VISION, VISIBILITY, AND DISCERNABILITY IN DRIVER PERFORMANCE AND TRAFFIC ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION (Bernard S. Abrams)

4.PATHOLOGY AND ACCIDENT RECONSTRUCTION (James A. Farris)
Part 1 Introduction
Part 2 THE MEDICAL EXAMINER AND TRAFFIC CRASH INVESTIGATION (L. Sathyavagiswaran)

5.BLOOD PATTERN ANALYSIS (Michael Sweet)

6.FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY AND SCENE MEASUREMENTS (Robert Wyman & R. W. Rivers)
Part 1
Introduction to Photographic Applications
Part 2
SCENE MEASUREMENTS AND PLAN DRAWINGS

7.TRAFFICWAY EVIDENCE (R. W. Rivers)
Part 1
Aspects of Basic Engineering and Design
Part 2
Identification and Interpretation of Trafficway Obstructions, Defects, Marks and Damage Evidence

8. VEHICLE EXAMINATIONS (R. W. Rivers)

9. SPEED ANALYSIS
Part 1
INTRODUCTION: TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
Part 2
SPEED DETERMINATIONS

10. EVIDENCE MANUAL MOTORCYCLE CRASH INVESTIGATION

APPENDICES
Appendix A: English (U.S.) and Metric (S.I. Measurement Systems Conversion Tables
Appendix B: English (U.S.) Conversion Tables
Appendix C: Metric (S.I.) Conversion Tables
Appendix D: Speedometer Accuracy
Appendix E: Symbols
Recommended Reading
Index

 


It’s only an accident.  After all, the driver didn’t intend to cause the damage, the driver didn’t intend to injure the passengers and the driver certainly didn’t go out with the intention to kill the two children on that pedestrian crossing.  That may have been the case, but the significant majority of all accidents are preventable, which makes the term ‘accident’ a poor and even insulting descriptor of the event.  In recent years changes in terminology by adopting terms such as ‘collision’ and ‘crash’ have attempted to reflect the true nature of the incident, rather than compound and insult the victims of the event.

Road traffic crashes however are rare, random, multi-factor events that involve the interaction of machines, humans and the environment in which they operate.  If the previous description of the incident is viewed in isolation, it implies support for the term accident.  The reality is however that as these events are generally multi-factored they result in numerous shortcomings, sometimes individual, sometimes organisational or system failures.  By understanding the causes not only of the obvious and immediate cause, but also the underlying factors, they can lead to significant reductions to the numbers killed and injured on the roads every year.  Rivers, a well-respected specialist collision investigator, provides the latest in a series of individual North American publications that focus on the holistic investigation of collision incidents.  

In North America, specialist collision investigators are trained to conduct the entire investigation, including witness and driver interviews.  As the knowledge of the respective investigators increases, further training is provided that is focused on the application of mathematical solutions and a number of them are further trained and qualified as Reconstructionists, probably on a ratio of 1 Reconstructionist to every 10 collision investigators.  By contrast, UK criminal investigations are structured and based on the principles developed by the Road Death Investigation Manual (RDIM).  The RDIM creates the strategic overview of the investigation and separates the various roles and experts that may be required and is typically led by an experienced but non-specialist senior investigating officer.  Specialist collision investigators are trained to the level of collision reconstruction, although the training is heavily focused on mathematical reconstruction and not necessarily the breadth of detail provided by the general North American modular approach.

Rivers introduces numerous factors and considerations of the investigation process to understand the true nature of the incident.  These include individual introductory chapters provided by specialist contributors relating to, human factors, vision science and pathology before even beginning to concentrate on the evidence at the scene of the incident.  Further chapters subsequently develop the recording and interpretation of the evidence and it is not until chapter 9 that mathematical solutions are provided that assist with the reconstruction of the vehicle dynamics and speed analysis.  This is a refreshing approach, one that builds on developing the understanding of the nature of the incident prior to providing mathematical tools and the introduction of the laws of physics to attempt to reconstruct the event.  From a UK perspective however, calculations in North America utilise imperial measurements, although the book acknowledges the European standard of SI units and provides an alternative methodology.  Whilst the calculations are explained, the format suggests the application of a specific calculation rather than the knowledge of transformation, which would have provided the reader with the development of a wider and deeper understanding of the application. That said, the book is focused on developing awareness of the investigation, whilst mathematics is only a small part of the overall skill-set required of an investigator.

The legal aspects relating to court procedures are not surprisingly based on the North American deposition and legal format which, whilst of interest, are not necessarily representative of the procedures and strict rules of evidence applied by UK criminal or civil courts.  In particular, the rules of disclosure are not as strictly applied as they are in the UK.

To summarise, the book develops a helpful and logical understanding of the crash sequence.  The elements and factors of a collision, irrespective of whether it were to occur on either side of the Atlantic, are constant and the knowledge of the considerations are helpful, not only for the specialist collision investigator but also anyone charged with the role of senior investigating officer.  The mathematical approach adopted holds less interest for the UK investigator however due to the breadth and depth of the subject material the mathematical approach only features as a minor element of the considerable overall material that is presented.

SL



Bates’ I.S.Q.D. Identification System for Questioned Documents,

Edition: Second

Author: Garland D Lewis

ISBN: 0398076030

Publishers: Charles C. Thomas, U.S.A

Price $28.95

Publication Date: 2005

Publisher’s Description
This second edition of Bates’ I.S.Q.D. updates and expands the previous volume and continues to reflect the scientific method of detecting whether a writing is genuine or forged. This book serves as a guide and reference for the investigator or examiner in matters relating to the identification of handwriting. In and of itself, it is not intended in any way to qualify an individual as an expert, but is to be used as a tool with which to assist in the discovery and proof of fact. These are the two essential parts of handwriting comparison. Divided into three sections, the book presents the twelve points of comparison and the method of making a scientific analysis, a guide for presentation of facts in court, and a sample demonstration of the discovery and proof of fact. Once these points of comparison have been determined, the examiner has a basis from which to offer an opinion. This book can be used as a primary text in questioned document examinations, and will be an excellent resource for law enforcement agencies, including private and industrial investigative groups

Table Of Contents

Preface

Part I
Methodology
Section
1. Handwriting Reduced to Strokes
2. Twelve Points of Comparison
3. Conclusion
4. Summary

Part II
Proof Of The Fact
Section
1. Reasons and Basis for an Opinion
2. Qualified Opinions
3. Expressing Opinions of Document Examiners
4. Digital Imaging
5. The Purpose and Value of Illustrations
6. Enlargements of Twelve Points of Comparison
7. Transmitted Light Examinations
8. Duplicate Illustrations
9. Marking of Evidence
10.Mounting Evidence
11.Transparencies and Overlays
12.Classification of Twelve Points of Comparison
13.Illustrations Admissible as Evidence

Part III
A Sample Demonstration
Section
1. Problem
2. Method
3. Sifting out the Twelve Points of Comparison
4. Illustrations
5. Enlargements of the Twelve Points of Comparison
6. Duplicate Illustrations
7. Individual Point Illustrations
8. Transparencies and Overlays
9. Classification of Twelve Points of Comparison
10.Presentation in Court of Proof of the Fact
11.Conclusion

Bibliography
Index


Review

The Bates’ I.S.Q.D., (Identification System for Questioned Documents), was authorised by Billy Prior Bates in the USA  in 1970, and is, I understand used extensively in America by document examiners and handwriting experts.

In the United Kingdom, Forensic Scientists engaged in similar work, use slightly different systems of examination and presentation in Court.  However, there are many similarities, so this book will, I am sure be of some use to document examiners and handwriting experts in the U.K. and of great use and interest to anybody engaged in research or study of this subject.

The Author states that he has utilised the Bates’ I.S.Q.D. methods for over 15 years, and has found the system to be a sound and logical method in assisting him with identifying and comparing handwriting and it’s characteristics.

The system uses twelve points of comparison, and as the Author states “Questioned Document Examination has two essential parts: discovery and proof. The purpose of this book is to put at the fingertips of the investigator a scientific method of discovery of the fact, and of proving it”.

The book is divided into three parts:

Part 1, entitled ‘Methodology’, presents a scientific method for comparing questioned writing with genuine writing.

Each of the twelve points of comparison used in this system is described in detail, and  examples of each are excellently illustrated, expanded upon and explained.

Part 2, entitled ‘Proof of the Fact’, deals with the preparation of the facts for presentation, and methods of presenting them to those who legally decide the matter in court.

This chapter gives advice and illustrations on preparing evidence for presentation in court, so that the document examiner can explain his findings, and give evidence so that the reasons and basis for his opinion can be demonstrated to others.

Part 3, entitled ‘A Sample Demonstration’, is a demonstration of handwriting comparisons using the I.S.Q.D. methods.

This chapter takes the reader through a simple signature examination and comparison using the twelve points of the system, and as in other parts of the book contains excellent examples illustrating each of the twelve points.

At one point the author states that using this method of comparing questioned and genuine writing, places handwriting identification on the same basis as fingerprint identification. I do not agree with this statement, and I am sure that not many fingerprint experts the world over will agree either. It is my opinion that fingerprint examination is an exact science, whereas handwriting comparison is not.

Indeed, at another point in the book the author states that document examination is probably best described as involving a combination of art and science. With this statement I do agree.

However, putting these points aside, it is my opinion that this book has great merit. It must be remembered though, that this book should serve only as a guide and reference for the investigator or examiner in matters relating to the comparison and identification of handwriting. The book is not intended in any way to qualify an individual as an expert, and as experienced examiners in any field will tell you, there are no short cuts to scientific knowledge.

Andy Day, 2006.



Surviving The Street: Officer Safety and Survival Techniques

Edition: 2nd

Author: Gerald W Garner

ISBN: 0398075972

Publishers: Charles C Thomas (USA)

Price $74.95 HB

Publication Date: 2005

This book is about staying alive on a job that includes endless possibilities for personal disaster. Written by a veteran street cop with over thirty-six years of law enforcement service, Sur­viving The Street is short on theory and long on the prac­ticalities of how to come home intact at the end of a shift or a career.  The book shows the alert reader how to approach, what to look for, where to stand, what to say, and what to do while confronting potentially risky situations ranging from an emo­tionally disturbed person to an armed felon. Real-life examples of police killings culled from the studies of the FBI'S Uniform Crime Reports section are included, with these fatal errors dis­cussed in detail. The text also provides a vital list of experi­ence-tested survival guidelines. Every chapter ends with a summary and a helpful "Street Survival Checklist" for the law enforcement practitioner. In this new edition, the text has been revised throughout with new materials added to most chapters. Also, the narrative has been brought up to date with post-911 law enforcement in mind. Additional resources for survival reading are listed following the last chapter. Written for the law enforcement student, rookie officer, police supervisor, veteran cop, deputy or trooper, this text repeatedly emphasizes the value of common sense in mastering the threats of the job.

Table Of Contents

Preface
Introduction

Chapter 1 What’s Dangerous About This Job?
Chapter 2 Preparations For Survival
Chapter 3 Guidelines For Staying Alive
Chapter 4 Suspicious Persons And Situations
Chapter 5 Vehicle Contacts
Chapter 6 Prisoner Handling For Survival
Chapter 7 "Under The Influence" People
Chapter 8 Crime In Progress Calls
Chapter 9 Safely Defusing Disturbances
Chapter 10 Domestic Violence Intervention
Chapter 11 Safe Structure Searches
Chapter 12 What To Do ’Til Swat Arrives
Chapter 13 High-Speed Danger
Chapter 14 Raids And Warrant Service
Chapter 15 Handling Emotionally Disturbed
Chapter 16 Off-Duty Survival
Chapter 17 Terrorist Threats
Chapter 18 Surviving The "Other Dangers" Of The Job
Chapter 19 Management’s Role In Officer Safety

Preface

American law enforcement officers found themselves confronting yet another threat to their safety following the attacks on the Twin Towers of New York City's World Trade Centre on September 11, 2001. Now, added to the daily threats that officers had always faced, they confronted the hatred of international terrorists, too. But the fact remains that most murdered peace officers in this country are not slain by cowards commandeering airliners or packing improvised explosive devices. Many are being killed by the same kinds of offend­ers that have attacked symbols of justice for a very long time: drunks, spouse abusers, robbers, and the mentally deranged. And, many times, officers are dying at least partially because of their own safety lapses.

Make no mistake: these officers are not killing themselves. Their personal survival mistakes, no matter how careless, do not cancel out the fact that responsibility for their deaths rests squarely on the loath­some criminals who killed them. These are the individuals who must be punished to the fullest extent of the law. But at the same time we assess criminal responsibility we cannot overlook the truth that too many dead officers helped bring about personal disaster by making themselves vulnerable to their killers. It is that fatal vulnerability that this book is intended to banish.

Today we know precisely how and why officers die. Perhaps more important, we know how to prevent virtually all of those deaths. And that is what this book is about: recognizing and dealing effectively With the very real threats to officer safety and survival that lurk on the busy city streets and quiet country lanes of America. Unfortunately, there is no shortage of real-life examples of these fatal threat scenar­ios. Each chapter of the text contains true case histories as compiled by the Uniform Crime Reports Section of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of actual murders of police officers. There are lessons to be learned from these tragic deaths, and from the discussion of fatal errors the book shifts to specific, practical, time-proven tactics and techniques for surviving a potentially hazardous profession. This results in a virtual "how to" of street survival for the law enforcers of America.

From bikers to bombers, bar fighters to "boosters" gone violent, Surviving the Street equips the safety-savvy officer with common sense suggestions and advice to mitigate or remove many of the dangers of police work. But it is worth remembering that in many cases there are alternative measures that under certain circumstances may work; too. That is the nature of police work. The survival student is certainly free to improve even further on what is set down here. At the same time, however, the author and publisher accept no responsibility for harm to persons or property resulting from the application of tactics and procedures contained herein.

Reading, absorbing and practicing the advice given in these pages can save your life. That is the sole purpose of the book's existence. Surely there is no more relevant objective for today's hard-pressed law enforcement professional than Surviving the Street.


REVIEW

When it comes to surviving the street, Gerald W Garner cuts the mustard! With a 36 year career as a police officer, law enforcement manager and officer safety instructor he has an impressive pedigree. The book’s raison d’etre can be expressed simply: saving lives – specifically saving the lives of police officers patrolling the mean streets of Anytown. Mr Garner sets about achieving this objective by using real life case studies taken from the Uniformed Crime Reports Section of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as a springboard to discuss practical survival principles and techniques. It goes without saying that this book is a fabulous resource of information, not just for the 'Cop' on the street, but indeed anyone for whom being street "savvy" is important.

Mr Garner’s down to earth approach begins where it should begin: in the preface. In it he recognises that whilst some officers have been murdered after making tactical errors whilst on duty, the responsibility for the murders of these officers "rests squarely on the shoulders of the loathsome criminals who killed them" - I am pleased to say that Mr Garner calls a spade a spade, not a long handled gardening implement, throughout this whole work!

The 19 chapters in this book cover everything from dealing with drunks to terrorists, and each one commences with a real case study or two which certainly focussed my mind on the grim reality and importance of the subject matter in hand - the reader of this book is driven by practical necessity not academic interest. As I said, the author’s aim is to save lives and he goes about achieving this by establishing certain principles in each chapter before descending into a detailed analysis of specific techniques and strategies; what’s incredibly useful is that at the end of each chapter the main thrust of the topic in question is summarised succinctly in a paragraph or two and a "Survival Checklist" further distils the crucial points into numbered bullet points.

The opening three chapters clarify the dangers faced by the modern police officer; sound advice is given on how to prepare for the street physically, mentally and emotionally; concrete guidelines for survival, based on rational principles are also analysed. Chapter 3 also covers "Special Dangers" and helpfully even includes measures to protect against contracting diseases when ‘up close and personal’ with "clients", as Mr Garner describes them at one point in the text.

The whole book is written from the perspective of law enforcement in the USA, where officers routinely carry firearms and this must be borne in mind by the British reader. A good example of this is the advice given by Mr Garner in relation to the threat posed by edged weapons - the emphasis is very much on the police officer being able to utilise his or her handgun in order to eliminate the threat. Accordingly Mr Garner advises: "With your handgun drawn and on target and you behind cover, if it is available, issue an oral direction: "Police! Drop the Weapon! Do it now or you will be shot!” In all other material particulars the principles enunciated on this matter are consistent with the training given in this regard to the as yet unarmed British Bobby.

 In each of the subsequent 16 chapters the information is presented in the same straightforward manner across a book of almost 300 pages. It covers a vast amount of practical detail in each chapter, whether the author is traversing the myriad of dangers present during the search of a structure, or the adrenaline laced judgements involved in high speed vehicle pursuit. Anyone reading this book will have their existing street survival skills enhanced exponentially and that’s why I intend to encourage every police officer I know to buy this book. It’s literally brimming with relevant information and common sense methods for staying alive. The blurb on the back cover says: "Surviving the Street is short on theory and long on the practicalities of how to come home intact at the end of a shift or a career” - and that is the ultimate objective of every police officer I know.

Rob Manning

Barrister-at-Law

Author of Justifiable Force: The Practical Guide to the Law of Self Defence



The Forensic Investigation Handbook

Authors: Michael Fitting Karagoizis & Richard Sgaglio

ISBN: 0398075794

Publishers: Charles C Thomas

Price $65.95 HB $45.95 paper

Publication Date: 13 May 2005

Publishers Information on the book

The Forensic Investigation Handbook is one of the most comprehensive forensic science texts available today.  It outlines the general principles of forensic science including an overview of the history of forensic sci­ence, an introduction to ballistics, crime scene inves­tigation techniques as well as evidence gathering, pro­cessing and documentation procedures.  The Forensic Investigation Handbook presents valuable information on advanced forensic topics as well.  These areas in­clude criminal profiling, fingerprints and DNA as identification, the forensic autopsy, pharmacology, toxicology, and biohazard risks for the forensic investigator.  The hand­book also provides the reader with information on the American criminal justice system and how it relates to forensic science.  The handbook also features one of the most detailed and extensive forensic glossaries ever assembled. It includes more than 600 pertinent forensic terms with defini­tions that will serve as an invaluable desk reference for forensic novices and seasoned veterans alike.

The Forensic Investigation Handbook was written by Dr. Michael Karagiozis, a physician with fifteen years experience in the field of medicine and crim­inal justice, and Richard Sgaglio, a professional with experience in both medical administration and hands-on investigation.  In addition to writing, consulting and speaking nationally, Dr. Karagiozis is the lead instructor for the Certified Medical Investigator courses offered through the Amer­ican College of Forensic Examiners Institute.  Mr Sgaglio is a contributing instructor for the ACFEI's curriculum as well.  The Forensic Investigation Handbook serves as the official text for these courses, and its certification examinations are derived from its content.  The Forensic Investigation Handbook is a requisite for anyone interested in pursuing a career in any of the many forensic science disciplines or those currently working in this dynamic and ever-changing field.

IN MEMORIAM

This work is dedicated to the many forensic specialists who toiled in the horrific aftermath of September 11, 2001.  These specialists sifted trough the rubble to find the most minimal fragments of evidence in the hope of identifying victims whose bodies had been all but obliterated.  Without their dedicated and relentless work, thousands of survivors would have had suffered their loss without closure.

Mr Sgaglio would like particularly to extend personal recog­nition to Gabrielle Machinist and their mutual friend Bob Parente.  Bob was scheduled to be working in the World Trade Centre on September, 11, 2001.  Twenty minutes before arrival, his train developed mechanical problems, and his commute was delayed.  By the time the train became operational, the World Trade Centre had been razed to the ground. Believing that Bob had died in the disaster, Gabrielle-who owned a catering service near Ground Zero-began delivering food and drink to the weary rescue workers, unasked and unpaid.  Even after discovering that Bob had survived the holocaust, "Gaby" and her staff continued to walk more than a mile every day to Ground Zero, sustaining those still working the disaster site.

September 11, 2001: Rescue workers stand in shock and awe after the largest forensic disaster in U.S. history.

If the events of September 11 have taught us anything about the forensics sciences, it is this:

Forensic Science is not about taking down the bad guys.  Forensic Science is about helping the good guys.

FOREWORD

Forensics is the science of explaining what happened, not of proving guilt or innocence. Accordingly, the duty of forensic specialists of all types is not to find or arrest a sus­pect, but to secure and process evidence.  Police officers make arrests, and attorneys prosecute crimes. Forensic examiners focus on establishing what is evidence, preserving that evi­dence, and maintaining it in such a manner that when the time comes for warrants to be served or prosecutions to be made, the evidence is unimpeachable.  This process is vital to our nation's judicial system, as evidence that cannot be properly entered into and presented in a court of law direct­ly alters and impedes the course of justice.

Forensic investigation was once the sole realm of patholo­gists, but with the scientific advancements of recent years the spectrum if professionals involved in forensic investigation has broadened dramatically.  A forensic investigation now begins when first responder personnel arrive at the scene of an incident, and critical forensic evidence can be irrevocably lost if those working the scene don't recognize and secure that evidence immediately and flawlessly.  This has been proven time and time again, as many high-profile court cases have failed over the past decade, not because the prosecution didn't have a good case or because the police arrested the wrong person, but because critical evidence was judged inadmissible due to mishandling.

The American College of Forensic Examiners Institute (ACFEI) is an independent, scientific and professional society. Founded in 1992, the ACFEI is the largest professional membership association representing forensic examiners.  The general membership is composed of almost 10,000 members from forty countries.

Multi-disciplinary in its scope, the society actively promotes the dissemination of information regarding the forensic sciences.  The association's purpose is the continued advancement of forensic examination and consultation across the many professional disciplines within its membership.  ACFEI provides professionals with education, training and networking opportunities in forensic science.  ACFEI also circulates information through the official journal, The Forensic Examiner.

All types of professionals involved in forensic investigation must become educated in the forensic process to prepare them to recognize and preserve critical and often fragile evi­dence before it is lost. The core of the forensic and legal process remains the same for all of these professionals, encompassing a firm understanding of and competency in forensic investigation, evidence collection and preservation, and the presentation of testimony in a court of law.  In an effort to provide this type of training to the wide range of professionals bow involved in the forensic process, the American College of Forensic Examiners Institute developed its Certified Medical Investigator, CMT, program.

The American College of Forensic Examiners Institute (ACFEI) is an independent, scientific, and professional soci­ety.  Multi-disciplinary in its scope, the society actively pro­motes the dissemination of forensic information.  The associ­ation's purpose is the continued advancement of forensic examination and consultation across the many professional fields of its membership.  ACFEI serves as the national centre for this purpose and circulates information and knowledge through its official journal, The Forensic Examiner, and through conferences, workshops, continuing education courses and other educational programs, like the Certified Medical Investigator, CMI program.

ACFEI's Certified Medical Investigator, CMI, program teaches professionals from a diverse range of specialties and disciplines to conduct superior, independent medical inves­tigations; to interpret relevant case law, reports, analyses, and evidence in order to write comprehensive, accurate, unbi­ased reports; to provide credible, defensible testimony in a court of law; and to develop critical thinking skills that are crucial to forensic investigation.  The CMI program incorpo­rates diverse topics including law, forensics, and toxicology into one intensive course, providing participants with an

understanding of the many disciplines that they will inter­face with in a forensic engagement, such as law enforcement, the legal profession, crime scene investigation, and patholo­gy.  The course also reinforces the basics of evidence gather­ing and teaches foundational anatomy and physiology, pro­viding a strong understanding and skill base critical to forensic scene evaluation.

CMI course instructors Dr. Michael Karagiozis and Richard Sgaglio have made invaluable contributions to the CMI program.  Their work has helped make the CMI course the dynamic, fascinating, and vital educational experience that it is today.  Now Dr. Karagiozis and Mr. Sgaglio have applied their extensive knowledge and background to pro­duce a text that provides an in-depth overview of medical investigation presented in their signature captivating and dynamic style, making this book an important tool that is sure to enhance the capabilities of all professionals working in the forensic arena.

Brent McCoy, Chief Administrative Officer American College of Forensic

Examiners Institute August 27, 2004

Review to follow


REVIEW

This is an American book, and it looks at all aspects of forensic examination, but from an entirely American perspective.

It is a very informative publication, however, unless the reader is studying the American Judicial System, or wishes to learn about U.S. Supreme Court Rulings, the various Death Penalty Statutes in the United States, or the American Forensic Degree Programmes, then I would not recommend this book to any readers in the United Kingdom.

In the first chapter there is a very good section on the history of Forensic Medicine, but the section describing what 'Forensic Experts' are, is at variance with that of this country. There then follows brief descriptions and explanations of Forensic Pathology, Forensic Psychiatry, Forensic Psychology, Forensic Radiology, Odontology, Entomology, Anthropology and Criminology.

The chapter entitled 'Evidence' is very basic, but given the title of the book this is not surprising. The American system of 'Evidence Gathering Techniques' is explained in several sections, and I was pleased to see that the Authors state how critical this can be in an investigation, and mention several high profile cases in the U.S. where improper evidence gathering and/or handling has lead to inconclusive or unreliable evidence.

I am fully aware that some American methods of evidence collection and preservation are different from those used in this country, however, some of the methods described are, in my view wrong. The preservation of tool marks section, does not mention taking casts of tool marks at all, or obtaining control samples of the surface close to the tool mark.

The section on flammable liquids states that items such as wood, clothing etc. that may have volatile liquids in or on them, should be heat sealed in plastic - this is totally wrong as volatile liquids will evaporate through plastic. All such evidence must be packaged in nylon bags only, and then double wrapped and not heat sealed.

As you would expect from an American publication, the section that deals with firearms, bullets, and other ammunition is well written, and full of useful information.

I take issue with the authors on the section regarding the preservation of questioned documents on several counts, not least, that they state that such documents can be marked or labelled on the back and then packaged in plastic sleeves. If documents are to be preserved for indented impressions, (as indeed the vast majority are), then they must not be marked in any way and must not be placed in plastic sleeves.

The book has excellent sections on blood splatter analysis and DNA, however, there are several instances where the book contradicts itself. In the chapter on biological evidence the book states "blood evidence cannot absolutely link an individual as conclusively as fingerprints or bite marks". Later it states "(DNA) creates extreme genetic individuality – enough that the FBI has determined a statistical match with a probability of greater than 1 in 260 billion is sufficient for an identification". I am also not at all happy with the methods stated regarding the preservation of blood stains recovered from a crime scene.

Chapter 10 of the book contains an interesting section about Serial Killers and their Profilers, and it also gives various examples of some of the more notorious serial killer cases in America.

Chapter 11 takes the reader through a detailed description of how an Autopsy, (post mortem examination), is carried out, and the reasons for the various examinations.

Chapter 12 deals with substances of abuse including alcohol, and Chapter 13 is entitled ‘Nuclear and Biohazardous Agents. This is the first book on crime scene investigation that I have seen which deals with Nuclear agents, and this section is frightening, so I would possibly recommend that this part should be read by any crime scene investigator who may come across such hazards.

Overall, then, my view of this book is that unless you are likely to be confronted by a Nuclear hazard or you wish to study the American Judicial System, I am unable to recommend this publication to anybody who is resident in the UK.

Andy Day



Criminal Justice Technology in the 21st Century

Edition: 2nd

Author: Edited by Laura J Moriarty

Cost: £36.25 RRP UK ($64.95)

ISBN: 039807559x

Publishers:  Charles C Thomas

Publication Date: 2005

Criminal Justice Technology in the 21st Century describes the ways that technology is impacting criminal justice. It is the first academic volume of its kind, and because of that, it serves as a significant primer in the literature. The book represents the concerns of criminal justice teachers, practitioners, and students, and it is presented in four parts: criminal justice education and technology, law enforcement technology, corrections technology, and criminality and technology. Students, educators, and practitioners will find this edition useful as it provides practical knowledge about different technology that is useful on many levels. The second edition contains nine new chapters. Several chapters explore the level to which faculty are using computers in their teaching. Other chapters enlighten the reader on the ways that criminal justice agencies are using the World Wide Web and automation to inform and interact with the public, hire and train staff, collect and manage data better, share data "seamlessly," solve field problems, and classify and track offenders. Chapters also discuss how the digital age is producing new techno-crimes whose effects are beyond comprehension. This book is inspiring reading for everyone in criminal justice. Whether one’s area of interest or work is police, courts, or corrections, the essence of each chapter can be thought about and discussed as an issue being faced elsewhere in the criminal justice system.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface

Chapter

1. The Technology Infrastructure of Criminal Justice Samuel Nunn

Part I: Criminal Justice Education/Training and Technology

2. Meeting the Demand for Cyber Competent Criminal Justice Practitioners and Researchers: The Evolution of a Discipline Laura B. Myers and Larry J. Myers

3. Technological Aids for Teaching Statistics in the 21st Century Janet R. Hutchinson, James E. Mays, and Laura J. Moriarty

4. Using Interactive Technology Tools as Part of Skill Development for Criminal Justice Staff Faye S. Taxman, Marialina Bello, and Eric Shepardson

5. Evaluation of Computer-Based Training for DNA Evidence Collection Ryan Baggett, Pamela A. Collins, and AnnMarie Cordner

Part II: Law Enforcement Technology

6. Overview of Law Enforcement Technology Kathryn E. Scarborough and Gary Cordner

7. Technology and Training Needs of Rural Law Enforcement: A National Study Gary Cordner, Kathryn E. Scarborough, Pamela A. Collins, and Irina R. Soderstrom

8. "The Problem-solver": The Development of Information Technology to Support Problem-Oriented Policing Lorraine Green Mazerolle and Robert C. Haas

9. Evaluation of a Mobile Firearm Simulation System Ryan Baggett and AnnMarie Cordner

Part III: Courtroom and Corrections Technology

10. Video Conferencing: An Examination of Courtroom Personnel Attitudes Jill A. Gordon, Laura J. Moriarty, and Timothy J. Potts

11. Technoprison: Technology and Prisons Janice O. Joseph

Part IV: Criminality and Technology

12. Computer Forensics Robyn Diehl Lacks and Christine E. Bryce

13. An Assessment of Computer Crime Victimization in the United States Andra J. Katz and David L. Carter

14. Computer Applications by International Organized Crime Groups David L. Carter and Andra J. Katz

Author Index
Subject Index


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Test Validity in Justice and Safety Training Contexts: A Study of Criterion-Referenced Assessment in a Police Academy

Authors By Kevin I. Minor, James B Wells, Kimberly Cobb, Beverly Lawrence, Terry C. Cox>

ISBN: 0398075506

Publishers: Charles C Thomas

Price $49.95 HB $29.95 Paper

Publication Date: 2005

PUBLISHER’S Title Information


The intention of this book is to provide training officials - working in law enforcement, courts, adult corrections, juvenile justice, child and family welfare, fire safety, emergency medical care, and related agencies - with valid mechanisms for assessing the degree to which trainees actually acquire the knowledge and skills required to effectively perform duties that can be complex and challenging, in order to determine which trainees will and will not be formally credentialed to perform work. This book addresses the current void in the literature on the topic and to encourage increased attention to the question of whether tools being used to assess knowledge and skills acquired from training conform to scientifically established standards of validity. The meticulous efforts of the authors have produced a solid basis for application through comprehensible and concrete theoretical principles. The aim of the book is to show how to perform validation of training assessment instruments by actually doing so and by addressing the central issues that warrant consideration in the process. The book begins with background information that is important to the authors’ research on the validity of tests used in policed training. After providing the background in the first three chapters, the following four chapters describe and present the findings of their validation study of police academy testing. The last chapter draws conclusions about the validity and reliability of the instruments that were studied and by examining the implications of their research for future efforts to validate tests in justice and safety training contexts. The book also contains appendices that present data to support the conclusions and also include methods and instruments developed during the authors’ research.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface
Chapter I: Introduction and Overview
Chapter II: A Survey of Police Academy Testing Practices
Chapter III: Considerations in Test Construction and Validation
Chapter IV: Phase I of Validation: Preparation and Pre-testing
Chapter V: Phase II of Validation: Face, Content, and Construct Validities
Chapter VI: Reliability, Test Bias, and Item Analyses
Chapter VII: Phase III of Validation: Criterion-Related Validity
Chapter VIII: Conclusions and Implications
Appendices
Appendix A: Cover Letter to Subject Matter Experts
Appendix B: Instructions to Subject Matter Experts
Appendix C: Rating Instrument (Assessment Tool)
Appendix D: Exam Review Survey
Appendix E: Item Difficulty Rating Chart
Appendix F: Curriculum Objectives by Number and Topics
Appendix G: Essential Tasks and Corresponding Curriculum Objectives
Appendix H: Item Analysis Results
Appendix I: Analyses for Test Bias by Exam Number and Subject Area
Appendix J: Supervisor Rating Form
References


LINKS
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