"INTERNET LAW BOOK REVIEWS" PROVIDED BY - Rob Jerrard LLB LLM (London)

Peter Lang AG

Books Reviewed in 2009


The Trafficking of Persons
National and International Responses
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Kimberly A McCabe
ISBN: 978-0-8204-6327-8
Publishers: Peter Lang
Price: £16.40
Publication Date: 2008
 
Publisher's Title Information
 

Over 700,000 people are trafficked across international borders every year. Of those, the U.S. Department of State estimates that between 14,500 and 17,500 are trafficked into the United States. Today, the U.S. and other nations are beginning to recognize the magnitude of the problem and attempt to address the victimization caused by human trafficking. This book investigates the types of human trafficking, and discusses U.S. and international responses to combat and end all forms of this criminal activity. With discussion-provoking questions at the end of each chapter and specific examples of trafficking activity, this book is appropriate for criminology courses, classes dedicated to victims and/or child abuse, and classes focused around the themes of international crime and international law.

 
The Author: Kimberly A. McCabe is Professor of Sociology and Dean of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at Lynchburg College in Lynchburg, Virginia. Her research interests include child abuse, victimization, and human trafficking. Her other books include Child Abuse and Criminal Justice Responses (Peter Lang, 2003), and School Violence, the Media, and Criminal Justice Responses (Peter Lang, 2005).

Human Trafficking Defined
 
You Mi Kim, a twenty-two-year-old small-town girl from South Korea, worked in a sex trafficking triangle that began in South Korea, moved to Los Angeles, California, and then moved to San Francisco. Kim was forced to have sex with dozens of men on a weekly basis in massage parlours and hotels. She lived under the surveillance of guards and cameras and was reminded often of the dangers she and her family would face if she attempted to leave. Kim never sought help from law enforcement (May, 2006).
 
Jose Tecum, a Florida man, kidnapped a young girl from his native Guatemalan village, brought her to Florida, destroyed her identification card, forced her to pick tomatoes, and raped her repeatedly. The young girl, although seen by many, never reported this abuse. She was discovered after Tecum was arrested for domestic violence. Tecum was sentenced to nine years in prison by a U.S. federal court for kidnapping and slavery (Lush, 2004).
 
Paul is a young man from Mexico who followed his American girlfriend to South Carolina. Paul works more than sixty hours per week in a meat-packing plant. His girlfriend, who took his fraudulent travel papers when he arrived, picks up his paycheck every Friday and threatens to call immigration officials if Paul does not provide the money to pay their bills. On many occasions, law enforcement has been called to the home he shares with his girlfriend and their son in response to domestic disturbances. Several times, there have been signs of visible injury on Paul; however, he maintains that his girlfriend has never assaulted him. Paul's fear of being deported and having to leave his son behind in America with an abuser has left him a victim of abuse and coercion and a virtual prisoner in his home.
 
Each of these cases demonstrates the existence of slavery and shows the outcomes of human trafficking. In each case, there exist a victim and an offender who profits from the abuse and torture of the victim. In each case the victim perceives himself or herself as defenseless, perceives a lack of support from U.S. authorities and, thus, never attempts to report the abuse to law enforcement. In each case, the perpetrator would most likely continue the abuse until the victim is no longer useful. In each case, the perpetrator received some benefit from human trafficking.
 
Minimum-wage workers, entertainment girls, and seasonal migrant workers are all parts of the United States' capital economy. Goods and services are required, money is exchanged, and profits are made on a daily basis. Unfortunately, behind some American prosperity is the victimization of those individuals unable to speak for themselves. On a daily basis, individuals are sexually abused, prohibited from obtaining medical services, and beaten because the quantity or quality of their work for the day was not at the level expected by their employer. Every day individuals are trafficked. Which country would allow such abuse? Which country would allow such persecution of its inhabitants? The answer is the United States of America.

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Reasonable Use of Force by Police
Seizures, Firearms, and High-Speed Chases
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: David A May & James E Headley
ISBN: 978-0-8204-6934-8
Publishers: Peter Lang
Price: £15
Publication Date: 2008
 
Publisher's Title Information

 
Whether or not to use force is the most serious decision and one of the most significant interactions law enforcement officers can have with citizens. The decisions made by political and administrative officials when they determine matters of policy, or the decisions made by individual officers in split seconds, may be of life or death importance. The determination of the proper use of force by law enforcement at both administrative and individual levels is crucial for both law enforcement and for the public to maintain order, protect society, enforce just laws, and reasonably respect and protect the rights of civilian citizens. Typically a successful use of force accomplishes an actual seizure within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment, and therefore seizures are examined as Fourth Amendment issues in this book. The most basic and generalizable legal standard for the use of force is «reasonableness», and this book examines the reasonableness of the use of force in a number of situations, both real and hypothetical. Reasonable Use of Force by Police is intended for use in police training, police departments, universities, and by anyone interested in understanding the standards of reasonable use of force by police and other law enforcement officers.
 

Authors
 
The Authors: David A. May is Professor of Government at Eastern Washington University in Cheney, Washington. He received his Ph.D. in political science from Washington State University.
James E. Headley received his J.D. from Gonzaga University's School of Law in Spokane, Washington and is currently Associate Professor in the Department of Government at Eastern Washington University.

Review 
At the start, it should be noted that this is a book based upon the laws of the USA. However, that said, much of its contents will be just as germane in the UK, because all force used by Police Officers should be enforced reasonably, legally and ethically, which calls for consideration of the following as discussed in the conclusion of the authors, viz, race and force, Police ethics, use of Force Training, community-orientated Policing (COP) and in the case of the USA, key portions of the Bill of Rights.
 
In a case of the last item, this would have meant in the UK what was once known as 'The Judges Rules' and now such matters are contained within the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 and Codes of Practice and, the Common Law.
 
In the Conclusion the authors state:-
 
'When they found out that we were working on the issue of police use of force, almost without fail, the response would be "that's timely" Indeed it is. Police use of force is always a timely issue and that says a great deal about the importance of the issue. Some incident or other was always occurring as we were working on this book. Police use of force is practically a constant issue and is likely to remain so.'
 
This is true of the UK. Only recently we had the incident that occurred in the City of London, where it is alleged that excessive force was used against the public by members of the Metropolitan Police.
 
With the proviso that some of the law will not apply in the UK, this is a book worthy of a place in a Police Library and represents a valuable piece of research.
 
Rob Jerrard


Arrest Decisions
What Works for the Officer?
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Edith Linn
ISBN: 978-1-4331-0058-1
Publishers: Peter Lang
Price: £16.90
Publication Date: 2009
 
Publisher's Title Information

This book demonstrates how, when the processing of arrests affects police officers' personal lives, they adapt their arrest-making behaviour to accommodate self-interest. Based on a survey of over five hundred New York Police Department patrol officers, the book assesses how overtime need, post-work commitments, aversion to arrest processing, and other personal concerns affect officers' decisions whether or not to make an arrest. Largely ignored in previous research, these factors must be taken into account as they significantly affect arrest behaviour.
 

Reviews to date
 
In this ground-breaking study, Edith Linn, a former New York Police Department lieutenant, takes on the personal dimensions of arrest decisions. Some officers, suffering from low pay and high living costs, arrest for overtime and use a variety of techniques to maximize it. Others are deterred from arrest-making by the muddle of paperwork and the likelihood that a collar will interfere with childcare, second jobs, or family functions. Such officers may pass off their arrests to others, ignore criminal behaviour, or try for a desk job. Overall, this exceptional work not only humanizes these officers but adds tremendously to our store of knowledge of policing and the factors that affect officers' behaviour. (Martin D. Schwartz, Professor of Sociology, Ohio Presidential Research Scholar, Ohio University)
 
Edith Linn's book 'Arrest Decisions' is a fascinating, well-researched study of adaptive arrest behaviour among New York City Police Department officers. Linn, a former NYPD lieutenant, proves that lengthy arrest procedures generate powerful private motives to make or avoid an arrest, and that officers control their arrest-making in furtherance of their own self-interest. Buttressing her analysis are the many participants' comments, which detail the problems in their daily lives and their frustration with the system. Linn's groundbreaking work is an outstanding contribution to the literature of policing and criminal justice. I would recommend it for any interested professor, researcher, student, and the average citizen. (John S. Dempsey, Captain, New York City Police Department (Ret.); Professor Emeritus in Criminal Justice, State University of New York (SUNY)-Schenectady County Community College; Mentor in Criminal Justice and Public Administration, SUNY-Empire State College)
 
Anyone interested in exploring the full range of factors that enter a police officer's mind as he/she decides when and how often to arrest individuals should hurry up and read Edith Linn's 'Arrest Decisions'. Linn brings these considerations to life through rigorous social science analysis buttressed with illuminating revelations of officers' confidential opinions. She uncloaks the determinants of this 'adaptive arrest behaviour' as she astutely combines the practical experience of a former police lieutenant and the analytical skills of a sociologist. The book examines the intersection of the arresting process with organizational, situational, and personal factors, but it is in the area of personal factors that Linn breaks new ground. She examines such factors as post-work commitments, the burdens of the arrest process, attitudes towards arrest, personal concerns, personal finances, and pre-incident proclivity to make or decline arrests. This volume is an important contribution to the literature on police behaviour and other scholars will be well advised to replicate this valuable study. I highly recommend this work." (Eli B. Silverman, Professor Emeritus, John Jay College of Criminal Justice; Author, 'NYPD Battles Crime: Innovative Strategies in Policing')
 
Through hard work and concise analysis, Edith Linn provides us with a thought-provoking inside look at how forces outside police officers' work environments shape how they carry out their duties on the job. Linn has given a wonderful glimpse into the world of everyday police decision-making. In so doing, she has made a fine contribution to what we currently know about the operations of the police in modern American society. (David A. Klinger, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri-St. Louis)
 

The Author
 
The Author: Edith Linn spent twenty-one years with the New York City Police Department before retiring as a lieutenant in 2002. She received a Ph.D. in criminal justice from the City University of New York in 2004. She has taught at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and at Kean University, and is currently a professor at Berkeley College in New York City.
Reviewer Wanted


Would you be interested in reviewing this book? (The Book Above) If you are interested in providing a review in about 500/800 words within 3 months or sooner then please contact us by e-mail at robjerrard@aol.com providing a small CV and your interest/or expertise in this particular book/subject. We do ask reviewers to agree to review within Approximately 3 months and to assist with costs, pay the postage, books not reviewed should be returned. We are looking for a positive commitment.

"Internet Law Book Reviews" aims to provide reviews of a high standard. For an indication of what is required please see this website. "Internet Law book Reviews" which currently attracts up to 1,200 visitors per day. We welcome all categories of reviewers. We reserve the right to edit reviews. Reviews submitted are for publication on this website.


LINKS

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