INTERNET LAW BOOK REVIEWS Provided by Rob Jerrard LLB LLM (London)

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2007


Blackstone's Criminal Practice 2008

Edition: 2008 Hardback

Authors: David Ormerod

Contributors: General Editors
The Right Honourable Lord Justice Hooper
Professor David Ormerod
Peter Murphy
Consultant Editor
His Honour Judge John Phillips

Advisory Editorial Board

Peter Beaumont
Eric Stockdale
Tim Owen
David Perry
Robert Smith
Contributors
Duncan Atkinson
Alex Bailin
Diane Birch
Ed Cape
Adina Ezekiel
Rudi Fortson
Michael Hirst
Peter Hungerford-Welch
Adrian Keane
Andrew Keogh
Michael Lerego
Richard McMahon
Tim Moloney
Stephen Parkinson
Edward Rees
His Honour Judge Peter Rook
Keir Starmer
Richard D. Taylor
Martin Wasik
Frances Webber

ISBN: 13: 978-0-19-922814-0

Publishers: Oxford University Press

Price: £175

Publication Date: 11th Oct 2007

Publisher’s Title Information


A leading reference work for the criminal practitioner, frequently cited by the courts

General Editors Lord Justice Hooper and Professor David Ormerod lead a team of expert academic and practitioner contributors, offering authoritative, clear and comprehensive guidance and analysis on all aspects of criminal court practice

Covers both Crown Court and magistrates' court practice in one volume

Advice is given on all practical matters, including jurisdiction, time-limits, procedure, forms of wording, defences, and sentencing

Appendices include up-to-date text of the Criminal Procedure Rules, PACE Codes, Attorney-General's Guidelines, the Code for Crown Prosecutors, Codes, Guidelines and Protocols on Disclosure, SGC Guidelines, and the Fraud Protocol

Systematic arrangement of information and materials offers exceptional clarity

Common-sense indexing, essential cross-referencing, clear page design, and tinted thumb-tabs ensure quick navigation

Available in either print or CD-ROM, with free online updating

Free online monthly update - organised by date and by Part and cross-referenced to the main work, with links to the full text of relevant judgments and legislation

Blackstone's Criminal Practice Bulletin - free quarterly newsletter designed to alert practitioners to key developments in criminal law and sentencing

The 2008 edition has been fully updated and revised to cover essential new legislation including; the Fraud Act 2006; the Companies Act 2006; the Police and Justice Act 2006; the Road Safety Act 2006; the Violent Crime Reduction Act 2006; the Serious and Organised Crime Act 2007; as well as new sentencing guidelines from the SGC, including those on sexual offences, breach of protective orders, and domestic violence


New to this edition

New General Editors Lord Justice Hooper and Professor David Ormerod lead an expanded team of expert practitioner and academic contributors - including Rudi Fortson, Professor Ed Cape, Stephen Parkinson, Duncan Atkinson, Tim Moloney and Andrew Keogh

Rudi Fortson has joined the team to write on Drugs and Weapons

Professor Ed Cape has joined the team, restructuring and expanding coverage of Police Powers

Stephen Parkinson has joined the team, restructuring and updating section on Disclosure

Duncan Atkinson has joined the team to substantially revise sections on Criminal Court Procedure

Tim Moloney has joined the team to write on Terrorism and Appeals

Andrew Keogh has joined the team, revising and updating material on Public Funding and Costs.

Michael Lerego QC has joined the team to write on Company and related offences

Alex Bailin has joined the team to update and revise coverage of Offences Affecting Security

Appendices include up-to-date text of the Criminal Procedure Rules, PACE Codes, Attorney-General's Guidelines, the Code for Crown Prosecutors, Codes, Guidelines and Protocols on Disclosure, SGC Guidelines, and the Fraud Protocol

The 2008 edition has been fully updated and revised to cover essential new legislation including; the Fraud Act 2006; the Companies Act 2006; the Police and Justice Act 2006; the Road Safety Act 2006; the Violent Crime Reduction Act 2006; the Serious and Organised Crime Act 2007; as well as new sentencing guidelines from the SGC, including those on sexual offences, breach of protective orders, and domestic violence

Blackstone's Criminal Practice 2008 provides in a single, well-referenced , and affordable volume all the material truly essential to criminal practice in all criminal courts. Expert commentary of uncompromising quality has ensured the book's position as a leading reference for the criminal criminal practitioner. General Editors Lord Justice Hooper and Professor David Ormerod lead a team of expert academic and practitioner contributors, offering authoritative, clear and comprehensive guidance and analysis on all aspects of criminal court practice
Structured for clarity and ease of use, the book is divided into six substantive Parts (A to F) and nine appendices including up-to-date text of the Criminal Procedure Rules, PACE Codes, Disclosure materials, and A-G Guidelines.
Part A on Criminal Law: A rigorous and detailed treatise of the general legal principles of criminal law including the essential elements of crime, defences, liability, parties, and jurisdiction.
Part B on Offences: A systematic analysis of key substantive offences setting out necessary definitions, forms of indictments, applicable procedural rules, sentencing guidelines, alternative verdicts, defences, elements and so forth.
Part C on Road Traffic Offences: In-depth coverage of all road traffic offences
Part D on Procedure: Step-by-step guidance covering the practice and procedure of a case from police investigation, through trial (both summary trial and trial on indictment), to final appeal.
Part E on Sentencing: Clear and authoritative guidance on every aspect of sentencing including custodial sentences, community sentences, orders, fines, disqualification and rehabilitation.
Part F on Evidence: Detailed coverage of the principles and practice governing the complex area of evidence.
The 2008 edition has been fully updated and revised to cover recent legislative changes including; the Fraud Act 2006; the Companies Act 2006; the Police and Justice Act 2006; the Road Safety Act 2006; the Violent Crime Reduction Act 2006; the Serious and organised Crime Act 2007; amendments to the CPR; and new sentencing guidelines from the SGC, including those on sexual offences, breach of protective orders, and domestic violence.
Free online monthly update - organised by date and by Part and cross-referenced to the main work, with links to the full text of relevant judgments and legislation
Blackstone's Criminal Practice Bulletin - free quarterly newsletter designed to alert practitioners to key developments in criminal law and sentencing
Also available as a CD-ROM.


Contents

A. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE LAW

B. OFFENCES

C. ROAD TRAFFIC OFFENCES

D. PROCEDURE

E. SENTENCING

F. EVIDENCE


Review

I remember reading the first paragraph of the first edition which recorded, 'the last time it happened, George IV was on the throne, and Great Britain still harboured lingering pretensions to sovereignty over the United States, the Judicature Act 1875 was over a half - century away, the Common Law Courts sat in Westminster Hall, imprisonment was a remedy for debt and Doctors' Commons was a flourishing institution.  Felonies were capital offences, yet the accused enjoyed no right to counsel and was not permitted to testify in his own defence.  Times have changed, and even giving the conservative attitude of lawyers to innovation, it is time it happened again.  The 'it' referred to is the publication of a wholly new work in the field of criminal law dealing as comprehensively as practicable with all the law, evidence and procedure practitioners need to know.  It was in 1822 that JF Archbold first published his celebrated work'.

Was it really sixteen years ago?

The aim of the first edition was

A single volume of manageable size and expense.

An annual edition, giving up-to-date service without the cost and inconvenience of supplements

In areas of general principle writing of uncompromising and rigorous scholarly quality

In more specific areas meticulous attention to detail

Everywhere, emphasis on the practise of the courts

Critical scrutiny of contents to promote maximum utility and minimum confusion

I feel certain they have achieved these goals; however one cannot help noticing that any future increase in weight may call into question whether the book is 'of manageable size'.  The editors would no doubt point out correctly, that with the need to cover such notable statutes as the Fraud Act 2006, the Road Safety Act 2006, the Companies Act 2006 and new criminal procedure rules as well as the massive increase in the number and important sentencing guidelines. 

There is also a vast new number of cases digested in the edition including: Rahman on Joint Enterprise, Bree on Consenting Sexual Offences, Heard on Intoxication, Ramzan on Conspiracy and Money Laundering, Carey on Manslaughter, Ashton and Clark and McDaid on Criminal Procedure. 

The editors also point out, 'They have endeavoured to keep place with the alarming pace of change'.They refer to a torrent of legislation coupled with an increasing volume of appeals in criminal justice, particularly from the House of Lords.  In addition, a new species of material in the form of the 'Protocol' has appeared in recent years and they have incorporated discussions of these important documents on disclosure, terrorism and heavy fraud, in the relevant chapters.  All of this means of course that there is more relevant material than ever to incorporate if the book is to maintain its comprehensive coverage’.

New names appear with this edition, viz, Rudi Forston, Duncan Atkinson, Professor Ed Cape, Tim Maloney, Stephen Parkinson, Michael Lerego QC and Alex Bailin have replaced some of the familiar names. 

Purchasers of the book can take advantage of a quarterly bulletin, a monthly alerter to key developments as well as a website.  A CD Rom version is also available, a copy of which your Reviewer always treasures and uses extensively because as ever, time is of the essence with the busy lives we lead.

Rob Jerrard



Blackstone's Police Manual Volume 1: Crime 2008

Blackstone's Police Manual Volume 2: Evidence and Procedure 2008

Blackstone's Police Manual Volume 3: Road Policing 2008

Blackstone's Police Manual Volume 4: General Police Duties 2008

Authors: Paul Connor, Police Training Consultant
Simon Cooper, Senior Lecturer in Law, University of Sunderland,
Glenn Hutton, Private consultant to organisations concerned with recruitment and selection by way of assessment,
David Johnson, Barrister and operational inspector in the Metropolitan Police,
Gavin McKinnon, Head of Secretariat, National Policing Improvement Agency, and
Michael Orme, Former Road Traffic Policing Officer with Greater Manchester Police
Fraser Sampson, Executive Director of the Civil Nuclear Police Authority

ISBN: 13: 978-0-19-922923-9

Publishers: Oxford University Press

Price: £58

Publication Date: 23 August 2007

Publisher’s Title Description.


The only official study guides for the OSPRE Part 1 Police Promotion Examinations in England and Wales - endorsed by Centrex, now known as the National Policing Improvement Agency - detailed coverage of the entire examination syllabus

Restructured content, ensuring that the information is more concise and more focussed on the OSPRE Part 1 examinations.

New for 2008 - fully updated to include the Fraud Act 2006, Emergency Workers (Obstruction) Act 2006, the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006, the Police and Justice Act 2006 and the Violent Crime Reduction Act 2006.

Written and developed for police officers by police officers - targeted directly at the needs of the police

Keynotes by the authors break up statutory text and common law, providing clear and concise analysis of important areas

Comprehensive cross-referencing with other Blackstone's Police Manuals for ease of reference when considering subjects across other manuals

Systematic arrangement of information and materials offers exceptional clarity

Common-sense indexing and essential cross-referencing.

New to this edition

New author team for 2008 led by Paul Connor and Fraser Sampson, conducting a complete review of the manuals - making them more relevant, accessible, and targeted to the examination.

Blackstone's Police Manuals are the leading police reference texts in the UK. In addition to being the only official study guides for the police promotion examinations in England and Wales, and a recognised text for student police officers, the Manuals have quickly established themselves as the definitive reference sources for all who have involvement with police law and procedure. The Manuals have been written in consultation with police forces across England and Wales, and are endorsed by Centrex, now known as the National Policing Improvement Agency, for OSPRE Part 1 Promotion Examinations.
Each book in the four volume pack has been revised and updated to include all recent legislative changes such as the Fraud Act 2006, Emergency Workers (Obstruction) Act 2006, the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006, and Road Safety Act 2006.
The Manuals are widely used in the professional development of police officers in a variety of roles making them essential reading for anyone with an interest in police and criminal law. Whether you are a serving police officer or police trainer, a practitioner, advisor, or researcher, Blackstone's Police Manuals 2008 are an essential purchase.



Title: Blackstone's Police Manual 2008: Crime


Review of Crime and Crime Q and A

The Blackstone’s Police Manual on Crime and its accompanying questions and answers book (Smart and Watson, 2007) is the first of four Manuals that are mainly directed toward police officers studying for promotion exams to the rank of Sergeant or Inspector.  The purpose of the Manuals is ‘…to bridge the gap between the practical and theoretical worlds of policing, of law in practice and to the letter of the law’ (Connor, 2007:vii).  This is achieved though providing the reader with an in-depth and wide-ranging account of the criminal law, which relates to Human Rights and the Police and Criminal Evidence (PACE) Act 1984 Codes of Practice.  

The Crime Manual is divided into fifteen sections.  The sections can be sub-divided into eight parts.  The first part of the Manual draws the reader’s attention to the basic elements of what constitutes a criminal offence by discussing the concepts of Actus Reus and Mens Rea.  The second section examines incomplete offences, general defences and homicide, whilst the third discussion focuses upon drugs.  The forth part looks at offences against the person, including sexual offences and the legislation governing child protection.  The next two sections discuss the laws of theft and fraud and criminal damage.  The penultimate chapter is concerned with offences against the administration of justice, which offers the reader a succinct account of issues such as perjury and wasting police time, inter alia.  The final chapter is concerned with offences arising from immigration, asylum and people exploitation, which looks at amongst other things, the law relating to illegal entry, passport offences and suspected international terrorists. 

Each chapter in the Crime Manual is structured to assist and provide the reader with an understanding of the concepts, legislation and case law governing the different facets of criminal law.  This is supported by the use of explanatory notes and key examples throughout the Manual.  The chapters are also cross-referenced to the other three Manuals in the series, that is: Evidence and Procedure; Road Policing; and General Police Duties.  This is beneficial to the reader as it can broaden their understanding of the theoretical elements of policing in relation to the aforesaid areas.  The theoretical grounding of the Crime Manual is supported by the Blackstone’s police question and answer book (Smart and Watson, 2007).  The purpose of the book is to present the reader with an opportunity to put into practice the theory of the Crime Manual by working through a different number of scenarios.  There are a maximum of fifteen questions for each chapter of the Manual.  The scenarios are well-written, clearly presented and offer the reader a choice of possible answers.  The answers are discussed fully and reinforce and expand the main points of the relevant chapters.                

In summary, the Blackstone’s Crime Manual and accompanying questions and answers book presents the reader with an in-depth reference guide to criminal law.  The Manual is considered to be important for police officers studying for promotion exams.  But, it is also accessible for all police staff of different positions.  However, the preface of the Crime Manual highlights the concern that the guides have been regarded as ‘overcomplicated’ and ‘contain unnecessary detail’ (Connor, 2007:vii).  The Manual does include a lot of information for the reader to digest and in some parts the conciseness of the subject matter is lost, such as in Section 1.2.6.2 (discussion on joint enterprise).  But the scope of information provided is of value to the reader as it can broaden their understanding and depth of criminal law.  There are a number of criminal law books in circulation that could offer the reader a basic grounding in the subject and would also complement the subjects covered in the Manual (see: Martin, 2002; Elliott and Quinn, 2005).  Nonetheless, the Crime Manual is an important text for all levels of police officers not only as a study guide, but also as source of reference which draws together the theoretical and practical elements of policing.      

References:

Connor, P   (2007) Blackstone’s Police Manual 2008, Volume 1: Crime.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Elliott, C., and Quinn, F.  (2004) Criminal Law.  Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Martin, J.  (2002) Criminal Law.  Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Smart, H., and Watson, J.  (2007) Blackstone's Police Q & A 2008, Crime.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Faiza Qureshi


Review of General Police Duties

This hefty book has 531 A4 pages, 13 parts, 3 appendices and a good index. All the Blackstone's 2008 Police Manuals carry a foreword by Peter Neyroud QPM, Chief Constable and Chief Executive of the National Policing Improvement Agency. As the size of this volume indicates and as Peter Neyroud‘s foreword states: "The role of a police officer has become more technical and more demanding over the last decades."

The topics covered range from police powers, performance, human rights, community safety and general policing duties. Of particular significance in this volume is Part 4.3 on human rights and it can safely be said that no other book describes the Human Rights Act (HRA) in relation to policing as this chapter does. This chapter bought to mind the June 2007 ACPO-APO Annual Conference and the speech made by the Lord Chancellor, Lord Falconer.  http://www.justice.gov.uk/news/sp210607a.htm

Lord Falconer spoke to chief police officers about the vital role they played in the criminal justice system.  He spoke about the need for flexibility and reduced bureaucracy in the system.  He said,  "...Firstly, take the infamous Kentucky Fried Chicken episode.  He was referring to an incident involving a suspected car thief who brought the centre of Gloucester to a halt yesterday when he climbed on to the roof of a house and began throwing bricks and tiles at police. But what astonished passers-by was the sight of police officers supplying the man with Kentucky Fried Chicken, soft drinks and cigarettes.  See http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article672492.ece Times,

 "Police roof suspect fed KFC", 7 June 2006.  A spokeswoman on behalf of the police is reported as saying, and I quote 'although he's a nuisance, we still have to look after his well-being and human rights'. Two points here.   Firstly, it is utter nonsense that his human rights entitled him to KFC on the roof. This was a purely operational matter for the police to decide, whether or not providing him with food would bring about a peaceful and swift resolution to the stand-off.  Secondly, and significantly, the incident was reported as the man receiving food because of his human rights..."

Part 4.3 gives full explanations of the derogations and reservation of the Human Rights Act 1998. The Human Rights Convention is explained, clearly showing how the HRA fits into this. The keynotes include an explanation of the protocols to the Convention and how a violation is proved.

 Part 4.11 'Licensing and offences relating to alcohol' is particularly well-written and the keynotes are crisp and pointed. It is a joy to read. As an example, paragraph 4.11.9.15 is headed 'Failure to surrender items believed to be alcohol'. The offence referred to is 'Failing to surrender alcohol - Confiscation of Alcohol (Young Persons Act 1997, s 1(3)'.  'An Act to permit the confiscation of intoxicating liquor held by or for use by young persons in public and certain other places; and for connected purposes'.  We are all 'wise' to the tricks of some teenagers loitering on the streets with cans of soft drinks into which they have previously added Vodka, at least those of us who watch "Nightwatch with Steve Scott" every night on ITV1!

Each and every chapter is comprehensive and the keynotes are excellent.  It is of superb quality and content. In my opinion the content in this volume is superior to the well-known weekly police magazine's exam notes.  This volume is essential reading for all officers and is a huge credit to this volume's authors Glenn Hutton and Gavin McKinnon.

Sally Ramage


Blackstone's Police Q & A 2008

Publisher's Title Information

Blackstone's Police Q&As 2008

Fully Updated For The 2008 Syllabus

Huw Smart and John Watson, both serving police officers and qualified police trainers

100s of Multiple Choice Questions designed to test even the best prepared promotion exam candidate.

Questions match the format of the exams - the perfect way to practice your technique

Published annually with the Blackstone's Police Manuals-always completely up to date with the police promotion examination syllabus.

Full explanations of answers - highlights any gaps or weaknesses in your knowledge

Handy paragraph references to the relevant Manual for ease of use Question checklist included - so you can track your progress.

Blackstone's Police Q&A: Crime 2008.

224 pp - August 2007 978-0-19-922922-2 - £12.50 Paperback.

Blackstone's Police Q&A: Evidence and Procedure 2008.

248 pp - August 2007 978-0-19-922919-2 - £12.50 Paperback.

Blackstone's Police Q&A: Road Policing 2008.

224 pp - August 2007 978-0-19-922921-5 - £ 12.50 Paperback.

Blackstone's Police Q&A: General Police Duties 2008 240 pp - August 2007 978-0-19-922920-8-£12.50 Paperback.

Four Volume Set 2008 - 936 pp - August 2007 978-0-19-922918-5  £48.00 -

Paperback  Please note these products are not endorsed by NPIA.


Previous Reviews

"They area must for any staff member involved in learning in the police service."

David Morgan,Training Officer, Dyfed Powys Police.

"Well structured and balanc....I would recommend them to all candidates."

Rob Jerrard, Police Journal & "Internet Law Book Reviews" www.rjerrard.co.uk\law\policela\policela.htm


Crime

By Huw Smart & John Watson

ISBN 0-19-920336-9

Oxford University Press

Price: £12.50

Publication Date Sept 2007


Review of Crime Book

 This book relates to the Sergeants' and Inspectors' Part 1 promotion examinations. It is one of four books in this series, the others being 'Evidence & Procedure', 'Road Policing' and 'General Police Duties'.

The twelve topics covered in this volume on CRIME are the same twelve covered for the CRIME subject in the Blackstone’s Police series. These topics are-

State of mind and Criminal Conduct; Incomplete Offences and Police Investigations; General Offences; Homicide; Misuse of Drugs; Offences Against the Person; Sexual Offences; Child Protection; Offences Amounting to Dishonesty, Deception and Fraud; Criminal Damage; Offences Against the Administration of Justice and Public Interest and Offences Arising from Immigration, Asylum and People Exploitation.

The authors maintain that Q and A books are not easy to write, nor are they an easy examination option. I can honestly vouch for that. With Q & As, one has to have a very good knowledge of the subject before one can decide which answer is correct. On the face of it, the multiple-choice answers might look similar but there are distinct differences, which can only be spotted if one knows the subject thoroughly.

This series, like the Police Inspectors’ Series, uses the First and Second Attempt method of answering, giving oneself vital progress feedback. Brief answers are to be found at the end of each chapter.

The authors have a good sense of humour and the questions, despite their serious nature, are apt to make one smile. For example, the very first question in the book, on state of mind and criminal conduct, states:

"Lawrence hates his wife and plans to kill her. He intends to cut her throat on Tuesday morning whilst she is asleep. On Monday, Lawrence picks his wife up from work and is driving home; he is deep in thought about the following day’s planned action. Owing to his inattentiveness, Lawrence drives through a red light and his car is struck on his wife’s side. She dies as a result of the accident. Could Lawrence be guilty of murder in these circumstances?"

A.    Yes, as he has achieved his desired outcome.

B.     Yes, as he was thinking about the murder at the time of the accident.

C.     No, he cannot be guilty of murder in these circumstances.

D.    No, but he could be guilty of manslaughter.

Though not contending the seriousness of the subject, one must admit that it is rather a grim 'take' on crime, plunging one straight into the deep end, so to speak.

But here is the rub. Part of the answer states: "Murder is a crime of specific intent and requires a specific mens rea".

To illustrate the book’s strategy, using this same Q&A, let’s just unpack these multiple choice answers:

A-    Lawrence’s planned outcome is the death of his wife by murder. The accident brings about his wife’s death, but an accident is not murder. So A must be incorrect.

B-    At the time of the accident on Monday, Lawrence was thinking about the planned murder that would take place on Tuesday. He was not thinking of murdering her there and then though crashing his car. So B must be incorrect.

C-    C is the correct answer. For this scenario to be a murder scenario, Lawrence must have the mens rea to kill her by crashing the car. But it was an accident. There was no specific intent to kill his wife by crashing his car.

D-He could not be guilty of manslaughter because manslaughter requires a specific mens rea.

Each question in the book concentrates on a specific point. The questions are not, for the purpose of these examinations, intended to be overly probing, although one might hazard a guess that each and every question can make for a university level police law essay and so, in the case of question 1.1 above, the essay might begin with the origins of the term mens rea, being from the saying "actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea" , or, "an act does not make a man guilty of a crime unless his mind is also guilty".

This book is fit for purpose and its objective is for the officer to pass his/her examination - and to whet the appetite for further reading.

Sally Ramage


Oxford Dictionary of Law Enforcement

Edition: 1st

Authors: Graham Gooch & Michael Williams

ISBN: 0-19-280702-1

Publishers: Oxford University Press

Price: £10.99

Publication Date: 23rd August 2007

Publisher’s Title Information


The only available dictionary focusing on UK law enforcement terms

Over 3,400 entries cover law, pathology, forensic medicine, accountancy, insurance, shipping, commerce and trade, criminology and psychology

Targets the terms used on criminology, criminal justice, and police studies courses

Contains citations where appropriate, and references to statutes and legislation

Fully cross-referenced for ease of use

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement is the only dictionary available with a primary focus on UK law enforcement terms. Succinct and practical in its approach, it contains over 3,400 entries covering ever aspect of this diverse field, including terms related to law, pathology, forensic medicine, accountancy, insurance, shipping, commerce and trade, criminology, and psychology. Entries are supported by a wealth of practical information, including (where appropriate) citations and references to statutes and legislation.
In addition to the definitions, the dictionary also contains five useful appendices:
Abbreviations and Acronyms, Recordable Offences, Disclosure Code, Disclosure Guidelines and Disclosure Protocol.


Written by two former police officers, both now lecturers in law and criminal investigation, the dictionary fills a significant gap in the law market and will be invaluable to police officers and trainee officers, students and lecturers of criminology, criminal justice, and police studies, and other professionals needing clear definitions of law enforcement terms.


Suggested Readership: Students of criminology, criminal justice, and police studies courses, trainee and practising police officers, other professionals needing criminal law definitions, the general reader with an interest in criminal law.


Computer Crimes and Digital Investigations

Edition: 1st

Author: Ian Walden

ISBN: 978-0-19-929098-7

Publishers: Oxford University Press

Price: £75.00 (hardback)

Publication Date: 1 March 2007

Publisher’s Title Information


Provides a comprehensive legal analysis of the substantive and procedural rules relating to computer crime

Offers a clear explanation of the relevant technical aspects of computer crime

Combines detailed analysis with extensive case referencing and practical examples

Places computer crime within its international context, examining international harmonisation initiatives and mechanisms for co-operation between law enforcement bodies

Computer and network-based crime is a rapidly growing phenomenon and problem for individuals, organisations and society as a whole, whether in the form of viruses or the distribution of child pornography. Following September 11th 2001, the horrific terrorism attacks on the London transport system in July 2005, and the threat of further attack through chemical and biological weapons, there is a broad governmental recognition of the vulnerability of society to attacks against critical infrastructure, which includes computer and communications systems. As a consequence, governments have placed computer crime laws high on the political agenda.

This text provides a comprehensive legal analysis of the substantive and procedural rules relating to computer crime, and offers a clear explanation of the relevant technical aspects of computer crime, from types of attacks launched through to forensic techniques. The text places computer crime firmly in its international context, through comparative discussion of laws in other jurisdictions, international harmonisation initiatives, and mechanisms for co-operation between law enforcement bodies in different jurisdictions.


Readership:

Primary market:
practitioners and academics specialising in criminal law, information technology, intellectual property, data protection, and corporate fraud.

Secondary market:
enforcement agencies including the police and CPS, and non-legal professional advisors such as computer forensic and data security experts.


The Author

Ian Walden, Reader in Information and Communications Law and Head of Computer and Communications Law in the Centre for Commercial Studies, Queen Mary, University of London


Review

Ian Walden’s book, "Computer Crimes and Digital Investigations" is a 600-page scholarly law book on the subject of Intellectual Property Law, Expert Evidence, Computer Law and Criminal Law.

The book contains seven chapters, namely, an introduction to the subject; from Computer Abuse to Cybercrime; Committing Crimes; Substantive Offences, Addressing the Data Problems; Cyber-Forensics and Criminal Procedure, International Aspects; Jurisdiction and Harmonization, Evidential Issues; Presenting Data, and Computer Crimes and Digital Investigations.    There are also 4 appendixes.  Appendix IV is the ACPO Good Practice Guide for Computer based Electronic Evidence with some excellent flow charts of ‘Best Practice for the Seizure of Electronic Evidence’.  It includes the laws of the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, France, Hong Kong, New Zealand and the United States.

Walden cites 256 United Kingdom cases, a surprising amount, which means that this subject of computer crime is more mature than is generally thought. It is pleasing to see that the United Kingdom is not being left behind in this sector of law and there are various statutes referred to in the book, among them, the British Telecommunications Act 1981; Computer Misuse Act 1990; Anti -Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001; Sexual Offences Act 2003; Copyright and Related Regulations 2003; the Wireless Telegraphy Regulations 2003; The Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005; Companies Act 2006; Fraud Act 2006; Identity Cards Act 2006; and Police and Justice Act 2006;

The book examines the criminal code in relation to computer-related crimes. It  deals with computer integrity offences; criminal procedure regarding the investigation of enforcement agencies using computers and the law of evidence  which Walden compares with other countries’ laws of evidence and International instruments such as the 1996 UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce and the 1996 WIPO Copyright Treaty.

Walden explains content-related crimes at length and says that when considering content-related crimes, acts carried out in relation to certain subject matter need to be distinguished from the subject matter itself.  He warns against glibly classifying certain subject matter as illegal. He states that illegality depends on questions of causation. He explains that there are three categories of content-related crimes: intellectual property, pornography and communications crimes.

Then there are computer integrity offences such as hacking and distributing viruses. He calls these computer integrity offences, offences of access, modification and interception. As to interception, Walden explains how the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act works and describes two offences under this Act, these being the offence of intentionally intercepting communication without lawful authority, using public and private communications systems, both offences carrying prison sentences.  As to terrorism, the author explains why patterns created by the communications of criminal and terrorist networks in cyberspace is so extremely valuable to law enforcement agencies. In this very complex  subject of data retention, the author explains why there is the distinction between interception of content of a communication and the attributes of a communication session itself, such as identity and location. The differences are important when considering any breaches of people’s privacy, although international legal instruments do not recognise any difference between the content of a person’s communications and its attributes. Professor Walden has deep knowledge of his subject and as an instance, he states that The European Convention on Human Rights uses the term, 'correspondence' and not 'communication'.

The author also discusses evidence and examines the legal framework which governs computer-derived evidence in English criminal proceedings. Although there is pre-trial disclosure of computer evidence, the author states that, as regards ‘sensitive materials, defined as "that which the prosecution considers should not be disclosed to the defence because it would constitute a real risk of serious prejudice to an important public interest", the prosecution do not have to produce sensitive computer evidence to the defence because "the entitlement to disclosure of relevant evidence is not an absolute right".  (See Edwards and Lewis v UK [2005] 40 EHRR 24, at para 53).

The final chapter reviews the previous chapters, the changing landscape of evidence, and governments’ policy-making as regards the Internet Professor Walden concludes that cyberspace needs effective policing and is dependent on the intermediaries through whom "we obtain access to the Internet". Controlling content over the Internet will be the cyber-policing problem for years to come, Professor Walden states.

Sally Ramage



The Grammar of Criminal Law
American, Comparative, and International

Volume One: Foundations

Edition: 1st

Author: George P Fletcter

ISBN: 978-0-19-510310-6

Publishers: Oxford University Press

Price: £32.99 (hardback)

Publication Date: 7 June 2007

Publisher’s Title Information


Written by the author of the influential Rethinking Criminal Law

Addresses issues of international concern since 9/11

Presents original and provocative arguments destined to be highly debated

Essential reference work on international criminal law


Recent years have seen a significant shift in international thinking about the use of criminal law, yet until now little has been written that tackles both traditional criminal law and the international uses of the new millennium.

The Grammar of Criminal Law will be a three-volume work that addresses the field of international and comparative law, focusing on issues of international concern, ranging from genocide to domestic efforts to combat terrorism, torture, and other international crimes. This first volume is devoted to foundational issues. George P Fletcher contends that the future of criminal law reform throughout the world depends both on the influence of the Rome Statute, which established the International Criminal Court, and on a synthesis of the basic principles under­lying the leading legal systems of the world. Fletcher's comparative synthesis is grounded in three concepts that underlie all systems of crimi­nal law: human action, punishment, and guilt. These are tied together by the concept of wrong­doing, which is central to the basic structure of crime and punishment. It represents the response

to two basic questions: What makes offenders guilty? What makes their actions punishable? Fletcher goes on to develop the relevance of both political and moral theory for the proper analysis of criminal law. In the theory of crimi­nal law, he argues, the theory of state must precede all inquiries into moral theory. It is precisely a particular theory of the state that determines which moral theories are relevant to wrongdoing, guilt, and punishment. Virtually all legal philosophers-following Dworkin's lead-confound political analysis and appeal directly to moral arguments, and moreover, most retributive theorists skip the political

analysis and appeal directly to moral argu­ments. Fletcher takes on these competing views, arguing that a direct appeal to moral arguments in the law is impermissible without first justifying the use of state power in punish­ing criminals.

The Grammar of Criminal Law is unique in its systematic emphasis on the relationship between language and legal theory. Written in the spirit of Fletcher's classic Rethinking Crimi­nal Law, this work is essential reading in the fields of international law, legal philosophy, and criminal law.


The Author

George P Fletcher is Cardozo Professor of Jurisprudence at Columbia University. He is the most frequently cited author on criminal law in the United States.



Reviewer Wanted

Would you be interested in reviewing this book? (The Book Above) If you are interested in providing a review in about 600/800 words within 3 months or sooner then please contact me by e-mail at robjerrard@aol.com providing a small CV and your interest in this particular book. I do ask reviewers to agree to review within 3 months and pay the postage, books not reviewed should be returned. I am looking for a positive commitment.

For an indication of what is required please see this site, which contains hundreds of examples. "Internet Law book Reviews" which currently attracts up to 1,200 visitors per day welcomes all categories of reviewers.


Blackstone’s Police Investigators' Q&A 2007

Edition: 2007

Author: Paul Conner

ISBN: 978-0-19-920731-2
Publishers: Oxford University Press

Price: £15.99

Publication Date: 9 November 2006

Publisher’s Title Information


Contains a full range of over 200 practice multiple-choice questions which mirror the Blackstone's Police Investigators' Manual 2007 content, enabling officers to use the book as an effective learning tool

Updated to include coverage of new legislation including the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005 (SOCPA), the updates to the PACE Codes of Practice, the Drugs Act 2005 and the Terrorism Act 2006

Assists students in highlighting any gaps or weaknesses in their knowledge by providing a full explanation of the answers

Contains useful exam preparation technique chapters which train students for the exam situation

Written by an experienced and highly successful question writer
Questions are set out as exam practice questions designed for preparation for the National Investigators' Exam

Blackstone's Police Investigators' Q&A 2007 consists of over 200 multiple-choice questions designed to test trainee investigators studying for the National Investigators' Examination (NIE). The Q&As are arranged in the same order as the chapters in the Blackstone's Police Investigators' Manual 2007 s o as to aid learning and check understanding. This book also contains a useful section on how to study for the NIE, including advice on how to approach multiple-choice questions and useful exam techniques. All the multiple-choice questions contain answers with detailed explanations and references back to the Investigators' Manual .
The book is designed to reinforce knowledge and understanding of the NIE syllabus. The NIE is a paper based Multiple Choice Question examination testing knowledge of law and procedure relevant to the role of a trainee investigator (in the areas of Property Offences, Assaults, Drugs, Firearms & Defences, Sexual Offences and Evidence). This Q&A book will help to highlight any gaps or weaknesses in that knowledge.
Fully updated to include coverage of new legislation including the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005 (SOCPA), the updates to the PACE Codes of Practice, the Drugs Act 2005 and the Terrorism Act 2006.
Written by an experienced and highly successful question writer, this text is a valuable learning aid and practice book for both students and trainers.

This product is not endorsed by Centrex


Review(s) from previous edition:

'The book is I believe the first port of call for any trainee investigator studying for their exam.' - Detective Sergeant Phil Stokoe, NCPE, Investigative Skills

'It is a first class book that I thoroughly recommend.' - Detective Chief Inspector Tim Raymond, Essex Police

'I have spoken to officers who had used this book last year for the exam and all without fail stated it was a fine tool, which was easy to use. It was very convenient in size and user-friendly. By using it I have improved my knowledge and that of my team. To sum up this book is a great aid; easy to work with and user-friendly. I am confident that those who were successful this year will recommend the 2006 Edition to their fellow officers.' - DS Paul Cheadle, Metropolitan Police, in the review at "Internet Law Book Reviews",SEE Below 2005 review


Readership

Primary market is trainee investigators taking the National Investigators' Exam (NIE) and CID training departments directly connected with the NIE. Secondary market is general training departments, CID departments, police forces and associated organisations.  Also officers studying for the Part 1 of the Sergeants and Inspectors examinations will find this useful for extra practice.


Review of 2005 Edition

I had my mind set for a Q & A session, but found myself in the middle of chapter one enthralled with the information of how it works and best practice backed up with evidence to prove the point.  On reflection, the first 23 pages of the whole book are the most crucial.  These cover, "Revising for the NIE" and  "Taking the NIE".

By the time officers have obtained this book, they have probably studied the course work and are not interested in reading more, but wish to test their knowledge, especially, if it has been some time since they last studied.  I would like to see the emphasis put throughout the book, on referring students to the first chapter to ensure they have absorbed its content.

The Q & A section I found well laid out and thought through.  I particularly liked the grading system and the fact that the answers were at the back of each chapter and not at the back of the book.

I have spoken to officers who had used this book last year for the exam and all without fail stated it was a fine tool, which was easy to use.  It was very convenient in size and user-friendly.  By using it I have improved my knowledge and that of my team.

To sum up this book is a great aid; easy to work with and user-friendly.  I am confident that those who were successful this year will recommend the 2006 Edition to their fellow officers.

Paul Cheadle, Metropolitan Police



Reviewer Wanted

Would you be interested in reviewing this book? (The Book Above) If you are interested in providing a review in about 600/800 words within 3 months or sooner then please contact me by e-mail at robjerrard@aol.com providing a small CV and your interest in this particular book. I do ask reviewers to agree to review within 3 months and pay the postage, books not reviewed should be returned. I am looking for a positive commitment.

For an indication of what is required please see this site, which contains hundreds of examples. "Internet Law book Reviews" which currently attracts up to 1,200 visitors per day welcomes all categories of reviewers.



Blackstone’s Guide to The Human Rights Act 1998

Edition: 4th Edition

Series: Blackstone's Guide Series

Author: John Wadham, Helen Mountfield, Anna Edmundson & Caoilfhionn Gallagher

ISBN: 978-0-19-929957-7

Publishers: Oxford University Press

Price £34.95

Publication Date: 29 March 2007

Publisher’s Title Description


Provides a clear and concise explanation of how the Human Rights Act has been applied

Outlines the scope of the Convention articles and highlights key domestic cases on relevant rights

Summarises the interpretative techniques that lawyers need to understand

Written by leading experts in the field

Details further sources for research on domestic and Strasbourg human rights jurisprudence

Contains full copies of the Human Rights Act 1998, the European Convention on Human Rights, and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights

Analyses the impact of Convention rights in landmark judgments from areas such as constitutional law, discrimination law and criminal law

Explains how the UK courts are exercising their interpretative obligation to read legislation compatibly with Convention rights

Examines the notion of 'judicial deference' and how it has been applied in key cases

Maps the beginnings of a divergence in approach between the UK and Strasbourg Courts to human rights protection

Contents

1. Introduction

2. The Framework of the European Convention on Human Rights

3. The Framework of the Human Rights Act 1998

4. The Operation of the Human Rights Act 1998

5. Bringing a Claim under the Human Rights Act 1998

6. Human Rights Act 1998 Remedies for Breaches of Convention Rights

7. The Interaction between Convention Principles and European Union Law

8. Convention Rights and the Human Rights Act 1998

9. When Rights have not been Brought Home: Taking a Case to Strasbourg

10. Researching Human Rights Jurisprudence

Appendix 1 - The Human Rights Act 1998

Appendix 2 - The Government's White Paper

Appendix 3 - Extracts from Hansard

Appendix 4 - European Convention for the Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms

Appendix 5 - Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

Appendix 6 - Selected Extracts from Equality Act 2006



Reviewer Wanted

Would you be interested in reviewing this book? (The Book Above) If you are interested in providing a review in about 600/800 words within 3 months or sooner then please contact me by e-mail at robjerrard@aol.com providing a small CV and your interest in this particular book. I do ask reviewers to agree to review within 3 months and pay the postage, books not reviewed should be returned. I am looking for a positive commitment.

For an indication of what is required please see this site, which contains hundreds of examples. "Internet Law book Reviews" which currently attracts up to 1,200 visitors per day welcomes all categories of reviewers.


The Proceeds of Crime

Law and Practice of Restraint, Confiscation, Condemnation and Forfeiture

Edition: 2nd 2007

Authors: Trevor Millington & Mark Sutherland Williams

ISBN: 10: 0-19-929864-5
Publishers: Oxford University Press

Price £95 HB

Publisher's Title Description


Comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the law of asset forfeiture, including civil and criminal procedure

Step-by-step, practical guide to confiscation hearings under the DTA, CJA and POCA, enforcements, appeals, and the role of the Assets Recovery Agency

Expert analysis of recent decisions, like Capewell and Jennings , and legislative changes such as the Criminal Procedure Rules 2005 and SOCPA 2005

Clear layout and extensive cross-referencing to promote ease of use

New chapters on condemnation law (bootlegging), property freezing orders and restoration hearings before the VAT and Duties Tribunal

Updated coverage on disclosure of suspicious transactions

 Includes precedents for drafting restraint, receivership, and other orders


New to this Edition

Completely updated to include recent case law, the Criminal Procedure Rules 2005, and the changes made to POCA by the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005

New chapters on freezing orders and condemnation are included

Updated coverage on disclosure of suspicious transactions for professionals

In-depth study on condemnation law and bootlegging

The Proceeds of Crime second edition introduces the reader to the complexities of the proceeds of crime and asset recovery legislation in both a user-friendly and step-by-step way. This portable and easily navigable book provides the reader with a clear insight into every stage of assisting the client from restraint to confiscation and how to apply for a Certificate of Inadequacy and what powers enforcement authorities have to enforce orders, particularly the appointment of receivers.
Proceeds of crime and asset recovery law has taken on greater importance to the criminal practitioner in recent years, particularly with the transfer of the criminal restraint and receivership powers of the High Court to the Crown Court under the 2002 legislation. The new edition has been updated to include analysis of the most recent decisions emanating from the Courts, like
Capewell and Jennings , together with comment on all of the main legislative changes, with reference to both the Criminal and Civil Procedure Rules and changes brought about by the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005. It also includes new chapters on:
Restraint and receivership orders
Practice and procedure in both the Crown Court and the High Court
Disclosure orders
Repatriation of assets from abroad
How to deal with contempt of court applications
Condemnation law (bootlegging)
This second edition is an essential purchase for criminal practitioners, for the well-balanced and practical assistance it affords, both on the high street and in the court-room.


Contents

1. Setting the Scene

2. Restraint and Charging Orders under the DTA and CJA

3. Management Receivers under the DTA and CJA

4. Ancillary Orders: Seizure, Disclosure and Repatriation of Assets

5. Applications to Vary or Discharge Restraint Orders made under the DTA and CJA

6. Enforcement of Restraint and Receivership Orders: Contempt of Court

7. Practice and Procedure in the High Court: DTA and CJA Cases

8. Restraint and Receivership under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002

9. Preparing for Confiscation Hearings under the DTA

10. The DTA Confiscation Hearing

11. Preparing for Confiscation Hearings under the CJA

12. The CJA Confiscation Hearing

13. Variations to Confiscation Orders under the DTA and CJA

14. Preparing for Confiscation Hearings under POCA

15. The POCA Confiscation Hearing

16. Reconsideration of Confiscation Orders under POCA and the Defendant who Absconds

17. Enforcement of Confiscation Orders under the CJA, the DTA and POCA

18. The Insolvent Defendant

19. Civil Recovery: Property Freezing Orders; Interim Receivers and Legal Expenses

20. Civil Recovery: Recovery Orders; Pensions and the ECHR

21. Recovery and Seizure of Cash under POCA

22. Third Parties and Confiscation Law

23. Investigations

24. Appeals

25. The International Element

26. Money Laundering

27. Disclosure of Suspicious Transactions

28. Costs and Compensation

29. Condemnation and Restoration

APPENDICES: Draft Orders, Letters, and Prescribed Forms etc.

Appendix 1 - RESTRAINT ORDER

Appendix 2 - MANAGEMENT RECEIVERSHIP ORDER

Appendix 3 - ENFORCEMENT RECEIVERSHIP ORDER

Appendix 4 - LETTER OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN PROSECUTOR AND RECEIVER

Appendix 5 - VARIATION OF RESTRAINT ORDER

Appendix 6 - LSC FUNDING ARRANGEMENTS

Appendix 7 - APPLICATION NOTICE BY DEFENDANT SEEKING CERTIFICATE OF INADEQUACY

Appendix 8 - CERTIFICATE OF INADEQUACY

Appendix 9 - CLAIM FORM (CPR PART 8)

Appendix 10 - EXTRACT FROM CIVIL RECOVERY PRACTICE DIRECTION: PARTS 5 AND 8 - SECTION III

Appendix 11 - EXTRACT FROM CIVIL RECOVERY PRACTICE DIRECTION: PARTS 5 AND 8 - SECTION IV

Appendix 12 - SCHEDULE 6 TO POCA

Appendix 13 - DRAFT RESTRAINT, DISCLOSURE AND REPATRIATION ORDER UNDER POCA

Appendix 14 - CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE

Appendix 15 - INTERIM RECEIVING ORDER UNDER S 246 OF POCA

Appendix 16 - USEFUL WEBSITES ON POCA 2002

Appendix 17 - PROPERTY FREEZING ORDER

Appendix 18 - CIVIL RECOVERY BY CONSENT ORDER

Appendix 19 - SC GUIDANCE ON CIVIL RECOVERY

Appendix 20 - SCHEDULE 3 OF THE CUSTOMS AND EXCISE MANAGEMENT ACT 1979

Appendix 21 - ARA: SETTLEMENT OF CIVIL RECOVERY AND TAX CASES

Appendix 22 - SECRETARY OF STATES GUIDANCE TO ARA


Review(s) from previous edition:

"...by far the best book on the subject"' - Henry Milner, Solicitor and Partner, Henry Milner & Co

"...an essential and invaluable text..."' - Criminal Bar Association News

'"not only an invaluable introduction to the area, but also a continued source of practical assistance"' - New Law Journal

"...simply indispensable to anyone concerned with the criminal law"' - Justice of the Peace



Blackstone’s Guide to The Fraud Act 2006

Edition: 1st

Authors: Simon Farrell, Nicholas Yeo & Guy Ladenburg

ISBN: 0-19-929624-3
Publishers: Oxford University Press

Price £34.95

Publication Date: 29 March 2007

Publisher’s Title Description


Places new offences including those of obtaining services dishonestly and of the act of possessing or making material for use in frauds, in the context of previous law

Structured in a clear and accessible way, with narrative logically following the structure of the Act

Lucid commentary on the effect of the new legislation, and guidance on its likely impact and interpretation in practice

Contains full text of the Fraud Act 2006

The Blackstone's Guide Series delivers concise and accessible books covering the latest legislative changes and amendments.  Published within weeks of the Act, they offer expert commentary by leading names on the effects, extent and scope of the legislation, plus a full copy of the Act itself.  They offer a cost-effective solution to key information needs and are the perfect companion for any practitioner needing to get up to speed with the latest changes.

The Fraud Act 2006 creates a new general offence of fraud with a maximum custodial sentence of ten years; replacing all previous deception offences as detailed under the Theft Acts 1968-1996.  This new offence can be committed in three ways;

By false representation
By failing to disclose information
By abuse of position

The Act also creates new offences of obtaining services dishonestly, and replaces the existing 'going equipped' offence, to criminalise the act of possessing or making material for use in frauds.  This new Blackstone's Guide provides the full text of the Fraud Act 2006 and extracts from related relevant legislation, together with expert narrative.  The authors provide detailed and practical commentary logically following the structure of the Act, on the effect of the legislation, its probable interpretation, and its impact on the existing law of dishonesty.


Reviews


The Fraud Act 2006, which came into force 15 January 2007, is an important new statute which creates new offences of fraud that can be committed in three ways. Because all deception offences under the Theft Acts of 1968 and 1978 are abolished, with dishonesty being more important than the mind of the victim, it is vitally important for all those involved in the day to day criminal law to be fully aware of its contents.

For that reason this book is a very good guide, which in addition to covering the law, old and new, also provides the statute in full along with other germane statutes, Reports of Royal Commissions and related matters such as Protocol’s issued by the Lord Chief Justice.  

Appendix 6 lists other fraud legislation viz, the Theft Acts 1968 and 1978, Forgery & Counterfeiting Act 1981, Copyright Design & Patents Acts 1988, Computer Misuse Act 1990, Social Security Administration Act 1992, Criminal Justice Act 1993, Trademarks Act 1994, Value Added Tax Act 1994, Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 and Proceeds of Crime Act 2002.

Appendix 9 lists sample indictments, which may assist Prosecutors and Custody Sergeants to write up the charge.

The book covers much of the law and discussions very succinctly.  There is a great deal to cover with such a complex subject as fraud.  Prosecutors and Police who have lived with the problem of the ‘deception’ offences under the Theft Acts for decades will recognise a good deal as the authors discuss the pre 1968 position with cases such as 'Preddy' and 'Gomez', minds will be cast back to the hours spent reading 'Ellemes', 'Hinks', 'AG’s Reference No 1 of 1985', the 'Ghosh test for dishonesty' and the words subjective and objective, 'Oxford v Moss' and 'Dura', 'Childs' and 'Lambie' and the taxi and restaurant cases that stretched our minds and the law!

The book correctly provides a good introduction to the subject by taking the reader through the main provisions first, with the discussion with the divers reasons behind the new fraud law.   This includes the Fraud Review of July 2006, the UK International obligations, the extent of the fraud problem, the pre 1968 jurisprudence and of course problems with the Theft Act 1968.

It was necessary to discuss briefly the old Larceny Act and how courts circumvented problems by a series of illogical and ingenious interventions by the judiciary and by piecemeal statutory reform.  In those days we had such offences as obtaining property by false pretences, embezzlement, fraudulent conversion, larceny by bailee, obtaining credit by fraud and false accounting - all offences which my Instructors in 1968 delighted in referring to as we struggled to learn the new Theft Act.  "You people are so lucky, we had to deal with such matters as":-

Larceny Bailee

Being the Bailee of........ (specify), together of the value of........ (amount), the goods of........ (name), did feloni­ously convert them to his own use, at........ (place), Parish of........ (name).            (24 and 25 Vict., c. 96, s. 3, 68, 80.)

What these Instructors could not know is we would have to deal with, inter alia, s. 16(2)(a) of the Theft Act 1968, which was eventually described as 'a judicial nightmare' (Royle [1971] 1 WLR 1764 per Edmund Davies LJ).

Having set the scene in Chapter 1 by either triggering the memory or conveying to the reader the old law and the reasons for the new, the rest of the book takes us through the new Fraud Act starting with the new fraud offences.

S1        -Fraud

S2        -Fraud by false representation

S3        -Fraud by failing to disclose information

S4        -Fraud by abuse of position

S5        -'Gain' and 'loss' defined (Nothing new here)

S6        -Possession of articles for use in fraud

S7        -Making or supplying of articles for use in fraud

S8        -Articles defined

S9        -Participating in fraudulent business carried on by a sole trader

S10      -Participating in fraudulent business by a company

S11      -Obtaining services dishonestly (Note the absence of the word ‘deception’)

S12      -Liability of company officers for offences by company

Schedule 1 lists all minor and consequential amendments and all the old familiar sections of S15, 15A, 16, 20(2) and those of the 1978 Act beloved of examiners have gone.  However still with us is S3 of the Theft Act 1978, 'Making off without payment' ('Bilking' as it is known).  The reasons given for this offence are to be found in the Criminal Law Revision Committees’ 13th Report, paras 19 and 20.  This still leaves the problem of when did the ownership of the goods pass.  Also preserved are the offences of False Accounting S17, Liability for Company Directors S18, False Statements by Company Directors and Dishonest Destruction of Documents.

Possibly as important as the new Act will be the fraud management and the future of fraud trials, which is covered in Chapter 9.

This book represents a reasonably sound investment for any practitioner or Police officer wishing to learn the new Act in sufficient detail to tackle day-to-day tasks.

Rob Jerrard


Fraud is a socio-legal concept of much complexity. Fraud, like all crime, is a result of a combination of psychological and sociological factors.

Although the word "fraud" has been in use for centuries, there has never before been a legal definition of 'fraud' in English law. English offences of fraud are found in various Acts and were thus recognised by the Home Office. The Law Commission, Report No.276, Cm 5560 (2002), suggested bringing all such offences under an umbrella offence of fraud and now there is the UK Fraud Act 2006.

Section 1 of the Fraud Act creates an offence of fraud if committed by a person who breaches sections 2, 3, or 4. Section 2 deals with fraud by false representation, section 3 deals with fraud by failing to disclose information and section 4 deals with fraud by abuse of position.  One example of potential complexity is the issue of fraudulent trading which is defined in the Companies Act 2006, section 993 and the Insolvency Act 1986, sections 213 and 357.

The reader is told that although the Fraud Act 2006 is a major change in the law, there are already many current legal “weapons” for prosecuting fraud that remain in UK, legislation such as: Value Added Tax Act 1994, specifically dealing with tax evasion; Criminal Justice Act 1993 - dealing with insider dealing, Theft Act 1968 - dealing with  false accounting; Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 dealing with  misleading market practices and Companies Act 2006 - dealing with  fraudulent trading.

Chapter 3, tackling agreements to commit fraud, deals mostly with the mens rea in conspiracy and the mens rea in fraud conspiracies. Regarding mens rea of fraud offences, there is a two-way test for dishonesty- dishonesty by the ordinary standards of reasonable and honest people and where this is so, whether the defendant was aware that his conduct would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and honest people. The accused must intend to make a gain for himself or another; to cause loss to another or to expose another to a risk of loss though gain or loss need not ensue and such gain or loss  extends only to gain or loss in money or other property, property being real or personal.

As to false representation fraud as per section 2(1) of Fraud Act 2006, the actus reus is the making of a false representation.  Section 2(3) Fraud Act defines a representation as any representation as to fact or law, including a representation as to the state of mind of the person making the representation or any other person. So the representation can be express or implied by conduct and therefore possible by omission, whether there is a duty to speak or not and section 2(5) provides that a representation may be regarded as made, if it is submitted on any form to any system or device designed to receive, convey or respond to communications with or without human intervention.

Section 3 Fraud Act covers silence or fraud by failing to disclose information.  Moreover, “false representation” are the words used in the Fraud Act rather than misrepresentation”.  The mens rea for false representation is that the defendant knew the representation was untrue or might be untrue or that it was misleading or might be misleading, with intent to gain or cause loss dishonestly.

Chapter 9 is concerned with fraud management and the future of fraud trials including the Fraud Protocol of March 2005.

Only a few books have been published on the Fraud Act 2006 and for this reason, this book by Farrell et al is compulsory reading for all criminal lawyers.

Sally Ramage


Interviewing Children about Sexual Abuse

Author: Kathleen Coulborn Faller

ISBN-10: 0-19-531177-9
ISBN-13: 978-0-19-531177-8

Publishers: Oxford University Press

Price £19.99

Publication Date: 25 January 2007

Publisher’s Title Information


The only book on interviewing children about sexual abuse that has a critical review of the literature

Not a "how-to" book but rather a resource to aid professionals in determining the best practices for interviewing children

Makes what is often a "hot-button" subject, and one that people find hard and unpleasant to deal with, seem more rational and manageable

Interviewing children who may been sexually abused is a daunting task fraught with far-reaching consequences for the children, families, institutions, and professionals involved. With no room for error, forensic and clinical interviewers must navigate the complex and often contradictory evidence that informs their decision making.

Here, Kathleen Coulborn Faller, a leading expert on child sexual abuse, critically analyses the research on assessing child sexual abuse. Noting that issues such as memory and suggestibility, questioning techniques, the use of media, and false allegations remain hotly contested, chapters guide readers in applying available research to professional judgment while drawing also on best practice guidelines and conceptual, clinical, and consensus-based writings. The only up-to-date resource of its kind,
Interviewing Children About Sexual Abuse covers the entire interview process, showing professionals how to structure, document, and follow up on children's responses in interviews; work with children who are very young, have special needs, or come from diverse backgrounds; use standardized tests and measures; formulate conclusions about sexual abuse; and defend those decisions in a courtroom or clinical setting.

Readership: service providers who are involved in child interviewing and assessment -- health care professionals, child protection workers, law enforcement personnel, and prosecutors -- with particular relevance for social workers and mental health professionals who have had little forensic training.

Contents

1. Forensic and Clinical Interviewer Roles in Child Sexual Abuse

2. Children's Memory and Suggestibility

3. Models for Assessing Child Sexual Abuse

4. Interviewer Objectivity and Allegations of Sexual Abuse

5. Number of Child Interviews

6. Documentation of the Interview

7. Interview Structure, Protocol, or Guidelines

8. Questioning Techniques

9. Media for Interviewing Children

10. Special Considerations for Cases Involving Young Children

11. Interviewing Children with Special Needs

12. Conducting Culturally Competent Sexual Abuse Interviews with Children from Diverse Racial, Cultural, and Socio-Economic Backgrounds

13. Children Who Do Not Want to Disclose

14. False Allegations of Sexual Abuse

15. Standardized Tests and Measures

16. Criteria for Deciding about the Likelihood of Sexual Abuse

17. Formulating Conclusions about Sexual Abuse

The Author

Kathleen Coulborn Faller, Professor of Social Work and Director of the Family Assessment Clinic, University of Michigan


Review

This book, co-written by a group of American social workers and child psychiatrists with considerable experience and expertise in working with child victims of sexual abuse, will surely establish itself as a must-have for all those necessarily engaged in interviewing children who disclose abuse. Although the authors - all past or present key members of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children - operate in a different jurisdiction, the information and guidance offered is just as relevant and informative to those working in the UK and draws as strongly on UK based research and practice as it does on North American studies. Utilising their experience and knowledge, the aim of the book is to better prepare and inform professionals about the continuing controversial and contested issues that they are likely to face, when working with cases of child sexual abuse, in order to better equip them to make adequate assessments about the actuality of sexual abuse and to defend the professional decisions they make. The text effectively delivers this objective by drawing on a comprehensive combination of academic and professional sources including commentary, critical evaluation of research studies, best practice policies and guidelines, and clinical opinion. In particular all the authors present an interesting and extensive comparative review of the prevailing empirical research and field studies undertaken relevant in the subject area of their chapter, highlighting the salient advantages and disadvantages of the methodology adopted and conclusions drawn.

The book covers 17 'knowledge areas', one per chapter, each relating to different aspects relevant to the assessment of children for possible sexual abuse, offering advice on how to communicate with and interview such children, and identifying strategies and understandings to help minimize the potential for any legal challenges founded on the basis of the reliability and integrity of any pre-trial interviews. This not only gives some indication of the complexity of issues and sensitivities involved, which anyone with experience of such cases will be only too consciously aware, in undertaking interviews with children where often both forensic and clinical objectives need to be satisfied and fulfilled contemporaneously. The authors present an extremely comprehensive and pragmatic review of the current thinking, information, practice guidelines and strategies operating within their field, covering the fundamental issues and questions that child abuse professionals need to be fully cognizant of. For example, who should conduct such interviews, how, when, where, and what individual factors and sensitivities should be  taken into account, both in respect of the children themselves and also in maintaining their role as objective professionals.

Each chapter focuses on a particular aspect of the interview process starting in the first four chapters with the distinction between forensic and clinical objectives and the problems that may present, the role and objectivity of the interviewers and how this can be best achieved, and the influence of childhood memory and suggestibility in terms of reliability. The combination of these opening chapters in effect deals with the initial planning stages of organising the interview and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the type of approach and model to be utilized; the options reviewed include the child interview model, joint investigation model, parent-child interaction and comprehensive assessment model. In terms of interviewer objectivity, comparisons are drawn between the three different approaches that child care professionals tend to adopt; a believing stance, a neutral stance and a sceptical stance, Not surprisingly, research tends to confirm that legal professionals are more likely to adopt a sceptical stance than mental health professionals and that law enforcement officers are more persuaded by visual representations acted out by the child using facilitating media. The approach throughout the book however, is not to single out particular professionals and professional practices for criticism, but more constructively to allow the reader to make their own judgements and decisions on how to proceed and conduct interviews in conjunction with the observations and critiques presented.

The next eight chapters then deal with the practical delivery of the interview including structure, protocol guidelines, reporting and documentation, and questioning techniques. While the use of open questions is confirmed, different opinions are presented about the types of preferred questions that might be used depending on the level of disclosure. The criteria to be considered when using facilitating media such as dolls, drawings, pictures etc., and respectively their relative merits is highlighted together with confirmation and justifications supporting the use of such aids in enhancing communication and demonstration of the abuse perpetrated. Useful guidance is offered as to which media might work best for obtaining and reinforcing a particular piece of information or evidence about what happened, and how such material might be presented and viewed in court. Two further chapters focus on interviewing particularly vulnerable children; very young children and children with special needs, raising a number of additional considerations to be taken into account. Similarly the final chapter in this part of the book provides think points and advice on conducting culturally competent interviews cognizant of race, ethnicity and social class.

The final six chapters deal with the determination of whether or not abuse has in fact occurred and how professionals might attempt to distinguish false allegations from genuine and reluctant ones. A review of 16 different research studies undertaken to identify likely sexual abuse indicators resulted in three common determinants: specific detail of the assault, effect consistent with the abuse description and advanced sexual knowledge, as well as a range of more disputed factors. In the concluding chapters a suggested procedural model for collecting data and information is provided on which to make a more informed decision together with a list of potential errors that may befall professionals. A list of alternative explanations and factors that could prompt false allegations of sexual abuse is suggested, together with a number of practical strategies for dealing with children who are unwilling or reluctant to disclose.

Overall, this book provides a highly informative, readable and extensive critique of the current epistemology relating to the disclosure of child sexual abuse; if any research in this area has been commissioned or published it will be reviewed and referenced here. But more importantly the book is not only written for those who work in this very difficult and traumatic arena, but is written in a manner that acknowledges and respects their individual professionalism. The authors do not preach or dictate, for example which methods should be used, but offer practical advice, authority and suggestions to enable those working on the ground to conduct the most effective interviews and therefore be even more confident and assured in ultimately presenting and justifying their strategies in the courtroom and legal environment.

Kim Stevenson



Pleadings Without Tears
A Guide to Legal Drafting Under the Civil Procedure Rules

Edition: 7th

Author: William Rose

ISBN-10: 0-19-928077-0
ISBN-13: 978-0-19-928077-3

Publishers: Oxford University Press

Price £24.95

Publication Date: 18 January 2007

Introduction


Alice laughed. 'There's no use trying', she said: 'one can't believe impossible things.'

'I daresay you haven't had much practice', said the Queen. 'When I was your age, I always did it for half-an-hour a day. Why, sometimes I've believed as many as six impossible things before breakfast.'

'Give your evidence', said the King; 'and don't be nervous, or I'll have you executed on the spot.'

The White Rabbit put on his spectacles. 'Where shall I begin, please your Majesty?' he asked.

'Begin at the beginning', the King said gravely, 'And go on till you come to the end, then stop.'

Publisher’s Title Description


One of the most successful books on practical legal drafting in litigation

Written in a lively and entertaining style, whilst providing many useful tips and examples

Takes full account of the various relevant changes to the Civil Procedure Rules since the last edition

New to this edition

Includes a new chapter on skeleton arguments

Pleadings Without Tears has become established as one of the most successful books on practical legal drafting in the context of litigation. This new seventh edition consolidates and updates the sixth edition to take account of the various relevant changes to the Civil Procedure Rules, and includes a new chapter on skeleton arguments.
The book takes a practical and insightful look at the subject of legal drafting. Rather than merely providing a series of precedents, the author sets out fundamental rules common to all good drafting, so that the reader will become more confident in approaching this often unnecessarily daunting subject.
The book contains a wealth of practical examples and anecdotes and is illustrated throughout with cartoons. Its light and entertaining style, combined with detailed analysis and explanation, enable the reader to easily acquire a good understanding of drafting.

Contents

1. Pillars of Understanding (General Principles)

2. Getting the Show on the Road (The Claim)

3. Making a Fight of It (The Defence and Counterclaim)

4. The Right to Reply (The Reply)

5. Don't Answer Back (Rejoinder, etc)

6. Pray-Tell Me (The Request for Further Information)

7. 'Just to Let You Know..' (The Answer to a Request for Further Information)

8. Come and Join In (Additional Claims Against Third Parties)

9. Pieces of Eight (The Part 8 Procedure)

10. 'To Tell You the Truth...' (Affadavits and Witness Statements)

11. Just a Minute (Minutes and Agreed Orders)

12. Bones of Contention (The Skeleton Argument)

13. A Matter of Opinions (Opinion Writing)


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Blackstone's Criminal Practice 2007

Edition: 2007 Edition

Author: Peter Murphy & John Phillips

Contributors: Advisory Editors;
HHJ Peter Beaumont (the Recorder of London)
HHJ Roderick Denyer
Lord Justice Hooper
Professor David Ormerod (Leeds University)
Tim Owen QC (Matrix Chambers)
David Perry (barrister, 6 King's Bench Walk)
Robert Smith QC (16 Park Place Chambers)
Contributors;
Diane Birch, LLB Professor of Criminal Justice and Evidence, University of Nottingham
Adina Ezekiel, barrister, 6 King's Bench Walk
Michael J. Gunn, LLB Professor of English Law and Associate Dean, Nottingham Law School, Nottingham
Michael Hirst, LLB, LLM Professor of Criminal Justice, De Montfort University, Leicester
Peter Hungerford-Welch, LLB, Barrister Associate Dean and Director of Teaching Staff Resources, Inns of Court School of Law, City University, London
Adrian Keane, LLB, Barrister Professor of Law and Dean, Inns of Court School of Law, City University, London
Leonard Leigh, PhD Barrister Commission Member, Criminal Cases Review Commission. Formerly Professor of Criminal Law in the University of London, London School of Economics and Political Science
Richard McMahon, LLB, LLM, Barrister Director of Civil Litigation, States of Guernsey, Crown Advocate of the Royal Court of Guernsey, formerly Lecturer in Law, The University of Reading
Edward Rees QC Criminal Law Barrister, Doughty Street Chambers
His Honour Judge Peter Rook
John Sprack, BA, LLB, Barrister and formerly Reader, Inns of Court School of Law
Keir Starmer QC, Doughty Street Chambers
Richard D. Taylor, MA, LLM, Barrister Professor of English Law and Head of School, Lancashire Law School, University of Central Lancashire
Martin Wasik, LLB, MA, FRSA, Barrister Professor of Criminal Justice, Keele University. Chairman, Sentencing Advisory Panel
Frances Webber, barrister, 2 Garden Court Chambers

ISBN-10: 0-19-920591-4
ISBN-13: 978-0-19-920591-2

Publishers: Oxford University Press

Price £165 HB

Publication Date: 12 October 2006


PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

The last time it happened, George IV was on the throne, and Great Britain still harboured lingering pretensions to sovereignty over the United States. The Judicature Act 1875 was still over a half-century away, the common-law courts sat in Westminster Hall, imprisonment was a remedy for debt and Doctors' Commons was a flourishing institution. Felonies were capital offences, yet the accused enjoyed no right to counsel and was not permitted to testify in his own defence. Times have changed, and even given the conservative attitude of lawyers to innovation, it is time it happened again.

The 'it' referred to is the publication of a wholly new work in the field of criminal law dealing as comprehensively as practicable with all the law, evidence and procedure practitioners need to know. It was in 1822 that J. F. Archbold first published his celebrated work. The editors of its 43rd edition, published 166 years later, in announcing that it had 'exploded' into two volumes, recalled that the original was some 440 pages long, and that its author claimed to have 'taken infinite pains . . . to compress the whole into the smallest possible compass consistent with perspicuity'. It is no criticism of the stalwart efforts of those editors, or those of their many equally distinguished predecessors, that there is now a clear and widely recognised need for a new work that returns to J. F.'s elegant aspiration.

Blackstone's Criminal Practice is designed to fill, in the later years of the 20th century, the need that J. F.'s prototype was designed to fill in the earlier years of the 19th. Its constitution is, we hope, simple and apt to the work of both branches of our legal profession in the field of modern criminal law.

March, 1991.

That was what was said in 1991.  Blackstone’s Criminal Practice is now in the hands of Oxford University Press and 2004 is the 17thth Edition.


From the Preface

Regular users of Blackstone's Criminal Practice will notice some significant reorganization and additional material in this 2007 edition. When the trauma of the massive legislative upheaval which dominated preparation of the 2006 edition had subsided, we at last found an opportunity to take a deep breath and forge ahead with the implementation of some significant improvements in terms of content and structure, which had been in the planning and preparation stage for a period of time but had been forced to yield precedence to more pressing matters. These improvements had been suggested not only by our own observation, but by much helpful input from judges and practitioners. But in implementing them, we were mindful not only of the areas to be covered, but also of the need for expert contributors to do them justice. We are pleased that it has proved possible to realise our goals in the light of both needs during an editorial year which, though less frenetic than 2006, has nonetheless kept us busy with the inevitable flurry of legislative and case-law developments. For the first time, Blackstone now offers coverage of extradition proceedings provided by Adina Ezekiel. Keir Starmer QC has undertaken a substantial revision of the book's human rights content, which is now more prominent and detailed. We have expanded our treatment of offences related to terrorism, and have deepened our treatment of abuse of process. The reader will now also find useful coverage of fixed penalties and other alternatives to prosecution. On the subject of expert coverage, I am also pleased to record that His Honour Judge Peter Rook has joined the team of authors to lend a specialist voice to sexual offences, and that Frances Webber has joined us to supply the same quality in the section on immigration offences. It is also a pleasure to record, rather belatedly I fear, the welcome addition of Edward Rees QC to our list of authors.

As always, the book has been updated and revised throughout in the light of changes in the law since publication of the last edition. Among the important statutes dealt with are the Terrorism Act 2006, the Immigration, Nationality and Asylum Act 2006, the Criminal Defence Service Act 2006, and the Racial and Religious Hatred Act 2006. We also include coverage of the Fraud Bill, which has largely completed its passage through Parliament and awaits Royal Assent, in the expectation that it will become law during the life span of this edition. Coverage is provided of those sections of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 which have recently come into force, of commencement orders under the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005 and of amendments to the Criminal Procedure Rules 2005. Among the important cases dealt with are Jones (defence of prevention of crime); Rashford (self-defence); Card; Edwards; Renda and Weir (all dealing with bad character); AttorneyGeneral's Reference (No. 3 of2004); D (joint ventures); Bowman (expert witnesses); Momodou (coaching and familiarisation of witnesses); Kai-Whitewind (corroboration); Rimmington (public nuisance); DPP v Milton (dangerous driving - speed); Ashton (procedural defects); Soneji (procedural error, confiscation); Coutts (alternative verdicts); Davis (anonymous witnesses) and Hussain v UK(defendant's costs order).

We have tried to state the law as at 1 August 2006. Peter Murphy Editor-in-chief


Review

There are several sources of information on the current position of the criminal law.  Police officers may turn to the trusty Beat Officer’s Companion or Butterworths Police Law.  Typically, younger officers may use online services, such as NCALT or the Police National Legal Database (PNLD) maintained by West Yorkshire Police.  Lawyers and academics may prefer the sophistication of LexisNexis or WestLawUK.  Statutes, parliamentary publications, and House of Lords opinions are also directly and freely available online from HMSO.  

The question which arises is thus: what place does a book have in the fast-paced modern world of criminal law and practice?  Your answer probably depends on your knowledge and experience of using online services.  Yet, even a glance at the spine of this book should tell the prospective reader enough about its provenance to dispel any misgivings.  

Blackstone’s Criminal Practice 2007 is, quite simply, excellent.  An annual publication, it is an encyclopaedia of the rules and regulations of the criminal justice system.  However, publishing a tome such as this once a year may not be often enough to keep up with the legislative whimsy of government, so OUP has a companion website, with quarterly updates on developments in the law.  The content of these updates goes far beyond that offered by comparable updates, such as CENTREX’s monthly updates.  The breadth and depth of the analysis is wonderful, and, whilst it may not be much practical use for a police officer, should certainly provoke discussion and debate amongst colleagues as to the likely implications of new law.  

The text of the book is in a new format, and is divided into six parts.  One of the shortest is the section on the criminal law.  This book does not offer an exhaustive list of criminal provisions.  For instance, there is no mention of fare evasion on the railways, or some of the more obscure offences, for which you might have to reach for a text book.  But then, this was never the point of this book.  Although OUP claim that it is a ‘one-stop’ reference, it is in fact a ‘one-stop’ reference for matters of procedure and practice.  With this in mind, the reader should arm himself with a copy of Sweet & Maxwell’s Archbold.  

The quality of the text and analysis is superb.  Usefully, there is not only a statement of the law, but also explanation and comment.  Unusually for a book on criminal law, there is a good section on road traffic offences, although the law in this area is changing with the impending introduction of the Road Safety Act 2006.  Several pages are devoted to the schedules to the Road Traffic Offenders Act 1988.  Very useful for operational police officers – if a little impractical to carry around.  

The lion’s share of the book is taken up by Part D – Procedure.  This is wide-ranging and thorough, and covers police powers, juries, bail, ASBOs, pre-trial hearings, and committal.  Part E is concerned with Sentencing, and Part F with Evidence.  The rules relating to evidence changed with the Criminal Justice Act 2003, and it is good to see an incorporation and discussion of the law relating to ‘bad character’ evidence.  

The book is available in two formats – as a hardback book, and as a CD ROM.  The interface of the CD ROM is basic and easy to use, although it might be slightly disappointing for users of LexisNexis and WestLaw.  However, the book is simply more straightforward to use.  You can leaf backwards and forwards, rather than selecting a keyword or topic.  

This book comes highly recommended for lawyers.  The price will be off-putting for many, although the CD ROM is slightly cheaper than the print version.  Like so many legal texts, it may be of only limited appeal to police officers – although every police station in the country should have one for reference.  

Jon Mack

March 2007


LINKS

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