INTERNET LAW BOOK REVIEWS

BOOK REVIEWS PROVIDED BY - Rob Jerrard LLB LLM (London)


NEW POLICE BOOKSHOP(Books for Police Officers)

All books to Rob Jerrard Please

National Drug Recognition Training and Field Impairment Testing

Author: Stephen G Collier

ISBN: 1903639131

Publishers: The New Police Bookshop

Price £7.95

Publication Date: 2004

Foreword

Impairment testing by police officers on drivers is not something which is completely new.  The ‘wilderness years' of sobriety testing for driving impairment began in 1967 with the introduction of the breath test through the Road Safety Act.  Since that time police officers have become reliant upon the result of the roadside breath screening device.  The sobriety test for drunkenness was part of the police armoury for dealing with intoxication well before the 1967 Act.

Today however our attention needs to be turned to the growing problem of driving under the influence of drugs.  The difficulty the Police Service faces is that we have no elec­tronic device similar to the breathalyser to detect impairment to drive, so we are left with the only alternative of roadside impairment testing.  Although there are many devices which will tell the officer that a drug is present in the body, there are none, currently, that tell us if a person is impaired.  This type of device may not be too far away from a technological point of view, but many years away from operational use.

As a result of successful trials of  ‘Field Impairment Testing', a battery of tests were launched on the Police Service in August 2000 and to date almost two thirds of forces nation­wide have trained ‘Drug Recognition Officers' (DROs).

The aim of this Aide Memoire is to provide details of perti­nent information required by a police officer when dealing with a driver who the officer suspects of driving under the influence of drugs.  The subject would have provided a nega­tive specimen of breath, and officer still suspects impairment.

In July 2003, the Railways and Transport Safety Act received Royal Assent. Although the bulk of this Act makes regula­tions about the safety of railways, Section 107 and Schedule 7 of the Act make major changes to Section 6 Road Traffic Act 1988.  This involves the mandatory co-operation by drivers suspected of driving while impaired through drugs.  A precis of this new legislation can be read at the end of this guide.

Stephen G Collier Northampton March 2004


Review

This Aide Memoire is a booklet of just 22 pages, however it is full of well presented and very useful information.

Since 1967, Police Officers have been able to use a breathalyser as a roadside test to determine whether a driver was impaired through alcohol, (confirmed by a second test at a Police Station).

Today however, an increasing number of people are driving whilst under the influence of drugs. The difficulty that the Police Service faces is that there are no devices similar to the breathalyser to detect impairment to drive through the use of drugs, or other illegal substances.

As a result of successful trials of ‘Field Impairment Testing’, a battery of tests were launched on the Police Service in August 2000, and to date almost two thirds of forces nationwide have trained ‘Drug Recognition Officers’ (DROs).

The booklet states that "The aim of this Aide Memoire is to provide details of pertinent information required by a police officer when dealing with a driver who the officer suspects of driving under the influence of drugs. The subject would have provided a negative specimen of breath, and the officer still suspects impairment".

The booklet identifies the relevant legislation, amended legislation, powers to administer impairment tests, codes of practice as laid down by the various statutes, the

different offences, and powers of arrest. It also defines what ‘impairment’ is, the role of the doctor, the evidence required under the various sections of the relevant legislation and the points to prove.

The booklet then describes in detail the various impairment tests that can be carried out at the roadside, also the procedures, considerations and observations for each test.

It also gives very useful pneumonics for each test.  Influence recognition signs are then given for cannabis, opiates, stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, inhalants and various other substances.

This is a well presented booklet which gives all the relevant information that may be required about this subject. It will I am sure, be a ‘must’ in any uniformed police officers library, and rightly so.

Andy Day 2006.


Policing Paedophiles on the Internet

Author: Edited by Allyson MacVean & Peter Spindler

ISBN: 1903639123

Publishers: The New Police Bookshop

Price £12.50 RRP UK

Publication Date: 2003

Policing Paedophiles on the Internet

Preface

Of all the wider policing tasks for the twenty-first century, nothing could be more important than the protection of children.  Nothing is more complex for policing than the criminal potential of cheap computers and worldwide communication.  Truly the task for the public police is `policing by communication' within that wider policing context.  The papers and proceedings produced here are a seminal contribution to these activities.

The work of a small, but rapidly expanding, informed group of police officers, investigators, intelligence officers, academics, technologists, civilian analysts, prosecutors, and other sworn and non-sworn collabora­tors has made remarkable inroads into a transnational organised crime within a short time of its appearance.  They are, as the dedication to this book records, ‘adventurers’ and this is truly a Pandora's box.  Rarely has intelligence, academia and police operations had such a meeting of minds.  That meeting is recorded here in 13 useful essays which provide case studies for thinking about wider policing in the twenty-first century.

Alan Wright, in his book Policing: An Introduction to Concepts and Practice (Willan Publishing 2002), offers four modes of policing practice - peace keeping, crime investigation, risk management and community justice - all of which can illuminate the issues raised in this volume.  His is a work of important strategic analysis, to which this volume provides a tactical operational application and focus, while providing strategic illus­trations to his thesis. Alan further identifies communication as one of the core skills of anyone involved in wider policing but most especially those involved in operational activity.

There is a problem here, as ‘Alice’, an intelligence officer, pointed out to us (she would not thank me for identifying her but my admiration is not diminished by her anonymity): how do we communicate outside the secure confines of operational necessity to generate new solutions with academics and technologists (a ‘television repair man’ as one cyberspace warrior priest described himself) without the risk of the criminals getting to hear?  Criminals, incidentally, who have shown themselves as adept at develop­ing the next facet of their own security after each setback?  This is a familiar problem for community justice in a democracy, not least because of the requirements of disclosure and the lawyer's role.  What has been struck here is a balance, a risk management balance, but one which requires watching ever vigilantly.

Allyson MacVean, Terry Grange, Peter Spindler and Carole Howlett have shown remarkable leadership in the formal sense, communicating strategi­cally at ACPO and government level.  The others writing here are also leaders; Joe Sullivan and Judy Wheaton showing considerable courage, with Peter Robbins and Roger Darlington widening the policing leadership activity and intelligence work into open source, using the Internet for the protection of democracy.  The lawyers have shown enormous energy and creativity, their industry in making the justice part of the model and the democratic process work in the face of an appalling series of crimes is praiseworthy.  Carmen Dowd, not for the first time, has provided a model prosecuting process of value to other investigative processes and crimes; Peter- Sommer has shown, not just the ethical, but also the practical importance of defending.  Nadim Bashir illustrates the relevance of Alan Wright's community justice focus.

Finally, despite my transition to academia, the crime investigation and risk management modes of Wright's model, the operational detectives and analysts are closest to my heart. The role of many forces, the National Crime Squad, National Criminal Intelligence Service, and individuals, is of course fundamental.  As symbols of all those who never get named, those who meet at 4am for the briefings, and chink bad coffee and tea from Styrofoam cups late at night but never get thanked, Peter Spindler is worthy of his second mention in this short preface, the hunters Terry Jones, the energetic Darren Brookes driving the intelligence-led agenda, and the innovative Martin Jebb, all have contributed to peacekeeping, justice and community safety using `policing by communication'.  Finally for ‘Alice’ herself as a symbol of all that can be achieved in crime investigation and risk management, thank you all.

Professor John Grieve

April 2003

Foreword

Child protection is a priority for all of us.  Recent events, for example, Lord Laming's inquiry report, large police operations against paedophiles using the Internet, and the joint Chief Inspectors' report Safeguarding the Children all highlight the need for us to review the effectiveness of what we are doing.

The Internet has opened up a whole new world of information and commu­nication, and has brought great benefits. But, as we know, it has also provided opportunities for paedophiles to network and, by sharing images and fantasies, to seek to normalise their own behaviour.  It also offers the chance to meet children in an environment in which some do not perceive the potential danger and where parental supervision has yet to develop to the same levels as in the ‘off-line’ world.

However, it also provides potential new opportunities for law enforcement to identify, prosecute and disrupt paedophiles.  The pace of market exploita­tion of new technologies will continue to increase.  Paedophiles have consistently shown themselves to be `early adopters' of new technologies, and we need to show that we can adapt to and manage the changes in risk these technologies make possible, for example the next generations of mobile phones and peer2peer networking. In doing this, our objective will remain the same: protecting children from those who would harm them.  We must keep sight of this and ensure that it remains a policing priority, and is not allowed to become marginalised as simply a specialist or a technical role.

By its very nature, child abuse on the Internet is an area where the knowl­edge available to inform decisions by policy-makers and practitioners has been limited.  This book is an important contribution to developing our understanding.  It will also help encourage informed public debate based on an awareness of the risks.

This book is also timely, as recent police operations have shown that the Internet is no hiding place for paedophiles and that United Kingdom police forces have not only the commitment to tackle paedophile activity, but also the managerial and technological ability to do so.  I commend it to all those who are working hard to tackle child abuse on the Internet.

Hilary Berm MP

Chair: Home Office Task Force for Child Abuse on the Internet

Introduction

Paedophiles have been with us always. A sexual interest in children, whether fantasised or acted out in reality, is neither new nor any less criminal by virtue of new technologies. The Internet has opened up the possibility for people with like interests to correspond immediately with each other, person-to-person or in groups, around the world.  It provides access to the wise, the unwise and the vulnerable. It allows anonymity and the ability to present a false image.  You can be a child or a teenager, no matter your age. You can seek out information from the trusting or naive, directly or indi­rectly, and use that information for good or ill.  Using digital camera technology and the Internet you may see a close relative or friend enjoying a winter's evening in Times Square, New York, instantaneously; or you may direct, equally instantaneously, the actions of an adult sexually abusing a child.  The Internet, to that extent, has no conscience. In the absence of a sense of what is right and wrong legally and morally, the Internet may be used to pursue legitimate interests; to engage in mildly inappropriate activ­ity, or the most serious of sexual assaults.

Voyeurism - watching others engaged in consensual or non-consensual sexual activity - has been made possible from vast distances.  Viewing porno­graphic material of all types is freely available, at a cost. Anything appears possible, with the virtue - if that is the appropriate word - of anonymity or the possibility of finding like-minded people with whom perceptions may be reinforced that nothing inappropriate or wrong is taking place.

Realisation of the use to which those interested in pornography and child pornography - or to use the proper term child sexual abuse - were making of the Internet crept upon the police services of the United Kingdom during the 1990s.  Individual forces noted the technology and the use to which it was being put and some reacted. They reacted in slightly different ways.  The national police organisations, the National Crime Squad (NCS) and National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS), reacted also.  Initially, their efforts were separate and occasionally disjointed. The breadth and depth of the subject area and its worldwide nature made that early incoherent approach inevitable. However, the speed with which like-minded people - in this case police inves­tigators, child protection officers, and information technology and internet experts - recognised the issues, the need to combine and to produce a coher­ent and legally-sustainable reaction, has been more impressive than the speed with which those criminally-inclined sought to profit from the Internet.

As other chapters in this book show - from initial realisation of the scale and complexity of the issues, to single force and then multi-force organised response - the reaction of the working detectives, child protection officers and information technology experts can only be applauded.  The take-up of the strategic issues and the engagement of governments, policy makers and the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) has been equally impressive.  The efforts of contributors to this book - from Terry Jones' pioneering work, through to Carole Howlett in the development of the co-ordination of police activity, and that of other agencies, leading to the creation of a national struc­ture to combat child abuse on the Internet, and to provide coherent national tasking of activity and the development of regional centres of excellence - are examples of high quality policing at the operational and strategic levels.

The engagement of Internet Service Providers and the development of the Internet Watch Foundation demonstrate the ability of determined people to engage in partnerships to frustrate criminality and develop better child protection in a completely new environment.  The willingness of a new industry to combine and produce independent oversight, as the Internet Service Providers have done, is also to be applauded.  We are still in the exploration and understanding stage, as police and prosecution services, in discovering what the criminal can do with the Internet and, specifically, those who sexually abuse children or seek to watch that abuse and how we and the industry can respond.  Operation Ore is a recent and stunning example of how widespread the issue is.  Managing the response to Ore and to similar sites will be a test of our strategic and operational capabilities.

This book, built from the first conference of its kind held at the John Grieve Centre for Policing and Community Safety, is a new beginning.  From the early chapters where an understanding of the sexual predator and the child pornographers is sought, through developing policing strategies set out by Peter Spindler, Terry Jones and Darren Brookes, and the national responses such as VISOR and the Internet Watch Foundation, the papers set out a developing and rapidly coherent approach by the police service due to the foresight and determination of the people who contributed, and many others.

The complexities of gathering and presenting evidence and the use of legal powers to constrain those convicted are presented from the perspective of the prosecutor and developing law.  Finally, the way forward is presented by Carole Howlett.

The police response locally, regionally, nationally and internationally is developing rapidly. The United Kingdom Government has responded as rapidly.  The journey has, however, only really just begun. Police forces will have to commit more resources and strategic thinking, the government like­wise, and the industry must be even more watchful if our combined efforts are to succeed.  It is to the credit of those who have contributed to this book, and others unnamed, that we have moved this far and this quickly.  This issue is not, however, going to go away and those who follow their lead will have much to do to develop and improve upon what has been done so far.  This book is a beginning, but a very impressive beginning.

Terence Grange

Chief Constable, Dyfed-Powys Police Association of Chief Police Officers


Review

It is first of all important to state the John Grieve Centre was established as an international policing centre of excellence.  The centre provides courses at an undergraduate and post-graduate level and has world-wide influence.

As the title states the book is dedicated towards dealing with paedophiles who use the Internet. The book consists of five parts.  The first part deals with paedophiles on the Internet and understanding the type of individuals who act as predators on the Internet. It also covers some of the images and the risk on the Internet to children.  In the first section also there is a mother speaking about the victims of such an unsavoury practice as paedophilia on the Internet.

Part 2 concerns itself with investigating paedophiles and policing strategies and how best to combat child abuse on the Internet.

Part 3 is concerned with law enforcement and this is followed by Part 4 – the legal process indicating cases for prosecution and the evidence required in the case of Internet paedophilia. The book is dedicated to the protection of children. 

As one who has himself been involved in preventing paedophiles from gaining access to children by supporting Thames Valley Police and acting as a consultant in developing a video to be used in schools, I found this book especially valuable and it should be read by police officers, especially those working with the tracking down  of paedophile transgressors whether on the Internet or elsewhere.   Paedophiles are known to network and share images and fantasies.  While not all those who view paedophile images are themselves acting paedophiles many indeed are.  The book shows how the police are becoming much more sophisticated in being able to understand and deal with technological factors used to discover paedophiles using the Internet.

Terence Grange, Chief Constable of Dyfed-Powys Police, provides an excellent introduction to the book.  The structure of the book is also well laid out providing an executive overview with summaries for each part and chapters at the beginning of the book.  The book emphasises that paedophiles often groom their victims while using the Internet but as yet it appears that most paedophile activities appear within families. It is for this reason that a national strategy has been developed in Great Britain with the object of protecting children.

The contributors to this book are all experts in certain aspects of law, or child abuse, or specifically child abuse over the Internet.  Beginning with Nadim Bashir who is a Barrister of law and who has also worked with the police, we have a number of illustrious police contributors the Chief Constable, Dyfed-Powys Police, Terence Grange.  There is also an excellent chapter from Anthony Beech, Reader of Criminological Psychology at the University of Birmingham and his colleague Joe Sullivan, and by Professor John Grieve, Chair of the John Grieve Centre for Policing.  Each of the contributors provides something which is within their area of competence and contributes to making this book, despite its smallness in size, a comprehensive and focused work dealing with policing paedophiles on the Internet.

The focus of the book is on crime prevention in the area of child sexual abuse but also dealing with those who can be discovered through the Internet and are using the Internet for the purpose of grooming potential victims.

It is a book that is likely to be of value not only to police officers but also to solicitors and barristers working in the area of criminality with paedophile allegations.

Dr L F Lowenstein


Investigative Interviewing

Investigative Interviewing explained has been written to develop police officers' core interviewing skills, explaining why and how they can be used to best effect.

It examines in detail the structure and considerations of both witness and suspect interviews, giving a practical interpretation of the relevant legislation.

Price £12.50.

The Authors

Brian Ord and Gary Shaw have 50 years' experience between them with Northumbria Police and the vast majority' of this has been devoted to crime investigation.

They have dealt with every category of crime, and have substantial experience of dealing with murder, armed robbery; terrorism, and a wide variety of serious sexual offences. During 1991 they were jointly involved in a long-term investigation that rid the North East of England of professional ram-raider gangs.

Brian Ord was one of the pioneers of tape recording police interviews with suspects and the development of police officers' skills in investigative interviewing. He rose to the rank of detective superintendent and retired from the police service in 1994. He continues his involvement in training courses in investigative interviewing and the investigation of offences for commercial organisations.

Gary' Shaw is a former member of the national investigative interviewing project team at Bramshill and continues to be actively involved in this field, contributing to seminars and training courses. He is now detective inspector in a major crime investigation unit.

Their motivation in producing this book arises from their recognition of a need for a practical guide in investigative interviewing for all police officers, whether patrol constables, detectives or senior officers managing the investigation of serious crime.

Forewords

"In recent times, the emphasis of modern policing has been to prevent crimes before they occur. Significant success has been achieved by police and their partners in this aim, with crime figures falling nationally

One of the techniques that has been particularly successful is our intelligence led approach which focuses on the criminal. Interviewing skills have never been more crucial in this worthy enterprise.

Such skills have to be displayed by officers thousands of times each day the length and breadth of the country; as they carry out their investigations. Indeed, interviewing people,whether they are suspects, victims or witnesses, is a crucial and integral part of policing.

The importance of investigative interviewing has been recognised over recent years as being vital to the effective investigation of crime. This book provides the reader with an easy-to-read and easy-to-understand guide to investigative interviewing. It is a practical and comprehensive guide with helpful examples which will assist officers in developing and honing their investigative skills. I commend it to you."

John Stevens

Deputy Commissioner Metropolitan Police

(Formerly Chief Constable of Northumbria)

November 1998

"Investigating crime has never been more demanding. With the Police and Criminal Evidence Act of 1984 and its Codes of Practice, the tape recording of interviews - and the forensic examination in court of every activity by the police, from the commission of the crime to the trial - professionalism is absolutely essential. A critical part of any investigation is the interview, both with witnesses and with the suspect, whether under arrest or not.

I have spent 35 years as a police officer - many as an investigator - and as a former graduate of the the FBI Academy in Quantico, I know only too well the pitfalls and problems involved in learning the craft of interviewing. This practical guide to investigative interviewing provides an easy to-read, hands-on-journey through the whole process. Having been a member of the Home Office working group on investigative interviewing which developed the current practice, I fully understand the importance and difficulties of the training of such a complex subject. The authors bring to this book decades of experience in crime investigation and the text is set out in an eminently readable format. I regret that such a guide was not available in my early years as a detective and I have little doubt that the sensible advice it contains will endure.

In my professional judgement this work is required reading for all police officers, or any other person tasked with the responsibility of investigation. A legal minefield has been made safer I wish the book well."

Brian Mackenzie

House of Lords

London

November 1998

"I would wish to be associated with the comments of both Brian MacKenzie and John Stevens and would add that I would describe this as a super little book and well worth the money, it is very easy to read and packed with valuable advice - I am particularly impressed with the index and part 3 which sets out guides to simplyfy legislation. It is small and will fit the pocket and, what's more will not break the Bank at the offer price of £9.50."

Rob Jerrard


Crime Patrol

Crime Patrol, to recognise &

Arrest criminals.

An Operational Guide to Proactive patrolling.

Crime Patrol has been written to develop police officers'

skills and knowledge to tackle patrol more effectively, explaining the motivation and techniques required to intercept criminals and arrest them.

It deals in detail with the core skills of observation, field interviewing and searching vehicles - examining various criminal pursuits in detail so officers may further their knowledge of common crime.

price £12.50.

No society can tolerate the burden of a high crime rate, criminal activity is a 'luxury' which no

Nation can afford. To tackle this problem the nation's police service will rely mainly on the endeavours of the front-line officer, YOU.

'Crime Patrol explains the motivation and skill required to intercept criminals and arrest them'

Police officers can develop their observation, field interviewing and searching techniques and increase their knowledge of various crimes'

Improved performance at arresting criminals will shorten criminal's careers and enhance the

quality of life of decent citizens'.

The Author

Since joining the Cheshire Constabulary' in 1984, Inspector Mike McBride has served in a range of uniformed and plain clothes teams.

His commitment to officer safety has been recognised at force, regional and national level. Inspector McBride is the author of Street Survival Skills (first edition) published by Police Review Publishing.

Having delivered management training Inspector McBride appreciates the vital role which effective leadership has to play in motivating officers to achieve police objectives, especially in combating crime

REVIEW

I have a small green book called "Thieves on Wheels" by David Powis. It is dated 1971; the cover is very tatty and held together by adhesive tape. This book covered "some notes on the law and techniques of thief taking". I joined the City of London Police in 1968 and found this book very informative - I recognised the value of standing up front in Uniform and, the ability to look for the obvious, e.g., when you came around that corner, were they putting that scaffold up? Or taking it down? It could have been either.

Times have moved on, but the basics remain, "Crime Patrol" is the 1998 equivalent of "thief takers" and because it is 1998 contains much more with photos, graphics and, appendixes which provide all an officer needs on the street.

An Excellent publication.

I would highly recommend it to all, particularly those new in service, or those older who may be a bit rusty.

Rob Jerrard


THE CHILD PROTECTION INVESTIGATOR’S COMPANION - 2nd Edition August 2001

The Child Protection Investigator's Companion

Preface to the first edition

This book is for the broad range of practitioners involved in the initial investigation of child protection cases. The Child Protection Investigator's Companion is intended to provide investigators from any agency involved in child protection work with readily accessible information in respect of their responsibilities, powers and duties during the initial phase of a child protection inquiry.

It also provides a great deal of guidance in respect of the criminal offences that may be encountered during the course of such investigation and is up to date as far as the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, although the reader will need to take account of the rolling introduction of the various parts of this Act.

This book may, therefore, be read as an introduction to initial child protection inves­tigations and then kept as a source book by practitioners for easy reference when the need arises during such inquiries.

Kevin Smith, 1994

Preface to the second edition

Since the publication of the first edition to The Child Protection Investigator's Companion, a great deal has changed in respect of the legislation concerned with child protection, notably in terms of sexual offences and sex offenders. This new edition takes account of these changes.

Kevin Smith, March 1999

Preface to the revised second edition

Since the publication of the second edition, there have been major developments relating to human rights in the enactments of the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA). Police officers now have a duty to positively uphold and protect the human rights of citizens. Specifically, officers have a dun, to take measures to protect life, including a dun- to put in place effective criminal law provisions to deter the commission of offences against the person backed up by law enforcement machinery for the pre­vention, suppression and sanctioning of breaches for such provisions. Consequently, there is a greater emphasis on the prevention and protection role and responsibility of police officers; this is especially so in relation to child victims. Child Protection has therefore assumed an even higher importance in the police response to prevent and detect crime. This revised edition takes account of the changes and is also updated in respect of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999, the Criminal Justice and Court Services Act 2000 and the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 2000.

The author

Kevin Smith worked for some years on a Child Protection Team in South London up until 1995. During this time he investigated a number of instance of child abuse and was involved in the joint training of police officers and social workers.

Since leaving child protection, he has worked in more general investigative training.

Kevin Smith has a first class honours degree in psychology, a masters degree in education and a PhD in social psychology.

Contributor on human rights

Alan Becklev has served for 29 years in the police service, and is a serving police officer in West Mercia Constabulary with the rank of Chief Inspector.

Since 1998, he has been a part time member of the ACPO committee on human rights and policing.

Alan Beckley has had many articles on policing and legal subjects published, has written several books on operational policing and human rights and is the Managing Editor of two police journals, Police Research e- Management and Policing Ethics and Human, Rights.


The Human Factor - Maximising the use of Police Informants

The Human Factor

HE WHO SUPS WITH THE DEVIL SHOULD HAVE A LONG SPOON

The Human Factor is the first 'How to' book written for officers using informants in local policing. In stripping away the mystery from the relevant psychology, the author enables officers to use many of the tensions in the informant equation to their advantage.

The Human Factor can be read as both an entry level guide for the beginner or a more detailed handbook for the curious expert. It guides the officer away from danger and towards a greater awareness, aiming to enhance efficiency, righteousness, humanity, sincerity and integrity.

The Human Factor is intended to increase sustainable results and is an authoritative manual in interpersonal skill-building in its own right.

Forewords

The world of informant handling has always attracted interest and no more so than now. In these times of increasing accountability the formal codes and guidance on informant handling have, quite properly, become more detailed and stringent. At the same time there is room for the human factor that underpins informant success, or failure, to be analysed and this book does just that. It focuses on the interpersonal skills useful in the recruiting and manag­ing of police informants in a way that other text books and manuals do not.

Different scenarios are explored together with useful indications and exercises for how the reader night approach the deeper issues and -,what might follow from doing so. The essence is suggestion, not instruction and it aims to help the reader become more skilful, rather than overwhelm with theory: The techniques can be applied to different circumstances and are derived from practical social psychology, used successfully in the world of business, educa­tion and personal growth.

The Human factor is a synthesis of six years study of the psychology of human relations. It was prompted by the need felt by the author, as an operational police officer, for added understanding of how to approach people who pro­vide information in the fight against crime. With his knowledge of the world of policing and his study of social psychology, the author writes on important interpersonal issues surrounding informant use.

The book is aimed to appeal to a wide range of policing interests in different countries. The Human Factor is not legally specific because different laws and policies exist within different agencies and readers must become familiar with their own specific, informant policy and practice. Great care has been taken to stress the correct ethical stance. Ethics, integrity and the recognition of human rights have been at the forefront of the author's mind and reminders properly appear at intervals throughout the text.

The book is intended as an entry level guide for those beginning to see the potential of using informants and the "criminal expertise" that is available if informants are used ethically and wisely. The Human Factor is a useful tool for those involved in handling informants in local policing and different aspects of it will appeal to everyone, regardless of service and experience.

Nigel Burgess QPM, BA

Chief Constable, Cheshire Constabulary

May 2000

The Human Factor: Maximising the use of Police Informants

Forewords (continued)

The Human Factor is indeed an amazing combination, almost encyclopaedic in its coverage of the major contributing characteristics that form the human factor in all of us.

The breadth and spread of human wisdom and processes covered and com­bined by Tim Roberts produces a wonderful synthesis of the everyday com­mon and shared experiences of the police officer on the beat with the wider philosophical, humanitarian and spiritual needs of society.

Tim Roberts is indeed a shining and living example of combining the practi­cal necessities of life with a caring and sensitive heart, surely a rare achievement for any of us, especially for someone who is daily facing the criminal and often violent element of our society.

A marvellous contribution to our further understanding.

Leonard A Daniels Director

The Learning Foundation

May 2000

NLP is currently considered to be the cutting edge communication technolo­gy. There are now hundreds of NLP books but few as useful and practical as this one. Tim has taken the key concepts of NLP, plus lots of other schools of psychology and communication, and applied them to the very specific context of handling informants. He has done a great job synthesising such a huge amount of information. These is so much information here which -will be of immediate practical use. The end result will be incredibly useful for all police officers - and for many others too.

Peter McNab

INLPTA Master Trainer


The Police Witness - A Guide to Presenting Evidence in Court

Order is heaven's first law Alexander Pope

Before operating mouth, first engage brain Notice on the police room in an East End Magistrates' Court

There are few more important functions for an individual in soci­ety than participating in the administration of justice. It is only within the context of law and order that other civilised activity can take place and the police officer, whose duty it is to combat crime and public vice and to maintain the peace, plays a crucial role. It is no exag­geration to say, although some of their fiercer critics might not agree, that the Police Force is the ultimate line of defence between order and chaos and between civilisation and barbarism.

The improvement of human society is a lamentably slow process - an unending battle between influences for good and for evil. The police officer, in being committed to the promotion of the former and the defeat of the latter is fulfilling a role of deep moral signifi­cance. It is precisely because that role upholds the authority of the law that the police are the guardians of individual liberty. The police officers' uniform is the badge and emblem of liberty under the law. His or her office is the heart, bone and marrow of civilisation and the human progress which takes place within it. This great responsibility must be discharged with integrity and efficiency.

The aim of this book is to help police officers perform their duty while acting as a witness in court. During the course of a career comprising 18 years at the Bar and 27 years as a Stipendiary Magistrate, I have had many opportunities to observe police officers in court and to follow and assess their evidence. I shall draw upon this experience and give examples of effective and ineffective practice in court which will help the police offi­cer become a more confident and convincing witness. (This book does not comment on police duties prior to proceedings in court.)

There are two fundamental reasons why this aspect of police duties should be accorded great importance.

1 The administration of justice is so vital a task that all who take part in it should do so efficiently and well.

2 From the point of view of the police themselves, the result of a case depends very greatly upon the impression which witnesses make on the court.

Even in comparatively minor charges a considerable amount of work goes into the preparation of a case both on the part of the police and the Crown Prosecution Service. It can be frustrating and disheartening if a well­ prepared prosecution fails due to an indifferent presentation of the case in court. When this occurs there may well be a temptation for the police to attribute the result of the case to other factors such as the guile of defend­ing counsel; the skilful lying of the defendant or his or her witnesses; the gullibility of the bench or jury, or perhaps even the unfairness of the English trial process as seen from the point of view of the prosecution.

While these complaints may have some degree of justification it is sometimes the case that the poor showing of officers in the witness box, particularly under cross-examination, is equally to blame. This is no general criticism - officers frequently give their evidence very well. Yet sometimes police witnesses, particularly the younger and less experienced police witnesses tend to be hesitant, reticent and of poor audibility. Trainee police officers now receive instruction in presenting evidence it court. Ample time should always be devoted to this all-important topic and with this in mind I offer what I hope will be useful guidance to my readers in the police service.

Throughout this book I have referred to police officers, magistrates advocates and the accused in the male form. This is purely for ease and is not intended in any way to belittle or neglect the role of women in society and particularly in the valuable contribution they have made to the police force.


KNOWN TO POLICE

101+ things about the law, police and crime that you never knew you needed to know

Foreword

This book is the result of a number of pub conversations and lunches in the course of which I realised that I, or my drinking companion. did not quite know what we were talking about. I would say something about the Glasgow Police Killings. only to realise that the chief constable on the other side of the vodka and tonic had never heard of them. The solicitor had finished his starter when he made a fleeting reference to Frederick Seddon: I'd heard of him but knew nothing about him. I saw the look of puzzlement that came over a young constable's face when her older colleague spoke of his Scargill Kitchen. Perhaps this selective and subjective collection of topics would be better entitled `Should Be Known To The Police' but that would imply a need to know and you certainly do not need to know any of the facts, issues. or opinions. that have been here cobbled together: entertaining they may be: essential. they're not.

Much of the cobbling would have been impossible without the help and advice of James Morton the leading UK authority on crime and crimi­nals. and without the benefit of his research for his series of books on gangsters. corruption, murder, supergrasses, and sex crime. Where I have relied exclusively on one book for a particular entry. the title is shown following the entry, otherwise the sources - sometimes contradictory - have been the works listed in the bibliography. the British Newspaper Library. and the Internet.

Brian Hilliard, May 2001

Brian Hilliard retired from the Metropolitan Police in the rank of Inspector in 1979. He joined the staff of the independent weekly, Police Review, which he edited from 1985 to 1995.

This is his sixth book.

Nickers: a Gentleman's Guide to Police Duty, was published by Police Review in 1982

A Duffer's Guide To Motoring Law  was published by the AA in 1984.

The Flying Squad was written with Neil Darbyshire and published by Headline in 1993. Believe No One, the biography of Detective Superintendent Roy Herridge was published by Little Brown in 1993.

West Country Coroner was published by Countryside Books in 1999

LINKS