"INTERNET LAW BOOK REVIEWS" Provided by Rob Jerrard LLB LLM (London)

Intersentia Books Reviewed in 2014

The Treaty on European Union 1993-2013
Reflections from Maastricht
Edition: 1st
Format: Hardback
Author: Maartje de Visser (ed.)Anne Pieter van der Mei (ed.)
ISBN: 978-1-78068-206-8
Publishers: Intersentia
Price: £90
Publication Date: October, 2013

Publisher's Title Information

The Treaty on European Union, popularly known as the Maastricht Treaty, has had a profound impact on the process of European integration. This book commemorates the entry in force of the Treaty 20 years ago by evaluating the legal impact it has had on the European Union's institutional framework and its policies. It includes contributions on a wide variety of topics, including Economic and Monetary Union, Union citizenship, fundamental rights, foreign affairs and defence policy, educational policy and environmental policy. The different contributions revisit the reasons for the changes the Maastricht Treaty has brought about and examine their development over the years, identifying unexpected success stories, unfulfilled expectations, missed opportunities and future challenges. The contributors are or were associated with the Maastricht Centre for European Law or the Faculty of Law of the Maastricht University, giving this book a unique 'Maastricht' flavour. This book will be of interest to legal scholars and practitioners with a keen interest in EU law and European integration.


Excusable Evil
An Analysis of Complete Defences in International Criminal Law
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Krabbe, Maartje
ISBN: 9781780682044
Publishers: Intersentia
Price: £76
Publication Date: 31st March 2014

Publisher's Title Information

Could Hitler have pleaded insanity? Can a soldier participating in a massacre claim duress because his superior forced him? In domestic criminal law, complete defences, such as insanity and duress, are rather common legal figures. But, what is the role of these arguments in international criminal law? Can horrific large-scale crimes, such as genocide and crimes against humanity, ever be excused?

This book provides an analysis of cases featuring complete defences at international criminal courts: the International Military Tribunal, the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, and the International Criminal Court. The conclusion of the analysis is that international criminal courts recognize most complete defences in principle, however they consistently reject them in practice. Courts thus tend to say: "Insanity is available as a complete defence...but not in this case." This conclusion raises questions as to the compatibility between complete defences and international crimes: When they are never accepted in practice, should such defences be available at all? The final section of the book answers this question in the affirmative and provides recommendations on the contents of complete defences in the field of international criminal justice. (Series: School of Human Rights Research - Vol. 50)


Data Protection anno 2014: How to Restore Trust?
Contributions in honour of Peter Hustinx, European Data Protection Supervisor (2004-2014)
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Authors:Hielke Hijmans (ed.) Herke Kranenborg (ed.)
Publishers: Intersentia
Price: £71
Publication Date: Jan 2014

Publisher's Title Information

We live in an era in which privacy and data protection are daily news items.
 
This tendency demonstrates that privacy and data protection are taken seriously in wide circles of our society. Most of the time, however, issues relating to privacy and data protection are not newsworthy because these rights have been so well protected. It is the scandals that make the news, the latest example being the NSA affair which has dominated the news for months.
 
These news stories create a feeling of discomfort and lead to diminishing trust - diminishing trust of citizens in companies they deal with, in their governments, in supranational entities such as the European Union, in the law, and diminishing trust between countries.
 
This book defines the restoration of this trust in relation to privacy and data protection as the most pressing challenge. It reflects on the state of play in the area of privacy and personal data protection in Europe and the United States at the start of 2014. The authors discuss the issues from different perspectives, such as constitutional values and the role of the judiciary, the role of the legislator and independent control, and transatlantic relations.
 
This volume collects contributions of a large number of outstanding academic scholars, legal practitioners, regulators and politicians from Europe as well as the United States. All contributions are written in honour of Peter Hustinx, the first European Data Protection Supervisor who will step down in 2014, after ten successful years in office and after a long and impressive career in the area of privacy and data protection.
 
A recommended read for everyone interested in privacy and data protection and more generally in the complex relations between law and the information society.


The Law and Jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunals and Courts
Procedure and Human Rights Aspects
Edition: 2nd
Format: Hardback
Author: Vladimir Tochilovsky
ISBN: 978-1-78068-199-3
Publishers: IntersentiaIntersentia
Price: £185
Publication Date: March 2014

Publisher's Title Information

This book provides the most comprehensive overview of the law and jurisprudence of the ad hoc international criminal tribunals and courts, and the International Criminal Court. It also includes relevant jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and practice of the UN Human Rights Committee. It examines the nature and evolution of the relevant statutory provisions and of the procedural rules of the international criminal tribunals and provides the rationale behind the evolution.
 
While the book is built on the previous publications by the author, it significantly expands the subject matter of the relevant jurisprudence and reflects developments and current state of the human rights standards in the international criminal procedure. The cited jurisprudence and law is up to date as on 1 September 2013.
 
The book contains a digest and analysis of relevant decisions, orders and judgements and the law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL), Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), the International Criminal Court (ICC), as well as the relevant judgements of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR).
 

Reviews

'Tochilovsky is one of the most respected writers in this area. Having practised before the ICTY from the earliest days and acquired a wealth of international experience he is uniquely placed to write with authority and insight. His latest work is exceptional and superbly comprehensive. It is indispensable to all judges, practitioners and commentators who wish to get to grips with the law and jurisprudence of the international criminal tribunal and courts. I do not keep it on the shelf of my library, but on my desk for constant reference. I recommend it without any hesitation. A "must have" work for all of us privileged to practice in this area' Karim A. A. Khan - Queen's Counsel, Barrister at Temple Garden Chambers, London, Lead Counsel at the ICC, ICTY, SCSL, ECCC, EULEX and other courts
 
'Mr. Tochilovsky has done a masterful job of distilling the jurisprudence of different international tribunals in his comprehensive, well-organized and clearly written survey, The Law and Jurisprudence of International Criminal Tribunals and Courts. It is an invaluable resource for practitioners of international criminal law and for academics who wish to navigate confidently through an increasingly dense thicket of law and procedure.'
Judge Mark Brian Harmon - Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, formerly a Senior Trial Attorney at the ICTY, a former Federal Prosecutor, Civil Rights Division, of the United States Department of Justice
 
'This book provides a valuable resource to, and a wealth of background material for, practitioners and experts in the field.' David Tolbert - President of the International Center for Transitional Justice

The Author

Vladimir Tochilovsky (PhD) is Vice-Chair of the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention. Formerly a Trial Attorney and Investigation Team Leader in the ICTY (1994-2010), he was a representative of the ICTY at the UN Preparatory Committee and Commission for the International Criminal Court. He taught at Mechnikov National University (Ukraine) and authored numerous publications, including books, on international criminal justice and human rights in criminal procedure.

CONTENTS

I. RIGHT TO BE INFORMED ON THE NATURE AND CAUSE OF THE CHARGE
21
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 21
Applicability to the Proceedings in the ICC ............................................................. 22
STATEMENT OF THE FACTS IN THE INDICTMENT .............................................. 23
ECtHR Jurisprudence ................................................................................................... 23
General Requirements .................................................................................................. 25
Material Facts ............................................................................................................... 27
Generally .................................................................................................................. 27
Material Facts and Evidence .................................................................................... 30
Material Facts Related to the Nature of the Criminal Responsibility of the Accused . 31
Generally .................................................................................................................. 31
Pleading Relevant Acts and Conducts ...................................................................... 32
Material Facts Related to State of Mind (mens rea) ..................................................... 32
Legal Prerequisites as Material Facts ........................................................................... 34
Additional Facts in the Indictment ............................................................................... 34
CHARGES IN THE INDICTMENT ............................................................................... 35
Counts ........................................................................................................................... 36
Cumulative and Alternative Charging (ad hoc Tribunals) ........................................... 37
PARTICULARS IN THE INDICTMENT ....................................................................... 40
General Provisions ........................................................................................................ 40
Particulars Related to the Nature of the Criminal Responsibility of the Accused ....... 43
Other Particulars ........................................................................................................... 45
Particulars Related to Victims .................................................................................. 45
Particulars Related to Physical Perpetrators and Subordinates ............................. 46
Particulars Related to Co-Conspirators ................................................................... 47
Particularity of Other Information ........................................................................... 47
Schedules to the Indictment ...................................................................................... 49
Use of Some Terms in the Indictment .......................................................................... 49
ADDITIONAL PARTICULARS REGARDING THE OFFENCES CHARGED .......... 51
CONFIRMATION AND AMENDMENT OF THE INDICTMENT .............................. 52
Prosecutor's Discretion to Investigate and Prosecute .................................................. 52
Division of Functions Between the Confirming Judge and the Trial Chamber ........... 54
Confirmation of Charges Hearing at the ICC ............................................................... 55
Generally .................................................................................................................. 55
Adjournment of the Confirmation Hearing ............................................................... 57
Standard of Proof Under the ad hoc Tribunals' Statutes .............................................. 58
Generally .................................................................................................................. 58
“Most Senior Leaders” ............................................................................................. 59
Standard of Proof Under the ICC Statute ..................................................................... 60
Generally .................................................................................................................. 60
Evidence .................................................................................................................... 62
2
Amendment of the Indictment ...................................................................................... 63
ECtHR Jurisprudence ............................................................................................... 63
Generally .................................................................................................................. 64
Procedural Consequences on the New Charges ....................................................... 66
“Interest of Justice” ................................................................................................. 67
Withdrawal of Charges ............................................................................................. 67
Judicial Discretion .................................................................................................... 68
Factors to be Considered by the Trial Chamber ...................................................... 69
Prejudice to the Accused .......................................................................................... 72
Undue Delay ............................................................................................................. 75
Timing ....................................................................................................................... 77
“Prima Facie” Standard of Proof for Amendment, ICTY ........................................ 78
Supporting Material .................................................................................................. 79
Standard of Proof for Amendment, ICTR and SCSL ................................................ 80
Amendment of the Charges and Changing the Legal Characterisation of Facts
(ICC) ......................................................................................................................... 81
JOINDER OF ACCUSED ............................................................................................... 86
Generally ...................................................................................................................... 86
“Same Transaction” ...................................................................................................... 88
Trial Chamber's Discretion and Relevant Factors ....................................................... 91
Generally .................................................................................................................. 91
Judicial Economy ...................................................................................................... 92
Avoiding Serious Prejudice to the Accused .............................................................. 93
Conflict of Interests ................................................................................................... 94
Minimising Hardship to Witnesses ........................................................................... 95
Consistency in Evaluation of Evidence, Verdicts and Sentences ............................. 95
CHALLENGES TO THE FORM OF THE INDICTMENT ........................................... 96
Generally ...................................................................................................................... 96
Timing of the Filing ...................................................................................................... 96
Challenges to the Form of the Amended Indictment .................................................... 98
“New Charges” ........................................................................................................ 98
CURING DEFECTIVE INDICTMENT ........................................................................ 102
Generally .................................................................................................................... 102
Prejudicial Effect of a Defective Indictment .............................................................. 105
Remedies .................................................................................................................... 105
Appeals Chamber's Role ............................................................................................ 110
Assessment of Whether the Indictment has been Cured ............................................ 111
II. ACCUSED ACCESS TO THE PROSECUTION MATERIAL (DISCLOSURE
BY THE PROSECUTOR) ....................................................................................... 113
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 113
Generally ................................................................................................................ 113
Some Specific Features in the ICC proceedings ..................................................... 116
ECtHR Jurisprudence ............................................................................................. 117
DISCLOSURE OF THE SUPPORTING MATERIAL AND STATEMENTS OF THE
ACCUSED (AD HOC TRIBUNALS) ........................................................................... 118
Supporting Material .................................................................................................... 118
3
Generally ................................................................................................................ 118
Disclosure by the Prosecutor of the Material Supporting New Charges in the
Amended Indictment ............................................................................................... 118
Prior Statements of the Accused ................................................................................. 119
DISCLOSURE RELATING TO PROSECUTION WITNESSES ................................ 120
Generally .................................................................................................................... 120
Ad hoc Tribunals ..................................................................................................... 120
ICC .......................................................................................................................... 122
Disclosure of Witness Statements .............................................................................. 123
Meaning and Forms of Witness Statements ............................................................ 124
Interview Notes, Will-Say Statements and Notes Taken During Proofing Sessions127
Absence of a Written Witness's Statement .............................................................. 130
Disclosure of the Identity and Whereabouts of Witnesses ......................................... 132
Generally ................................................................................................................ 132
Balancing Protective Measures with Inquiries ....................................................... 134
Delayed Disclosure of the Witness's Identity ......................................................... 135
Delayed Disclosure of the Whereabouts of Witnesses ............................................ 140
Disclosure of the Material Protected in Prior Proceedings ................................... 141
Non-Disclosure under Rules 53 and 69 .................................................................. 141
Specific features under the ICC Rules ........................................................................ 143
Generally ................................................................................................................ 143
Restrictions on Disclosure ...................................................................................... 144
DISCLOSURE RELATING TO EXPERT WITNESSES ............................................. 147
DISCLOSURE OF EXCULPATORY MATERIAL ..................................................... 152
Prosecution Obligation to Disclose Exculpatory Material ......................................... 152
Generally ................................................................................................................ 152
ICC .......................................................................................................................... 156
“Essential Obligation” ........................................................................................... 157
Determination Whether Material is Exculpatory ................................................... 158
Disclosure ............................................................................................................... 160
Positive and Continuing Obligation ....................................................................... 161
Office of the Prosecutor and Prosecution Teams' Obligations .............................. 163
Types of Material Subject to Disclosure .................................................................... 164
Generally ................................................................................................................ 164
Record of Payments ................................................................................................ 165
Favourable Arrangements and Assistance to Witness ............................................ 168
Testimony in Other Cases ....................................................................................... 168
LATE DISCLOSURE .................................................................................................... 169
SANCTIONS AND REMEDIES FOR VIOLATION OF DISCLOSURE OBLIGATION
........................................................................................................................................ 171
Generally .................................................................................................................... 171
Exculpatory Material .................................................................................................. 174
A Defence Request Based on Rule 68 ..................................................................... 174
Remedies and Sanctions ......................................................................................... 176
INSPECTION OF DOCUMENTS AND OBJECTS MATERIAL TO THE
PREPARATION OF THE DEFENCE .......................................................................... 180
4
Generally .................................................................................................................... 180
“Material to the Defence” ........................................................................................... 183
Generally ................................................................................................................ 183
Documents and Information Related to the Defence Witnesses ............................. 186
Domestic Judicial Records of Prosecution Witnesses and Evidence of a Pattern of
Conduct ....................................................................................................................... 188
MATTERS NOT SUBJECT TO DISCLOSURE .......................................................... 189
Information Provided on a Confidential Basis ........................................................... 189
Ad Hoc Tribunals .................................................................................................... 189
ICC .......................................................................................................................... 191
Exculpatory Material .............................................................................................. 192
Internal Documents .................................................................................................... 194
Generally ................................................................................................................ 194
Exculpatory Material .............................................................................................. 198
Protection of other Information .................................................................................. 199
Further or Ongoing Investigations ......................................................................... 199
Exculpatory Material .............................................................................................. 199
OTHER MATTERS RELATED TO DISCLOSURE .................................................... 200
Disclosure in Audio Format ....................................................................................... 200
Disclosure in Electronic Format ................................................................................. 202
Generally ................................................................................................................ 202
Disclosure of Exculpatory Material ....................................................................... 204
Disclosure on Appeal ................................................................................................. 205
Other Relevant Matters ............................................................................................... 206
III. DEFENCE ACCESS TO PROTECTED MATERIAL IN ANOTHER CASE .. 207
Generally .................................................................................................................... 207
Access to Inter Partes Confidential Material ............................................................. 210
Generally ................................................................................................................ 210
Access to Confidential Filings, Submissions, and Decisions ................................. 215
Protective Measures ............................................................................................... 216
Other Relevant Matters ........................................................................................... 218
Access to Ex Parte Confidential Material .................................................................. 219
Access to Information Provided on a Confidential Basis ........................................... 220
IV. PROSECUTION ACCESS TO THE DEFENCE MATERIAL (DISCLOSURE
BY THE DEFENCE) ............................................................................................... 223
Disclosure by the Defence in ad hoc Tribunals .......................................................... 223
Disclosure of Witness Statements ........................................................................... 223
Disclosure of the Identity of Witnesses ................................................................... 224
Other Information Related to Defence Witnesses ................................................... 226
Inspection of Documents and Other Defence Material .......................................... 226
Alibi Notice ............................................................................................................. 228
Information Provided on a Confidential Basis ....................................................... 234
Other Relevant Matters ........................................................................................... 234
Disclosure by the Defence in the ICC ........................................................................ 237
Generally ................................................................................................................ 237
5
Disclosure of Witness Statements ........................................................................... 238
Disclosure and Inspection of Documents ............................................................... 238
V. DISCLOSURE OF OTHER MATERIAL AND INFORMATION................... 240
PRE-TRIAL BRIEFS ..................................................................................................... 240
Prosecution Pre-Trial Brief ......................................................................................... 240
Defence Pre-Trial Brief .............................................................................................. 243
LISTS OF WITNESSES AND SUMMARY OF THE FACTS ON WHICH
WITNESSES WILL TESTIFY ...................................................................................... 246
List of witnesses ......................................................................................................... 246
Summary of the Facts on which Witnesses Will Testify ........................................... 247
Generally ................................................................................................................ 247
Prosecution Witness Summaries ............................................................................. 248
Defence Witness Summaries ................................................................................... 249
LISTS OF EXHIBITS .................................................................................................... 251
VARIATION OF THE LISTS OF WITNESSES AND EXHIBITS ............................. 253
Witnesses .................................................................................................................... 253
Generally ................................................................................................................ 253
Prosecution List ...................................................................................................... 254
Defence List ............................................................................................................ 257
Exhibits ....................................................................................................................... 258
Relevant Factors ......................................................................................................... 261
The Consequences of Withdrawal of a Witness from the List ................................... 264
Other Relevant Matters ............................................................................................... 265
VI. OTHER PRE-TRIAL MATTERS .................................................................. 267
Pre-Trial Delivery of Witness Statements and Other Information to the Chamber ... 267
Pre-Trial Meetings ...................................................................................................... 268
VII. RIGHT TO SUBPOENA AND BINDING ORDERS ....................................... 270
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 270
BINDING ORDERS TO STATES AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS .... 270
Binding Orders to States ............................................................................................. 270
States' Obligation to Cooperate ............................................................................. 270
Binding Orders to States Generally ........................................................................ 271
Protection of State Interests .................................................................................... 273
Orders Under Rule 54 bis and Rule 54 .................................................................. 277
Binding Orders to International Organisations ........................................................... 277
Binding Orders to State Officials ............................................................................... 279
Request for an Order .................................................................................................. 280
Generally ................................................................................................................ 280
Requirements to Requests ....................................................................................... 281
SUBPOENAS (SUMMONS) TO INDIVIDUALS ....................................................... 283
Generally .................................................................................................................... 283
Determining Whether to Issue a Subpoena ................................................................ 285
6
Chamber's Discretion ................................................................................................. 286
Relevant Factors ......................................................................................................... 287
Request for a Subpoena .............................................................................................. 289
Role of National Authorities in Execution of Tribunal Orders .................................. 291
Subpoenas to Opposing Party's Witnesses ................................................................. 292
Subpoenas to State Officials ....................................................................................... 294
Subpoenas to other Individuals .................................................................................. 296
War Correspondents ............................................................................................... 296
UN and Tribunal's Staff .......................................................................................... 297
VIII. PROTECTION OF VICTIMS AND WITNESSES ...................................... 300
Generally .................................................................................................................... 300
Balance Between Rights of the Accused and Protection of Witnesses ...................... 302
Judicial Discretion ...................................................................................................... 306
A “Genuine Fear” ....................................................................................................... 307
Protective Measures Based on Witnesses' Location .................................................. 308
Witness Anonymity .................................................................................................... 309
ECtHR Jurisprudence ............................................................................................. 309
Generally ................................................................................................................ 310
Protection of Some Categories of Witnesses .............................................................. 311
Safe Conduct .............................................................................................................. 312
Protective Measures under Rule 75 and Rule 70 ........................................................ 314
Delay of Transmission of the Proceedings and Redaction of Public Transcripts and
Broadcasts ................................................................................................................... 315
Variation of Protective Measures for the Subsequent and Other Cases ..................... 316
Variation of Protective Measures for National Jurisdictions ..................................... 318
Protection of Persons Other than Witnesses and Victims .......................................... 320
Other Relevant Matters ............................................................................................... 324
IX. PLEA AGREEMENTS .................................................................................. 330
Introduction ................................................................................................................ 330
Generally .................................................................................................................... 333
Accused Co-operation ................................................................................................ 337
Trial Chamber's Discretion ........................................................................................ 337
X. LEGAL ASSISTANCE OF COUNSEL .......................................................... 339
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 339
ECtHR Jurisprudence ................................................................................................. 340
UNHRC Practice ........................................................................................................ 342
RIGHT TO CHOOSE A COUNSEL ............................................................................. 343
Generally .................................................................................................................... 343
Indigent Accused ........................................................................................................ 345
Generally ................................................................................................................ 345
Legal Aid ................................................................................................................. 347
Assignment of Co-Counsel ...................................................................................... 347
Conflict of Interest ...................................................................................................... 348
Generally ................................................................................................................ 348
Former Staff Member of the Office of the Prosecutor as a Defence Counsel ........ 352
7
REVIEW OF THE DECISIONS CONCERNING ASSIGNMENT OF COUNSEL .... 354
Generally .................................................................................................................... 354
Trial Chamber's Power to Review Registrar's Decisions .......................................... 354
Appeals Chamber's Power to Review President's Decisions .................................... 356
President's Power to Review Registrar's Decisions .................................................. 356
PROTECTION OF DEFENCE IMMUNITIES ............................................................. 357
Defence Functional Immunity ................................................................................. 357
Functional Immunity of the Members of the Defence ............................................. 358
RIGHT TO SELF-REPRESENTATION ....................................................................... 359
Generally .................................................................................................................... 359
Legal Associates ......................................................................................................... 363
Judicial Discretion ...................................................................................................... 365
Waiver of the Right to Counsel during a Custodial Questioning ............................... 366
ASSIGNMENT OF COUNSEL AGAINST THE WISHES OF THE ACCUSED ....... 368
Generally .................................................................................................................... 368
Accused's Refusal to Cooperate with the Counsel and Withdrawal of Assigned
Counsel ....................................................................................................................... 371
Potential Disruption to Proceedings ........................................................................... 373
The Role of the Represented Accused in the Proceedings ......................................... 376
XI. TRIAL PROCEEDINGS ................................................................................ 379
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 379
PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY OF ARMS, FAIR TRIAL .............................................. 384
ECtHR Jurisprudence ................................................................................................. 384
Generally ................................................................................................................ 384
Appeals Proceedings .............................................................................................. 386
UNHRC Practice ........................................................................................................ 387
Fair Trial ..................................................................................................................... 388
Presumption of Innocence .......................................................................................... 390
ECtHR Jurisprudence and UNHRC Practice ......................................................... 390
Prosecutor's Public Statements .............................................................................. 393
Naming in the Judgement a Co-Accused Who have not been Tried ....................... 395
Equality of Arms ........................................................................................................ 396
Generally ................................................................................................................ 396
Resources ................................................................................................................ 399
Equality of Time and Number of Witnesses ............................................................ 400
Adequate Time and Facilities for Preparation the Case ............................................. 401
Generally ................................................................................................................ 401
Adequate Time ........................................................................................................ 401
Adequate Facilities ................................................................................................. 403
ROLE OF THE PROSECUTOR .................................................................................... 404
Generally .................................................................................................................... 404
Independence of the Prosecutor .................................................................................. 406
Prosecutor and Judiciary ....................................................................................... 406
Prosecution and Governments ................................................................................ 408
Other Relevant Matters ........................................................................................... 409
8
Scope of Investigation ................................................................................................ 410
Misconduct of the Prosecutor ..................................................................................... 411
Specific Role of the Prosecutor and Investigating Judges in the ECC ....................... 412
JUDICIAL IMPARTIALITY ........................................................................................ 413
ECtHR Jurisprudence ................................................................................................. 413
UNHRC Practice ........................................................................................................ 416
Generally .................................................................................................................... 416
Principles of Application of the Impartiality Requirement ........................................ 421
Presumption of Impartiality ........................................................................................ 425
Some Specific Circumstances .................................................................................... 426
Appeal from Decisions on a Motion for Disqualification of a Judge ......................... 431
Legal Consequences of the Disqualification .............................................................. 432
REASONABLENESS OF THE LENGTH OF THE PROCEEDINGS ........................ 433
ECtHR Jurisprudence ................................................................................................. 433
UNHRC Practice ........................................................................................................ 435
Generally .................................................................................................................... 435
Relevant Factors ......................................................................................................... 437
ACCUSED'S RIGHT TO BE TRIED IN HIS PRESENCE .......................................... 439
ECtHR Jurisprudence ................................................................................................. 439
Generally ................................................................................................................ 439
Appeals Proceedings .............................................................................................. 439
Generally .................................................................................................................... 440
A Trial in the Absence of the Accused ....................................................................... 441
Accused's Participation in the Proceedings via Video-Link ...................................... 445
PUBLIC HEARING, CLOSED SESSIONS AND EX PARTE PROCEEDINGS ......... 445
ECtHR Jurisprudence ................................................................................................. 445
Generally .................................................................................................................... 446
Closed Sessions .......................................................................................................... 447
Protection of Witnesses .............................................................................................. 448
Protection of the Interests of Justice ........................................................................... 450
Generally ................................................................................................................ 450
Protection of Confidential Information .................................................................. 450
Ex Parte Proceedings ................................................................................................. 451
OPENING STATEMENTS AND CLOSING ARGUMENTS ..................................... 453
Opening Statements .................................................................................................... 453
Closing Arguments and Closing Briefs ...................................................................... 455
Closing Arguments .................................................................................................. 455
Closing (Final) Briefs ............................................................................................. 456
ORDER OF PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE GENERALLY ................................. 458
Ad hoc Tribunals ......................................................................................................... 458
ICC ............................................................................................................................. 459
EXAMINATION IN CHIEF .......................................................................................... 460
Generally .................................................................................................................... 460
Using Prior Witness Statements ................................................................................. 461
Refreshing the Witness's Memory .......................................................................... 461
9
Use of Prior Consistent Statements ........................................................................ 462
CROSS-EXAMINATION ............................................................................................. 462
ECtHR Jurisprudence ................................................................................................. 463
Generally .................................................................................................................... 465
The Right to Cross-Examine Witnesses .................................................................. 465
Not an Absolute Right ............................................................................................. 467
Scope and Modalities of the Cross-Examination Generally ................................... 468
Scope of the Prosecution's Cross-Examination ..................................................... 471
Cross-Examination in Multi-Accused Trials .......................................................... 472
Other Relevant Matters ........................................................................................... 475
Testing the Witness's Credibility ............................................................................... 476
Generally ................................................................................................................ 476
Questioning Related to Proofing and Pre-Trial Interviews ................................... 478
Disclosure and Use of Material in Cross-Examination .............................................. 479
Use of Prior Statements in Cross-Examination .......................................................... 481
Use of Other Witnesses' Statements ....................................................................... 481
Use of Prior Statements of the Testifying Witness .................................................. 483
Hostile Witness and Impeaching Party's Own Witness .......................................... 484
Use of Prior Statements of the Accused .................................................................. 488
Putting to the Witness the Nature of the Case of the Cross-Examining Party ........... 490
Generally ................................................................................................................ 490
Right of the Accused to Remain Silent .................................................................... 494
Consequences of the Failure to Comply with Rule 90(H)(ii) ................................. 495
Admissibility of the Material Presented During Cross-Examination ......................... 497
Generally ................................................................................................................ 497
Admission of Prosecution's Evidence During the Course of the Defence Case ..... 497
RE-EXAMINATION ..................................................................................................... 505
Generally .................................................................................................................... 505
Recalling Witnesses for Re-Examination ................................................................... 506
ACCUSED TESTIMONY ............................................................................................. 509
Accused as a Witness in his Defence ......................................................................... 509
Generally ................................................................................................................ 509
Timing of the Accused Testimony ........................................................................... 512
Accused's Communications During the Testimony ................................................ 513
Unsworn Statement of the Accused ........................................................................... 515
Statement of the Accused ........................................................................................ 515
“Last Word” of the Accused ................................................................................... 519
IMMUNITY FROM TESTIFYING AND EXAMINATION OF A WITNESS IN
POSSESSION OF CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION ............................................... 519
Immunity from Testifying .......................................................................................... 519
ICRC Employees ..................................................................................................... 519
Journalists and War Correspondents ..................................................................... 520
Examination of a Witness in Possession of Confidential Information ....................... 522
Generally ................................................................................................................ 522
Scope of Examination ............................................................................................. 525
PRESENTATION OF EXHIBITS ................................................................................. 526
10
Generally .................................................................................................................... 527
Admission of Documents through Witnesses ............................................................. 529
Admission of Evidence through the Bar Table Motions ............................................ 533
Advance Disclosure of the Documentary Evidence ................................................... 541
REBUTTAL, REJOINDER, AND REOPENING THE CASE ..................................... 545
Generally .................................................................................................................... 545
Rebuttal and Rejoinder ............................................................................................... 547
Rebuttal ................................................................................................................... 547
Rejoinder ................................................................................................................. 550
Re-Opening the Case .................................................................................................. 552
Generally ................................................................................................................ 552
Fresh Evidence ....................................................................................................... 554
A Two-Step Procedure ............................................................................................ 555
Reasonable Diligence ............................................................................................. 556
Probative Value of the Proposed Evidence ............................................................ 557
The Chamber's Discretion ...................................................................................... 557
EVIDENCE RELEVANT TO SENTENCING ............................................................. 559
VIDEO-LINK TESTIMONY AND DEPOSITION EVIDENCE ................................. 560
Testimony via Video-Conference Link ...................................................................... 560
Generally ................................................................................................................ 560
Witness Unwilling to Attend ................................................................................... 565
Video-Link Procedure ............................................................................................. 566
Deposition Evidence ................................................................................................... 567
SITE VISIT .................................................................................................................... 569
TRIAL CHAMBER'S CONTROL OVER THE PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE . 572
Generally .................................................................................................................... 572
Trial Chamber's Discretion and the Right to be Heard .............................................. 574
Chamber's Discretion ............................................................................................. 574
Right to be Heard .................................................................................................... 574
Disclosure to the Chamber ......................................................................................... 575
Chamber's Authority to set Constraints on the Case .................................................. 576
Generally ................................................................................................................ 577
Prosecution Case .................................................................................................... 580
Defence Case .......................................................................................................... 581
Directing the Prosecutor to Reduce the Scope of the Indictment ........................... 582
Severance of the Indictment against a Single Accused ........................................... 587
Chamber's Proprio Motu Order for Production Additional Evidence ....................... 589
Generally ................................................................................................................ 589
Ordering the Prosecution to Obtain Material for the Defence .............................. 592
Questioning Witnesses by the Judges ..................................................................... 594
Chamber's Witnesses .............................................................................................. 596
RIGHT NOT TO INCRIMINATE ONESELF .............................................................. 600
ECtHR Jurisprudence ................................................................................................. 600
UNHRC Practice ........................................................................................................ 602
Right to Silence .......................................................................................................... 602
Witness ....................................................................................................................... 604
11
Accused ...................................................................................................................... 606
Suspect ........................................................................................................................ 607
Counsel for a Witness in Court .................................................................................. 609
Convicted Person as a Witness in Other Case ....................................................... 609
Accused as a Witness in Other Case ....................................................................... 609
Witness who May Incriminate Himself ................................................................... 609
OTHER RELEVANT MATTERS ................................................................................. 610
“Proofing” Witnesses ................................................................................................. 610
Generally ................................................................................................................ 610
ICC Approach ......................................................................................................... 615
Providing Witnesses with the Copies of their Statements ....................................... 617
Contacting Witnesses of the Other Party .................................................................... 618
Generally ................................................................................................................ 618
Contacting Protected Witnesses ............................................................................. 620
Prosecution Contacting Defence Witnesses ........................................................... 621
Defence Contacting Prosecution Witnesses ........................................................... 623
The ICC Approach .................................................................................................. 626
Communication with a Witness after Commencement of his Testimony .................. 627
Witness Referring to his Notes ................................................................................... 629
Fitness to Stand Trial .................................................................................................. 630
XII. VICTIMS' PARTICIPATION IN THE PROCEEDINGS (ICC) ..................... 633
Generally .................................................................................................................... 633
Role of the Office of Public Counsel for Victims ...................................................... 635
Victims' Participation in the Trial Proceedings ......................................................... 636
Generally ................................................................................................................ 636
Examination of Evidence ........................................................................................ 637
Presentation of Evidence ........................................................................................ 638
Disclosure by the Victims ....................................................................................... 640
Victims' Anonymity ................................................................................................. 641
Participation in Appeal ............................................................................................... 641
XIII. ADMISSIBILITY OF EVIDENCE AND THE RIGHTS OF THE ACCUSED
643
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 643
GENERAL PROVISIONS ............................................................................................. 645
“A Unique Mixture of Common-law and Civil-Law Rules” ..................................... 645
“Chambers shall not be Bound by National Rules of Evidence” ............................... 646
Application of National Rules of Evidence ................................................................ 647
“Extensive Admissibility” of Evidence ...................................................................... 648
Discretion of the Trial Chamber ................................................................................. 650
Pre-trial Chambers of the ad hoc Tribunals' role .................................................. 652
Relevance and Probative Value .................................................................................. 652
Reliability ................................................................................................................... 657
Generally ................................................................................................................ 657
Prima Facie Proof and Definite Proof ................................................................... 658
Indicia of Reliability ............................................................................................... 659
12
Hearsay Evidence ................................................................................................... 660
EXCLUSION OF CERTAIN EVIDENCE .................................................................... 662
ECtHR Jurisprudence ................................................................................................. 662
International Courts .................................................................................................... 663
DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE AND INTERCEPTS ................................................. 667
Documentary Evidence .............................................................................................. 667
Generally ................................................................................................................ 667
The “Best Evidence” Rule ...................................................................................... 672
Relevance and Probative Value .............................................................................. 673
Reliability ................................................................................................................ 675
Credibility ............................................................................................................... 676
Authenticity ............................................................................................................. 677
Admissibility of Documents not Listed on Exhibit List ........................................... 680
Other Relevant Matters ........................................................................................... 681
Agreed Documents .................................................................................................. 685
Documents of Common Knowledge ........................................................................ 686
Rule 92 bis of the SCSL Rules ................................................................................. 686
Intercepts .................................................................................................................... 689
WITNESS STATEMENTS AND SUMMARIES ......................................................... 692
Principle of Orality and Admissibility of Written Statements ................................... 692
Categories of Witness Statements and Summaries .................................................... 693
Admissibility of the Prior Written Statements ........................................................... 695
Generally, ad hoc Tribunals ................................................................................... 695
Generally, ICC ........................................................................................................ 697
Prior Statements of Witnesses who Appear in Court .............................................. 699
Statements of Witnesses who have not Testified in the Case .................................. 702
Prior Statement and Testimony of the Accused ...................................................... 703
Challenges to the Accuracy of a Statement ............................................................ 711
Reliability of the Statement ..................................................................................... 712
Testimony with Incomplete Cross-Examination ..................................................... 714
Admissibility of Written Statements and Transcripts in Lieu of Oral Testimony ..... 714
Generally ................................................................................................................ 715
Discretion of the Trial Chamber ............................................................................. 718
The Acts and Conduct of the Accused ..................................................................... 719
Acts and Conduct of Subordinates .......................................................................... 720
Relevant Factors ..................................................................................................... 722
Statements and Transcripts of Persons Subjected to Interference ......................... 724
Transcripts .............................................................................................................. 725
Exhibits Accompanying Transcripts or Written Statements ................................... 727
Appearance for Cross-Examination ....................................................................... 728
Relationship between Rules 92 bis and 89 of the ICTY Rules ................................ 733
Statement of an Unavailable Person ...................................................................... 735
Admissibility of Statements that Go to the Acts and Conduct of the Accused ........ 742
Admissibility of Written Statements of Witnesses Present in Court .......................... 745
Admissibility of Witness Statements under 92 ter of the ICTY and SCSL Rules ..... 745
Admissibility of Witness Statements under Rule 68(b) of the ICC Rules ................ 757
Admissibility of Witness Statements under Rule 156 of the STL Rules ................... 759
13
Admissibility of Testimony Disclosed in Will-Say Statements .................................. 759
Summaries of Witness Statements at the Confirmation Hearing in the ICC ............. 760
Generally ................................................................................................................ 760
Use of Summaries as a Protective Measure ........................................................... 760
SUMMARISED MATERIAL ........................................................................................ 761
Summarised Documents ............................................................................................. 761
Summarised Statements .............................................................................................. 763
EXPERT ......................................................................................................................... 764
Qualifications of an Expert ......................................................................................... 764
Impartiality of an Expert ............................................................................................ 767
Expert Evidence .......................................................................................................... 770
ECtHR Jurisprudence ............................................................................................. 770
Generally ................................................................................................................ 771
Expert Testimony .................................................................................................... 774
Expert Report Generally ......................................................................................... 774
Sources Used by Expert .......................................................................................... 776
Admissibility of Documentary Souces .................................................................... 778
Admissibility of Expert Reports Generally ............................................................. 779
Opinion on Legal Matters ....................................................................................... 783
“Ultimate Issue” Rule ............................................................................................ 784
Expert Witness and Factual Witness .......................................................................... 785
Cross-Examination of the Expert ............................................................................... 786
Expert Assisting Party in the Courtroom .................................................................... 787
Application of Rule 92 bis and 92 ter to Expert Witnesses ....................................... 788
FACTS ADMISSIBLE FOR JUDICIAL NOTICE AND AGREED FACTS ............... 791
Judicial Notice ............................................................................................................ 791
Generally ................................................................................................................ 791
Applicability to Appeal Proceedings ...................................................................... 793
Facts of Common Knowledge .................................................................................... 793
Generally ................................................................................................................ 793
Definition ................................................................................................................ 795
Some Specific Types of the Facts ............................................................................ 796
Reasonably Indisputable ......................................................................................... 797
Adjudicated Facts or Documentary Evidence from Other Proceedings ..................... 798
Generally ................................................................................................................ 798
The Legal Effect of Judicially Noticing an Adjudicated Fact ................................. 802
Rebuttal of the Judicially Noticed Facts ................................................................. 804
Presumption of Innocence ...................................................................................... 806
Conditions for Admissibility of Adjudicated Facts Generally ................................ 807
Facts Related to the Guilt of the Accused ............................................................... 816
Facts Related to the Core of the Case .................................................................... 818
Chamber's Discretion ............................................................................................. 818
Interests of Justice .................................................................................................. 822
A Request for Judicial Notice ................................................................................. 822
Legal Conclusions .................................................................................................. 823
Documentary Evidence ........................................................................................... 824
14
Difference Between Judicial Notice of Facts of Common Knowledge and that of
Adjudicated Facts ....................................................................................................... 828
Agreed Facts ............................................................................................................... 829
EVIDENCE IN REBUTTAL AND REJOINDER ........................................................ 832
Rebuttal and Reopening the Case ............................................................................... 832
Generally ................................................................................................................ 832
Rebuttal Material Before the Appeals Chamber .................................................... 833
Rejoinder Evidence .................................................................................................... 834
EVIDENCE OUTSIDE THE SCOPE OF THE INDICTMENT ................................... 834
Evidence of the Material Facts not Pleaded in the Indictment ................................... 834
Evidence Related to the Facts or Period not Covered in the Indictment .................... 838
EVIDENCE IN CASES OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE ..................................................... 840
SOME OTHER TYPES OF EVIDENCE ...................................................................... 841
Tu Quoque Evidence .................................................................................................. 841
Identification Evidence ............................................................................................... 843
Other Types of Evidence ............................................................................................ 844
VOIR DIRE EVIDENTIARY HEARING ...................................................................... 845
Generally .................................................................................................................... 845
Voluntariness of Interview ......................................................................................... 847
Expert's Qualifications ............................................................................................... 848
Evidentiary Hearing on Other Matters ....................................................................... 849
XIV. DEFENCES................................................................................................ 850
Generally .................................................................................................................... 850
Burden of Proof .......................................................................................................... 851
Diminished Mental Responsibility ............................................................................. 853
XV. DECISIONS AND JUDGEMENTS ................................................................ 854
ECtHR Jurisprudence ................................................................................................. 854
GENERALLY ................................................................................................................ 854
DECISIONS ................................................................................................................... 855
Generally .................................................................................................................... 855
General Requirements ............................................................................................ 855
Reasons for a Decision ........................................................................................... 858
Separate Opinions .................................................................................................. 859
A Decision of a Trial Chamber is not Binding for other Chamber ........................ 859
Reconsideration of Previous Decisions ...................................................................... 861
Review of Administrative Decisions of the Registrar ................................................ 866
JUDGEMENTS .............................................................................................................. 869
Reasoned Opinion ...................................................................................................... 869
Evaluation of Evidence, “Beyond Reasonable Doubt” Standard of Proof ................. 873
Assessment of Evidence ............................................................................................. 876
Inconsistencies in Evidence .................................................................................... 876
Credibility of Evidence ........................................................................................... 877
15
Corroboration of Evidence ..................................................................................... 878
Circumstantial Evidence ......................................................................................... 880
Accomplice Evidence .............................................................................................. 881
Hearsay Evidence ................................................................................................... 881
Evidence Related to Alibi ........................................................................................ 882
Cumulative Conviction ............................................................................................... 885
Sentencing .................................................................................................................. 886
Generally ................................................................................................................ 886
Purposes of Sentencing ........................................................................................... 888
Aggravating and Mitigating Factors ...................................................................... 889
Standard of Proof ................................................................................................... 891
Gravity of the Offences ........................................................................................... 891
Guilty Plea .............................................................................................................. 892
Co-operation with the Prosecution ......................................................................... 893
MOTIONS FOR JUDGEMENT OF ACQUITTAL ...................................................... 895
Introduction ................................................................................................................ 895
Generally .................................................................................................................... 899
The Applicable Test ................................................................................................... 900
Generally ................................................................................................................ 900
Sufficiency of Evidence ........................................................................................... 903
“Could” Convict ..................................................................................................... 905
XVI. RIGHT TO APPEAL ................................................................................. 907
STANDARD OF REVIEW BY THE APPEALS CHAMBER ..................................... 907
APPEAL FROM JUDGEMENT ................................................................................... 908
Generally .................................................................................................................... 908
Error of Fact ............................................................................................................... 910
Error of Law ............................................................................................................... 912
Generally ................................................................................................................ 912
Submissions of the Parties ...................................................................................... 914
New Sentence on Appeal ............................................................................................ 915
Proceedings upon the Death of an Appellant ............................................................. 916
Notice of Appeal from Judgement ............................................................................. 917
Generally ................................................................................................................ 917
Variation to the Notice of Appeal ........................................................................... 919
ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE ON APPEAL ................................................................... 921
General Provisions ...................................................................................................... 921
Tactical Decisions ...................................................................................................... 925
Applicability to Interlocutory Appeals ....................................................................... 925
Additional Evidence Bolstering Challenged Trial Chamber's Finding ..................... 926
Requirements in General ............................................................................................ 926
Admissibility if the Evidence was not Available at Trial ........................................... 930
“Due diligence” ...................................................................................................... 932
Admissibility if the Evidence was Available at Trial ................................................. 935
“Gross Negligence” as an Exception ..................................................................... 935
INTERLOCUTORY APPEALS .................................................................................... 936
16
Generally .................................................................................................................... 936
ICTY, ICTR, and ICC .............................................................................................. 936
SCSL ....................................................................................................................... 941
Requirements under ICTY, ICTR, and ICC Law ....................................................... 942
Two Cumulative Conditions ................................................................................... 942
Chamber's Discretion ............................................................................................. 944
Request for Certification ......................................................................................... 945
Requirements under SCSL Law ................................................................................. 946
Generally ................................................................................................................ 946
“Exceptional Circumstances” ................................................................................ 948
Application to Some Rulings ...................................................................................... 950
Admissibility of Evidence ........................................................................................ 950
Judgement on a Motion for Acquittal under Rule 98 bis ........................................ 952
Other Rulings .......................................................................................................... 953
REVIEW OF THE TRIAL CHAMBERS' DISCRETIONARY DECISIONS ............. 960
Generally .................................................................................................................... 960
Types of Discretionary Decisions .............................................................................. 963
STATE REQUEST FOR REVIEW ............................................................................... 964
Generally .................................................................................................................... 964
Types of the Decisions Subject to Review ................................................................. 965
REVIEW OF A FINAL JUDGEMENT ......................................................................... 966
ECtHR Jurisprudence ................................................................................................. 966
Generally .................................................................................................................... 967
The Types of Decisions Subject to Review ................................................................ 967
A New Fact ................................................................................................................. 968
Difference between Additional Evidence on Appeal and New Facts in the Review
Proceedings ................................................................................................................. 971
XVII. REFERRAL OF THE CASE TO ANOTHER COURT AND THE RIGHTS OF
THE ACCUSED...................................................................................................... 973
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 973
GENERALLY ................................................................................................................ 976
DISCRETION OF THE REFERRAL BENCH ............................................................. 977
RELEVANT FACTORS ................................................................................................ 979
Level of Responsibility of the Accused and Gravity of the Crimes ........................... 979
Generally ................................................................................................................ 979
Level of Responsibility ............................................................................................ 980
Gravity of Crimes ................................................................................................... 982
Adequate Legal Framework ....................................................................................... 983
Generally ................................................................................................................ 983
Applicable Substantive Law .................................................................................... 985
Protective Measures .................................................................................................... 986
DETERMINATION OF THE STATE OF REFERRAL ............................................... 987
MONITORING MECHANISM ..................................................................................... 988
17
OTHER RELEVANT MATTERS ................................................................................. 990
Laws of Extradition .................................................................................................... 990
Other Matters .............................................................................................................. 993
XVIII. CONTEMPT PROCEEDINGS AND FALSE TESTIMONY ....................... 995
CONTEMPT PROCEEDINGS ...................................................................................... 995
Generally .................................................................................................................... 995
Applicable Standard ................................................................................................... 997
Disclosure of Protected Information .......................................................................... 998
Violation of Protective Measures ........................................................................... 998
Disclosure of Confidential Decisions ................................................................... 1000
Non-compliance with Subpoena ............................................................................... 1001
Interference with a Witness ...................................................................................... 1002
Refusal to Testify ..................................................................................................... 1003
Judicial Impartiality .................................................................................................. 1004
Procedural Matters .................................................................................................... 1005
Pre-Trial Brief ...................................................................................................... 1005
Appeal Proceedings .............................................................................................. 1006
Other Procedural Matters .................................................................................... 1008
FALSE TESTIMONY .................................................................................................. 1010
Generally .................................................................................................................. 1010
Procedural Matters .................................................................................................... 1012
XIX. ARREST AND DETENTION ................................................................... 1015
Generally .................................................................................................................. 1015
Sovereignty of a State ............................................................................................... 1016
Provisional Detention of Suspects ............................................................................ 1016
Duration of Pre-Trial Detention ............................................................................... 1018
Detainee's Communication with the Outside World ................................................ 1019
Generally .............................................................................................................. 1019
Detainee's Contact with the Media ...................................................................... 1019
Communication with Legal Associates ................................................................. 1021
XX. PROVISIONAL RELEASE ......................................................................... 1022
ECtHR Jurisprudence and UNHRC Practice ........................................................... 1022
GENERALLY .............................................................................................................. 1025
Factors that are Specific to the Functioning of the Tribunal .................................... 1025
General Principles .................................................................................................... 1027
Presumption of Innocence ........................................................................................ 1029
Timing of the Provisional Release Generally ........................................................... 1029
Provisional Release after Commencement of Trial .................................................. 1030
Generally .............................................................................................................. 1030
Release After Rule 98 bis Ruling .......................................................................... 1031
Compelling Humanitarian Reasons ...................................................................... 1032
Provisional Release of Convicted Persons ............................................................... 1035
Generally .............................................................................................................. 1035
Release Pending Appeal ....................................................................................... 1038
18
Release After Proceedings Completed .................................................................. 1038
Removal of the “Exceptional Circumstances” Requirement from the Rule ............ 1039
Burden of Proof ........................................................................................................ 1040
Accused's Burden ................................................................................................. 1040
Prosecution's Burden ........................................................................................... 1043
Two Express Pre-Conditions .................................................................................... 1044
PROVISIONAL RELEASE, THE RELEVANT FACTORS ...................................... 1045
Generally .................................................................................................................. 1045
Seriousness of the Charges ....................................................................................... 1048
Government's Guarantees ........................................................................................ 1050
Generally .............................................................................................................. 1050
The Reliability of a Guarantee ............................................................................. 1052
Prior Position of the Accused in the Hierarchy .................................................... 1054
Accused's Co-operation with the Prosecution ......................................................... 1055
Circumstances of Surrender ..................................................................................... 1057
The Threat Posed to Victims and Witnesses ............................................................ 1058
Other Factors ............................................................................................................ 1059
Some Specific Circumstances .................................................................................. 1061
Trial Chamber's Discretion ...................................................................................... 1062
Generally .............................................................................................................. 1062
Review by the Appeals Chamber .......................................................................... 1064
TEMPORARY PROVISIONAL RELEASE AND MODIFICATION OF THE TERMS
OF PROVISIONAL RELEASE ................................................................................... 1066
Temporary Provisional Release on Medical and Humanitarian Grounds ................ 1066
Some Relevant Matters ............................................................................................. 1071
OTHER PROCEDURAL MATTERS ......................................................................... 1073
Generally .................................................................................................................. 1073
Stay of a Decision to Release ................................................................................... 1074
MODIFICATION OF THE CONDITIONS OF DETENTION .................................. 1076
Generally .................................................................................................................. 1076
House Arrest ............................................................................................................. 1077
XXI. RIGHT TO JUDICIAL REVIEW OF THE LEGALITY OF DETENTION
(HABEAS CORPUS) .............................................................................................. 1079
ECtHR Jurisprudence ............................................................................................... 1079
UNHRC Practice ...................................................................................................... 1080
Ad hoc Tribunals ....................................................................................................... 1081
ICC ........................................................................................................................ 1083
Generally .............................................................................................................. 1083
Disclosure of Relevant Documents ....................................................................... 1084
XXII. RIGHT TO INTERPRETATION AND TRANSLATION.......................... 1086
ECtHR Jurisprudence ............................................................................................... 1086
UNHRC Practice ...................................................................................................... 1087
Generally .................................................................................................................. 1087
Working Languages of the Tribunals ....................................................................... 1090
19
Translation of Disclosed Material ............................................................................ 1091
Generally .............................................................................................................. 1091
Exculpatory Material ............................................................................................ 1096
Translation of Exhibits ............................................................................................. 1096
XXIII. REMEDIES FOR VIOLATIONS OF THE ACCUSED'S RIGHTS ........... 1099
ECtHR Jurisprudence ............................................................................................... 1099
Generally .................................................................................................................. 1100
Remedies for a Person Detained by the National Authorities .................................. 1101
Abuse of Process (Setting Aside Jurisdiction) ......................................................... 1102
Generally .............................................................................................................. 1102
Non-Compliance with Immunity/Amnesty Agreements ........................................ 1107
Reduction of the Sentence ........................................................................................ 1108
Financial Compensation for an Acquitted Person .................................................... 1108
XXIV. OTHER PROCEDURAL MATTERS ....................................................... 1111
Retrial ....................................................................................................................... 1111
Medical Examination of the Accused ....................................................................... 1112
Amicus Curiae .......................................................................................................... 1113
Generally .............................................................................................................. 1113
Discretion ............................................................................................................. 1114
Affected States and Organizations ........................................................................ 1116
Self-Represented Accused ..................................................................................... 1117
Public, Confidential, and Ex Parte Filings ............................................................... 1118
Public filings ......................................................................................................... 1118
Confidential filings ............................................................................................... 1121
Ex parte filings ...................................................................................................... 1122
E-mail Communications between the Parties and Chamber ................................ 1126
Physical Evidence ..................................................................................................... 1126
Generally .............................................................................................................. 1127
Availability of the Exhibits to the Public .............................................................. 1128
Ongoing Investigations by the Prosecutor ................................................................ 1128
Reply to the Response .............................................................................................. 1131
Commutation of Sentences ....................................................................................... 1133
Generally .............................................................................................................. 1133
Cooperation with the Prosecution After Conviction ............................................ 1134
XXV. INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW AND INTERNATIONAL
TRIBUNALS ........................................................................................................ 1135
ECHR AND INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNALS ......................................................... 1135
Generally .................................................................................................................. 1135
Inadmissibility of Complains Against the Tribunals' Judgements ........................... 1135
APPLICABILITY OF THE INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW IN
PRACTICE OF THE AD HOC TRIBUNALS ............................................................ 1136
Generally .................................................................................................................. 1136
Equality of Arms, Fair Trial ..................................................................................... 1138
Provisional Release (Burden of Proof) ..................................................................... 1138
20
Right to Appeal ......................................................................................................... 1139
INDEX ................................................................................................................................. 1141


Bills of Rights
A Comparative Perspective
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Ronagh McQuigg
ISBN: 978-1-78068-192-4
Publishers:IntersentiaIntersentia
Price: £66
Publication Date: March 2014

Publisher's Title Information

Bills of rights are currently a much debated topic in various jurisdictions throughout the world. Almost all democratic nations, with the exception of Australia, now have a bill of rights. These take a variety of forms, ranging from constitutionally entrenched bills of rights, such as those of the United States and South Africa, to non-binding statements of rights. Falling between these approaches are non-entrenched, statutory bills of rights. As regards the latter, a model which has become increasingly popular is that of bills of rights based on interpretative obligations, whereby duties are placed upon courts to interpret national legislation in accordance with human rights standards. The aim of this book is to provide a comparative analysis of the bills of rights of a number of jurisdictions which have chosen to adopt such an approach. The jurisdictions considered are New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the Australian Capital Territory and the Australian state of Victoria.
 
There have been very few books published to date which contain a detailed comparative analysis of the bills of rights which this book addresses. The book adopts a unique thematic approach, whereby six aspects of the bills of rights in question have been selected for comparative analysis and a chapter is allocated to each aspect. This approach serves to facilitate the comparative discussion and emphasise the centrality of the comparative methodology.

The Author

The Author is a lecturer in the School of Law, Queen's University Belfast. She was awarded a LLB with First Class Honours in 2002, a LLM in Human Rights Law with Distinction in 2003, and a PhD in 2006, all by Queen's University Belfast. She qualified as a solicitor in 2008 and joined the School of Law at Queen's as a lecturer in 2009. The author's research interests lie in the area of international human rights law.


Private Military and Security Companies in International Law
A Challenge for Non-binding Norms: The Montreux Document and the International Code of Conduct for Private Security Providers
Edition: 1st
Format: Harback
Author: Corinna Seiberth
ISBN: 978-1-78068-182-5
Publishers:IntersentiaIntersentia
Price: £81
Publication Date: Dec 2013

Publisher's Title Information

Many states view Private Military and Security Companies (PMSCs) as crucial to implement their security policy. However, reoccurring incidents of human rights violations have led the international community, private sector and civil society to acknowledge the need for more control over the use of PMSCs. Growing state support for The Montreux Document and an ever growing number of signatory companies to the International Code of Conduct for Private Security Service Providers (ICoC) show that self-regulation through non-binding norms has shifted to the centre of this debate.
 
This book examines the promises and dangers of emerging non-binding PMSC regulation alongside more traditional forms of law-making such as plans for an international convention on the use of PMSCs. It offers in-depth analysis of legal and political developments that led to the proliferation of The Montreux Document and the ICoC. Identifying the state side of duties and corporate responsibility as leaving gaps and grey zones in international law, it analyses how both instruments address the responsibility to protect and the responsibility to respect. Covering the Private Security Providers' Association's Articles of Association, the most recent developments on the establishment of a PMSC oversight mechanism are included.
 
Finally, the book provides an original theory of how both instruments could become more effective to protect victims against PMSC human rights violations; The Montreux Document by developing into a form of customary international law, the standards of the ICoC framework by developing into more binding normative standards as a form of 'corporate custom'.
 
'Corinna Seiberth contributes significantly to the growing debate and concern about the rise of corporate security and the difficulties in achieving its effective regulation.'
Nigel D. White, Professor of Public International Law, University of Nottingham

The Author

Corinna Seiberth gained her first degree in law at the University of Basel. She has since worked as a human rights researcher, lecturer and PhD research fellow at the University of Lucerne and the University of Nottingham. She is currently working as a project manager for Usthi Foundation Switzerland working on a development project for tribal children and communities in Odisha, India.


The Effects of Judicial Decisions in Time
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Authors: Patricia Popelier (ed.)Sarah Verstraelen (ed.)Dirk Vanheule (ed.)Beatrix Vanlerberghe (ed.)
ISBN: 978-1-78068-188-7
Publishers:IntersentiaIntersentia
Price: £62
Publication Date: October 2013

Publisher's Title Information

Constitutional review is a hot topic in contemporary constitutional debate and design. However, the legal force of judicial decisions, and in particular their effect in time, is an under-studied issue in the literature. This is remarkable, considering the substantial impact of these decisions on the parties or the wider society, in particular in the case of abstract review, and considering that the choice of retroactive, immediate or future effects may have at stake legal certainty, the right to effective judicial protection, or the rule of law. This edited volume fills the gap by offering a comparative analysis of legislative choices and jurisprudential developments regarding the effect in time of legal decisions and its implications in both civil law and common law systems, in abstract and concrete review. Both national and European courts are discussed. Country reports are preceded by milestone judgments so as to give insight into what, concretely, is at stake, thereby addressing both scholars and practitioners.

CONTENTS

Chapter 1. The Effect of Judicial Decisions in Time: Comparative Notes ........................1
Patricia Popelier, Sarah Verstraelen, Dirk Vanheule and Beatrix Vanlerberghe
1. Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1
2. A comparative overview: threads ...................................................................................... 3
2.1. The need for flexibility .............................................................................................. 3
2.2. The Court's discretion ............................................................................................... 4
2.3. Variations in approaches to the balancing exercise ............................................. 7
3. Definition and terminology ............................................................................................... 7
3.1. Effect ex tunc .............................................................................................................. 8
3.2. Effect ex nunc ............................................................................................................. 9
3.3. Effect pro futuro ....................................................................................................... 10
3.4. Umbrella terms ........................................................................................................ 11
4. Approach in this volume .................................................................................................. 12
PART I
CONSTITUTIONAL COURTS: EFFECTS EX TUNC ..................................................... 15
Chapter 2. Germany ................................................................................................................ 17
Bundesverfassungsgericht - Excerpt from the Judgment of the First Senate of
28 March 2006 on the basis of the oral hearing of 8 November 2005
- 1 BvR 1054/01 - ...................................................................................................................... 17
Temporal Eff ects of Decisions of the German Federal Constitutional Court ................. 21
Werner Schroeder
1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 21
1.1. Decision of the Federal Constitutional Court in the Sports Betting case ....... 21
1.2. Role of the FCC within the German judicial system ......................................... 21
2. Limitation of the legal effects of judgments through a declaration
of incompatibility .............................................................................................................. 22
2.1. Development of the practice .................................................................................. 22
2.2. Legal basis of the practice ....................................................................................... 23
Contents
vi
2.3. Prerequisites of a declaration of incompatibility ................................................ 23
2.3.1. Declaration of incompatibility to preserve the scope
of manoeuvring of the legislature ........................................................... 24
2.3.2. Declaration of incompatibility to prevent a situation
'more remote from the Constitution' ....................................................... 25
3. Legal effects of the declaration of incompatibility ....................................................... 26
3.1. Ban on application as standard consequence of the declaration
of incompatibility .................................................................................................... 26
3.2. Continued application despite declaration of incompatibility due
to order by the FCC ................................................................................................. 27
3.3. Provisional orders of the FCC ............................................................................... 30
4. Résumé ................................................................................................................................ 31
Chapter 3. Belgium
Belgian Court of Cassation - 20 December 2007 - C.07.0227.N ....................................... 35
Th e Interplay of Temporal Effects of Judicial Decisions within the Belgian
Legal Order ................................................................................................................................ 37
Sarah Verstraelen
1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 37
2. Belgian Constitutional Court .......................................................................................... 38
2.1. Appeals for annulment ........................................................................................... 38
2.1.1. General temporal effect .............................................................................. 38
2.1.2. Deviation from the general temporal eff ect ............................................ 40
2.1.2.1. Legal basis ...................................................................................... 40
2.1.2.2. Usage .............................................................................................. 40
2.1.2.3. Case in point ................................................................................. 41
2.2. Preliminary rulings ................................................................................................. 42
2.2.1. General temporal effect .............................................................................. 42
2.2.2. Deviation from the general temporal eff ect ............................................ 42
2.2.2.1. No legal basis ................................................................................ 42
2.2.2.2. Case no. 125/2011 ......................................................................... 43
3. Belgian Court of Cassation .............................................................................................. 44
3.1. General temporal effect .......................................................................................... 44
3.2. Deviation from general temporal effect ............................................................... 46
3.2.1. International private law case ................................................................... 46
3.2.2. Aftermath of the ECHR Marckx case ...................................................... 47
4. Decision of the Supreme Court of 20 December 2007: interplay ............................... 48
4.1. Circumstances of the case ...................................................................................... 48
4.2. Decision of the Court of Cassation ....................................................................... 49
4.3. Analysis ..................................................................................................................... 50
4.3.1. Legislative lacuna until 2008 ..................................................................... 50
4.3.2. Further case law........................................................................................... 50
vii
Contents
4.3.3. Competence of the Court of Cassation .................................................... 51
4.3.4. Article 4, §2 of the Special Act on the Constitutional Court ............... 52
4.3.5. Legal certainty ............................................................................................. 52
5. Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 53
PART II
CONSTITUTIONAL COURTS: EFFECTS EX NUNC ..................................................... 55
Chapter 4. Austria .................................................................................................................... 57
Decision of the Austrian Constitutional Court, December 10, 1986,
VfSlg 11190/1986 ....................................................................................................................... 57
Pro Futuro and Retroactive Effects of Rescissory Judgments in Austria ......................... 63
Manfred Stelzer
1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 63
2. The pro futuro effect of a rescissory judgment .............................................................. 64
3. Setting deadlines ............................................................................................................... 67
4. 'Retroactive' eff ect ............................................................................................................. 69
4.1. Case in point............................................................................................................. 69
4.2. Granting (general) retroactive eff ect .................................................................... 71
5. Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 73
Chapter 5. Hungary ................................................................................................................. 77
33/2012. (VII. 17.) AB határozat / Decision 33/2012 (VII. 17.) AB
of the Constitutional Court of Hungary ............................................................................... 77
Temporal Effects of Decisions of the Hungarian Constitutional Court .......................... 87
Tímea Drinóczi
1. Introduction to the constitutional review system in Hungary ................................... 87
2. Temporal effects of the decisions of the Constitutional Court .................................. 90
2.1. Temporal effect: general rules ................................................................................ 90
2.2. Invalidity (null and void) and temporal eff ect .................................................... 92
2.3. Th e concept of 'living law' and temporal eff ect .................................................. 93
2.4. Temporal effects ....................................................................................................... 94
2.4.1. Ex nunc effect: the main rule ..................................................................... 95
2.4.2. Ex tunc and pro futuro effects: deviations from the main rule ............ 95
3. Decision on the constitutionality of ex nunc effect ...................................................... 96
4. Application of pro futuro effect ....................................................................................... 97
4.1. Suspending the setting of the date of annulment ............................................... 97
4.2. 'Condition-setting' and combined 'condition-setting' and
'time-setting' ............................................................................................................ 98
Contents
viii
4.3. Exact date setting ..................................................................................................... 99
4.4. 'Warning to exercise the competence to annul' .................................................. 99
5. Application of ex tunc effect .......................................................................................... 100
5.1. Decision on the general retirement case and implications ............................. 100
5.1.1. The decision ............................................................................................... 100
5.1.2. Temporal eff ect applied and some criticism ......................................... 101
5.1.3. Related decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union
focusing on the temporal effect of the decision of the
Constitutional Court ................................................................................ 103
5.1.4. Related decision of the Constitutional Court: retroactive
annulment of the Transitory Provisions................................................ 103
5.2. Combined 'time-setting' and 'condition-setting' ............................................. 105
6. Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 105
Chapter 6. France ................................................................................................................... 107
Constitutional Council of France - Decision no. 2010-108 of 25 March 2011 .............. 107
Temporal Effects of Judicial Decisions in France............................................................... 111
François-Xavier Millet
1. Th e Constitutional Council's broad approach to the immediate eff ects
of abrogation .................................................................................................................... 113
1.1. A limited retroactive effect ................................................................................... 114
1.2. The adoption of transitory measures by the constitutional judge.................. 115
2. The grounds for a deferred abrogation ......................................................................... 116
2.1. The respect for parliamentary will ...................................................................... 117
2.2. The 'patently disproportionate consequences' test ........................................... 118
2.3. The immediate application of EU law ................................................................ 120
2.4. The emphasis on the 'usefulness' of the QPC decision .................................... 121
3. Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 121
Chapter 7. Italy ........................................................................................................................ 123
Italian Constitutional Court - Judgment no. 113 of 2011 ................................................ 123
Th e Temporal Effects of the Italian Constitutional Court and the Mechanism
of Warning Decisions ............................................................................................................. 135
Giuseppe Martinico
1. Introduction and overview of the relevant literature................................................. 135
2. Th e Dorigo saga as a case study ..................................................................................... 140
2.1. Factual background ............................................................................................... 140
2.2. Dorigo I .................................................................................................................... 141
ix
Contents
2.3. Dorigo II: the relevance of the ECHR in the case law of the ICC ................... 142
2.4. Why Dorigo II is relevant ..................................................................................... 146
3. Final remarks ................................................................................................................... 149
PART III
SUPREME COURTS ............................................................................................................. 151
Chapter 8. Th e UK.................................................................................................................. 153
Opinions of the Lords of Appeal for Judgment in the Cause National
Westminster Bank plc v. Spectrum Plus Ltd and others [2005] UKHL 41
on 30 June 2005 ....................................................................................................................... 153
Th e Temporal Effect of Judgments in the United Kingdom ............................................. 159
Ben Juratowitch
1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 159
2. Adjudicative retroactivity .............................................................................................. 161
2.1. Private law: Kleinwort Benson v. Lincoln City Council .................................... 162
2.2. Public law: R v. Governor of Brockhill Prison, ex p Evans (No. 2) ................... 163
2.3. Criminal law: Shaw v. DPP ................................................................................... 164
3. Consideration of prospective overruling in the United Kingdom ........................... 166
4. Problems with prospective overruling ......................................................................... 172
4.1. Where the new rule does not apply to the case in which it is announced .... 173
4.2. Where the new rule does apply to the case in which it is announced ........... 173
4.3. Where the new rule concerns the interpretation of a statute ......................... 176
4.4. Evaluation of prospective overruling ................................................................. 177
5. Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 178
Chapter 9. The Netherlands .................................................................................................. 181
High Council 13 November 1991, No. 27563, BNB 1992/109 ........................................... 181
The Temporal Effect of Dutch Tax Court Decisions ......................................................... 183
Hans Gribnau and Allard Lubbers
1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 183
2. The temporal effect of court decisions in tax cases .................................................... 184
2.1. The duties of the tax courts .................................................................................. 184
2.2. Interpreting tax legislation ................................................................................... 184
2.3. Tax courts as developers of the law ..................................................................... 186
2.4. Principles of proper administration ................................................................... 189
2.5. Review of tax regulations ..................................................................................... 190
3. Instruments to limit the temporal effect ...................................................................... 192
4. Grounds for limiting the temporal effect .................................................................... 194
5. Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 195
Contents
x
Chapter 10. Israel ................................................................................................................... 197
Summary of the Judgment in HCJ 6298/07 Ressler, adv. (IDF Major, ret.)
v. The Knesset ........................................................................................................................... 197
Time and Judicial Review in Israel: Tempering the Temporal Effects of Judicial
Review ....................................................................................................................................... 207
Ittai Bar-Siman-Tov
1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 207
2. General rule about the temporal effects of judicial decisions ................................... 208
3. Tempering the temporal effects of judicial decisions invalidating statutes ............ 210
3.1. Doctrine of relative voidance ............................................................................... 211
3.1.1. Absolute voidance, voidablity and relative voidance ........................... 211
3.1.2. Relationship between relative voidance and prospective eff ect ......... 212
3.2. Suspension of the declaration of invalidity ....................................................... 213
3.2.1. Relationship between suspension and prospective eff ect ................... 214
3.2.2. Relationship between suspension and relative voidance .................... 215
4. From theory to practice: the actual use of modulating remedies ............................ 215
4.1. Application of Solel Boneh in later cases ............................................................ 216
4.2. Expansion and prevalence of relative voidance in Israeli law......................... 216
4.3. Remedies employed in cases invalidating statutes ........................................... 218
4.3.1. Trend towards modulated invalidations................................................ 220
4.3.2. Th e surprising absence of relative voidance .......................................... 221
4.3.3. Emergence of suspension as the preferred remedy .............................. 221
4.3.4. Prospective application as the latest development ............................... 223
5. Normative evaluation ..................................................................................................... 226
5.1. Modulated remedies and rights ........................................................................... 226
5.2. Modulated remedies and separation of powers ................................................ 228
5.3. Th e need for flexibility and the fear of unbridled discretion .......................... 229
5.4. Th e appropriate approach ..................................................................................... 231
6. Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 232
PART IV
EUROPEAN COURTS .......................................................................................................... 235
Chapter 11. The Court of Justice of the European Union
Court of Justice of the European Union, C-292/04, Meilicke and others
v. Finanzamt Bonn-Innenstadt, 6 March 2007 [2007] ECR I-1835 .................................. 237
Limitation of Temporal Effects of CJEU Judgments: Mission Impossible for
Governments of EU Member States ..................................................................................... 245
Michael Lang
1. Meilicke and the CJEU case law on the limitation of the temporal effects
of the CJEU ....................................................................................................................... 245
xi
Contents
2. Existing case law on the limitation of temporal eff ects of CJEU judgments .......... 248
2.1. Th e rule and the exception ................................................................................... 248
2.2. Good faith and legal uncertainty ........................................................................ 249
2.3. Serious economic repercussions .......................................................................... 252
3. Limitation of temporal eff ects: applicable in all Member States? ............................ 256
3.1. The relevant judgment .......................................................................................... 256
3.2. Good faith and legal uncertainty ........................................................................ 259
3.3. Serious economic repercussions .......................................................................... 261
4. Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 262
Chapter 12. The European Court of Human Rights ....................................................... 265
ECtHR, Legrand v. France (App No 23228/08) 26 May 2011 ........................................... 265
The European Court of Human Rights' Approach to Retrospective Judicial
Reversals ................................................................................................................................... 269
Patricia Popelier
1. Legrand: a failed operation and the quest for damages ............................................. 269
2. Retroactive reversals and the principle of legal certainty ......................................... 271
2.1. Reversals in the case law of the ECtHR .............................................................. 271
2.2. Reversals in the case law of national courts ...................................................... 275
3. The legitimacy of reversals in the case law .................................................................. 277
3.1. The legitimacy of reversals in the case law of the ECtHR ............................... 277
3.2. The legitimacy of reversals in the case law of national courts ........................ 279
4. The retroactive application of reversals........................................................................ 280
4.1. The temporal effect of ECtHR judgments .......................................................... 280
4.2. The temporal effect of national judicial judgments .......................................... 282
5. Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 284

Inside Police Custody
An Empirical Account of Suspects' Rights in Four Jurisdictions
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Authors: Spronken, Taru; Ogorodova, Anna; Hodgson, Jacqueline; Cape, Ed; Blackstock, Jodie
ISBN: 9781780681573
Publishers: IntersentiaIntersentia
Price: £90
 
Publication Date: 5th Dec 2013

Publisher's Title Information

This empirical study of the procedural rights of suspects in four EU jurisdictions - France, Scotland, the Netherlands, and England/Wales - focuses on three of the procedural rights set out in the EU Roadmap for strengthening the procedural rights of suspected or accused persons in criminal proceedings: the right to interpretation and translation, the right to information and the letter of rights, and the right to legal assistance before and during police interrogation. In order to examine how these procedural rights operate in practice, the book's authors spent two to five months in eight field sites across these four jurisdictions. They watched lawyers and police officers during the period of police custody, they examined case records, they observed lawyer-client consultations, and they attended suspect interrogations. Furthermore, they conducted 75 interviews with police officers, lawyers, and accredited legal representatives. In addition to producing and analyzing empirical data, the authors have developed training guidelines for lawyers and police officers involved in the police detention process for use across the EU. The project team also produced a series of recommendations for legislative and policy changes designed to ensure better enforcement of the EU procedural rights' instruments that are envisaged in the Stockholm Programme, a five-year plan with guidelines for justice and the home affairs of the Member States of the EU. (Series: Ius Commune Europaeum - Vol. 113)
This empirical study of the procedural rights of suspects in four EU jurisdictions - France, Scotland, the Netherlands and England and Wales - focuses on three of the procedural rights set out in the EU Roadmap for strengthening the procedural rights of suspected or accused persons in criminal proceedings - the right to interpretation and translation; the right to information and the letter of rights; and the right to legal assistance before and during police interrogation.
 
In order to examine how these procedural rights operate in practice, the authors spent between two and five months in eight field sites across the four jurisdictions. During this time they observed lawyers and police officers during the period of police custody; examined case records; observed lawyer-client consultations; and attended suspect interrogations. Furthermore, they conducted 75 interviews with police officers, lawyers and accredited legal representatives.
 
In addition to producing and analysing empirical data, the authors have developed training guidelines for lawyers and police officers involved in the police detention process for use across the EU. The project team also produced a series of recommendations for legislative and policy changes designed to ensure better enforcement of the EU procedural rights' instruments that are envisaged in the Stockholm Programme.
 
The study was carried out by the Universities of Maastricht, Warwick and the West of England, together with JUSTICE. Avon and Somerset Police and the Open Society Justice Initiative were also collaborators on the project.
 
This book is accompanied by a Training Framework on the Provision of Suspects' Rights, the objective of which is to enhance the knowledge, understanding and skills of criminal justice practitioners - police officers and defence lawyers - in respect of the procedural rights of suspects in police detention.

Review

'Inside Police Custody has been eagerly awaited by those working on legislation and policy in the field of procedural protections for suspects at EU level. This ground-breaking study is the first piece of comparative research to look at what actually happens in the process of police detention and interrogation in different jurisdictions, and to assess the differences in practice. Its findings will make essential reading and inform legislation at both EU and national level.'
Caroline Morgan, Principal Administrator and former Procedural Rights Team Leader at the European Commission

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.................................................................................. v
BIOGRAPHIES ...................................................................................................................... xxi
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................... xxv
POLICE DETENTION TIMELINE ......................................................................................... xxix
CHAPTER 1 INSIDE POLICE CUSTODY: THE AIMS OF THE RESEARCH AND THE
NORMATIVE FRAMEWORK ............................................................................ 1
1. Introduction .............................................................................................................. 1
1.1. The Empirical Study ................................................................................................ 5
1.2. The Training Framework ........................................................................................ 6
2. The Normative Perspective: the ECHR and the EU Directives .......................... 6
2.1. The Right to Free Interpretation and Translation ................................................ 7
2.2. The Right to Information ......................................................................................... 8
2.2.1. Information Regarding Rights ................................................................................ 8
2.2.2. Information About Arrest, the Nature and Cause of the Accusation, and
Charge ........................................................................................................................ 9
2.2.3. Information Regarding Material Evidence/The Case File ............................... 10
2.3. The Right to Legal Assistance ............................................................................... 12
2.3.1. The Point at Which the Right to Legal Assistance Arises ................................. 12
2.3.2. Legal Assistance During Interrogation ................................................................ 15
2.3.3. The Right to Private Consultation with a Lawyer ............................................. 16
2.3.4. Choice of Lawyer .................................................................................................... 17
2.3.5. The Role, Independence and Standards of Lawyers ......................................... 17
2.4. The Privilege Against Self-Incrimination and the Right to Silence ................. 20
2.5. The EU Directives ................................................................................................... 22
2.5.1. Scope of the Directives ........................................................................................... 24
2.5.2. Directive on the Right to Interpretation and Translation ................................. 24
2.5.3. Directive on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings ...................... 26
2.5.4. Directive on the Right of Access to a Lawyer ..................................................... 29
3. How to Read this Book .......................................................................................... 32
Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 33
CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ........................................................................ 37
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 37
2. Earlier Research Studies ........................................................................................ 38
2.1. England and Wales ................................................................................................ 39
2.2. France ....................................................................................................................... 41
2.3. The Netherlands ..................................................................................................... 42
2.4. Scotland ................................................................................................................... 44
3. Setting Up and Managing the Project .................................................................. 45
3.1. The Team ................................................................................................................. 45
3.2. Getting Started ........................................................................................................ 45
3.3. Managing the Project ............................................................................................. 46
4. Developing Research Instruments ....................................................................... 47
4.1. The Desk Review .................................................................................................... 47
4.2. The Observation Schedule .................................................................................... 48
4.3. The Case Pro Formas ............................................................................................. 48
4.4. The Interview Schedules ....................................................................................... 49
4.5. Referencing the Data .............................................................................................. 50
4.6. Coding for Analysis ............................................................................................... 50
5. Fieldwork Training and Preparation ................................................................... 51
5.1. Preparing for the Field ........................................................................................... 51
5.2. Training ................................................................................................................... 52
6. Agreeing the Field Sites ......................................................................................... 53
6.1. England and Wales ................................................................................................ 53
6.2. France ....................................................................................................................... 53
6.3. The Netherlands ..................................................................................................... 54
6.4. Scotland ................................................................................................................... 54
7. Negotiating Access and Carrying out Observations ......................................... 54
7.1. England and Wales ................................................................................................ 55
7.2. France ....................................................................................................................... 56
7.3. The Netherlands ..................................................................................................... 57
7.4. Scotland ................................................................................................................... 59
8. The Fieldwork Data ................................................................................................ 60
9. Approaches to Data Analysis ............................................................................... 63
Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 65
CHAPTER 3 THE CONTEXT: AN OVERVIEW OF SUSPECTS' RIGHTS IN ENGLAND
AND WALES, FRANCE, THE NETHERLANDS AND SCOTLAND .................... 69
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 69
2. England and Wales ................................................................................................ 70
2.1. What Does the System Overall Look Like? ......................................................... 70
2.2. Status at Trial of Evidence Obtained at the Investigative Stage ....................... 72
2.3. How Does Police Detention and Interrogation Work in Terms of
Power and Responsibilities? ................................................................................. 72
2.3.1. Authority to Stop and Detain ............................................................................... 72
2.3.2. Criteria for Detention ............................................................................................. 74
2.3.3. Minors ...................................................................................................................... 74
2.3.4. Records .................................................................................................................... 74
2.3.5. How Many Police Detentions of Suspects Each Year? Is this Stable? ............. 75
2.4. What Rights Does the Suspect Detained in Police Custody Have?
At what Point Do the Rights Apply? ................................................................... 75
2.4.1. External Supervision .............................................................................................. 75
2.4.2. Right to Know Reason for Arrest and Detention ............................................... 76
2.4.3. Information on Rights; Letter of Rights ............................................................... 76
2.4.4. Right of Access to the Case File and Disclosure at the Investigative Stage .... 77
2.4.5. Legal Assistance ..................................................................................................... 77
2.4.6. Right to Silence ....................................................................................................... 79
2.4.7. Right to Medical Examination .............................................................................. 79
2.4.8. Right to Have Someone Informed of Detention ................................................. 79
2.4.9. Right to Interpreter/Translation .......................................................................... 80
2.4.10. Right to Inform Consulate/Embassy ................................................................... 81
2.5. What Are the Remedies for Breach of these Rights? ......................................... 81
2.6. Do Suspects Request a Lawyer? Conditions for Waiver ................................... 81
2.7. Extent of Lawyer's Role ......................................................................................... 82
2.8. Power to Exclude a Lawyer from a Police Interrogation .................................. 82
2.9. Arrangements for Provision of and Payment for Custodial Legal Advice..... 82
3. France ....................................................................................................................... 83
3.1. What Does the System Overall Look Like? ......................................................... 83
3.2. Status at Trial of Evidence Obtained at the Investigative Stage ....................... 86
3.3. How Does Police Detention and Interrogation Work in Terms
of Powers and Responsibilities? ........................................................................... 87
3.3.1. Authority to Stop and to Detain ........................................................................... 87
3.3.2. Criteria for Detention ............................................................................................. 88
3.3.3. Minors ...................................................................................................................... 88
3.3.4. Records .................................................................................................................... 89
3.3.5. How Many Police Detentions of Suspects each Year? Is this Stable? .............. 89
3.4. What Rights Does the Suspect Detained in Police Custody Have?
At what Point Do the Rights Apply? ................................................................... 90
3.4.1. External Supervision .............................................................................................. 90
3.4.2. Right to Know Reason for Arrest and Detention ............................................... 90
3.4.3. Information on Rights; Letter of Rights ............................................................... 90
3.4.4. Right to Access to the Case File and Disclosure at the Investigative Stage .... 91
3.4.5. Legal Advice and Assistance ................................................................................ 91
3.4.6. Right to Silence ....................................................................................................... 93
3.4.7. Right to Medical Examination .............................................................................. 93
3.4.8. Right to Have Someone Informed of Detention ................................................. 94
3.4.9. Right to Interpreter/Translation .......................................................................... 94
3.4.10. Right to Inform Consulate/Embassy ................................................................... 95
3.5. What Are the Remedies for Breach of these Rights? ......................................... 95
3.6. Do Suspects Request a Lawyer? Conditions for Waiver ................................... 97
3.7. Extent of Lawyer's Role ......................................................................................... 97
3.8. Power to Exclude Lawyer from an Interview ..................................................... 98
3.9. Arrangements for Provision and Payment of Custodial Legal Advice ........... 98
4. The Netherlands ..................................................................................................... 98
4.1. What Does the System Overall Look Like? ......................................................... 98
4.1.1. Definition of 'Suspect', 'Reasonable Suspicion' and Charge .......................... 101
4.2. Status at Trial of Evidence Obtained at the Investigative Stage ..................... 101
4.3. How Does Police Detention and Interrogation Work in Terms
of Powers and Responsibilities? ......................................................................... 103
4.3.1. Authority to Stop and Detain ............................................................................. 103
4.3.2. Criteria for Detention ........................................................................................... 104
4.3.3. Minors .................................................................................................................... 105
4.3.4. Records .................................................................................................................. 105
4.3.5. How Many Police Detentions of Suspects each Year? Is this Stable? ............ 106
4.4. What Rights Does the Suspect Detained in Police Custody Have?
At what Point Do the Rights Apply? ................................................................. 106
4.4.1. External Supervision ............................................................................................ 106
4.4.2. Right to Know Reason for Arrest and Detention ............................................. 107
4.4.3. Information on Rights; Letter of Rights ............................................................. 108
4.4.4. Right of Access to the Case File and Disclosure at the Investigative Stage .. 108
4.4.5. Legal Assistance ................................................................................................... 109
4.4.6. Right to Silence ..................................................................................................... 110
4.4.7. Right to Medical Examination ............................................................................ 110
4.4.8. Right to Have Someone Informed of Detention ............................................... 110
4.4.9. Right to Interpreter/Translation ........................................................................ 111
4.4.10. Right to Inform Consulate/Embassy ................................................................. 113
4.5. What Are the Remedies for Breach of these Rights? ....................................... 113
4.6. Do Suspects Request a Lawyer? Conditions for Waiver ................................. 114
4.7. Extent of Lawyer's Role ....................................................................................... 114
4.8. Role of Lawyer in Police Interview and Power to Exclude Lawyer
from a Police Interview........................................................................................ 115
4.9. Arrangements for Provision and Payment of Custodial Legal Advice ......... 116
5. Scotland ................................................................................................................. 118
5.1. What Does the System Overall Look Like? ....................................................... 118
5.2. Status at Trial of Evidence Obtained at the Investigative Stage ..................... 120
5.3. How Does Police Detention and Interrogation Work in Terms
of Powers and Responsibilities? ......................................................................... 121
5.3.1. Authority to Stop and Search and Detain ......................................................... 121
5.3.2. Criteria for Detention ........................................................................................... 122
5.3.3. Minors .................................................................................................................... 123
5.3.4. Records .................................................................................................................. 124
5.3.5. How Many Police Detentions of Suspects each Year? Is this Stable? ............ 124
5.4. What Rights Does the Suspect Detained in Police Custody Have?
At what Point do the Rights Apply? .................................................................. 125
5.4.1. External Supervision ............................................................................................ 125
5.4.2. Right to Know Reason for Arrest and Detention ............................................. 126
5.4.3. Information on Rights; Letter of Rights ............................................................. 126
5.4.4. Right to Access to the Case File and Disclosure at the Investigative Stage .. 127
5.4.5. Legal Assistance ................................................................................................... 127
5.4.6. Right to Silence ..................................................................................................... 129
5.4.7. Right to Medical Examination ............................................................................ 131
5.4.8. Right to Have Someone Informed of Detention ............................................... 131
5.4.9. Right to Interpreter/Translation ........................................................................ 131
5.4.10. Right to Inform Consulate/Embassy ................................................................. 132
5.5. What Are the Remedies for Breach of these Rights? ....................................... 133
5.6. Do Suspects Request a Lawyer? Conditions for Waiver ................................. 133
5.7. Extent of Lawyer's Role ....................................................................................... 134
5.8. Power to Exclude a Lawyer from a Police Interrogation ................................ 135
5.9. Arrangements for Provision and Payment of Custodial Legal Advice ......... 135
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 137
CHAPTER 4 INTERPRETATION AND TRANSLATION ..................................................... 145
1. Introduction .......................................................................................................... 145
2. Regulation of Interpretation in the Four Jurisdictions .................................... 147
2.1. England and Wales .............................................................................................. 148
2.2. France ..................................................................................................................... 149
2.3. Netherlands ........................................................................................................... 151
2.4. Scotland ................................................................................................................. 152
3. Arrangements for Interpretation at the Police Station in Practice ................. 153
3.1. Level of Demand for Interpretation ................................................................... 153
3.2. Interpretation at the Initial Stage of Detention ................................................. 154
3.3. Interpretation During Lawyer-Client Consultation ........................................ 156
3.4. Interpretation During Interrogation .................................................................. 158
3.5. Interpretation by Telephone ............................................................................... 160
3.6. Using Single or Multiple Interpreters During Detention ................................ 164
3.7. The Use of Interpreters and Delay ..................................................................... 166
4. Identifying the Need for Interpretation/Translation ...................................... 170
4.1. Police Identification of Need ............................................................................... 171
4.2. Lawyers' Identification of Need ......................................................................... 178
4.3. Identifying the Appropriate Language ............................................................. 184
5. Understanding of the Interpretation Requirements ........................................ 185
5.1. Understanding the Right ..................................................................................... 186
5.2. Familiarity with the Arrangements for Provision of Interpretation .............. 188
6. Quality of Interpretation ..................................................................................... 190
6.1. Using Accredited Interpreters ............................................................................ 191
6.2. Professionalism of Interpreters ........................................................................... 192
6.3. Standard of Interpretation ................................................................................... 194
7. Arrangements for Translation of Documents ................................................... 199
8. Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 203
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 208
CHAPTER 5 THE RIGHT TO INFORMATION ON RIGHTS .............................................. 211
1. Introduction .......................................................................................................... 211
1.1. The EU Directive on the Right to Information in Criminal Proceedings ...... 212
1.2. The Structure and Content of this Chapter ....................................................... 214
2. Information on Rights at Arrest and Detention ............................................... 214
2.1. The (Statutory) Regulation of Information on Rights in the
Four Jurisdictions ................................................................................................. 214
2.2. The Process of Informing Suspects of their Rights .......................................... 217
2.3. Voluntary Attenders ............................................................................................ 227
2.4. Language Used ..................................................................................................... 227
2.5. Oral Information ................................................................................................... 228
2.6. The SARF Procedure ............................................................................................ 230
3. Written Information ............................................................................................. 234
3.1. Letter of Rights ..................................................................................................... 235
3.2. Posters on the Wall ............................................................................................... 238
4. Information Concerning the Accusation and the Reasons for
Arrest or Detention .............................................................................................. 238
4.1. Regulation in the Four Jurisdictions .................................................................. 239
4.2. Information on the Accusation and Reasons for Arrest or Detention in
Practice ................................................................................................................... 240
4.2.1. England and Wales .............................................................................................. 240
4.2.2. The Netherlands ................................................................................................... 242
5. Vulnerable Suspects ............................................................................................. 243
6. Obstacles to the Effective Communication of Rights ...................................... 246
6.1. The Wish to Be Released as Soon as Possible ................................................... 247
6.2. Drunk and Intoxicated Suspects ......................................................................... 248
6.3. Interpretation and Translation Issues ................................................................ 248
7. Perceptions of Police and Lawyers as to the Effectiveness of the
Provision of Information on Rights ................................................................... 249
8. Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 251
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 256
CHAPTER 6 THE ORGANIZATION OF CUSTODIAL LEGAL ADVICE
AND ASSISTANCE ....................................................................................... 259
1. Introduction .......................................................................................................... 259
2. Arrangements for Providing Legal Advice and Assistance ........................... 262
2.1. England and Wales .............................................................................................. 262
2.2. France ..................................................................................................................... 264
2.3. The Netherlands ................................................................................................... 267
2.4. Scotland ................................................................................................................. 270
3. The Suspect's Decision to Request Legal Advice ............................................. 273
3.1. England and Wales .............................................................................................. 274
3.2. France ..................................................................................................................... 276
3.3. The Netherlands ................................................................................................... 278
3.4. Scotland ................................................................................................................. 280
4. Providing Legal Advice: Who Attends ............................................................. 282
5. Providing Legal Advice: Telephone Advice or Face-to-Face? ........................ 283
5.1. England and Wales .............................................................................................. 285
5.2. France ..................................................................................................................... 286
5.3. The Netherlands ................................................................................................... 286
5.4. Scotland ................................................................................................................. 287
6. Disclosure and Legal Advice .............................................................................. 290
6.1. England and Wales .............................................................................................. 290
6.2. France ..................................................................................................................... 291
6.3. The Netherlands ................................................................................................... 293
6.4. Scotland ................................................................................................................. 295
7. Perceptions of the Right to a Lawyer ................................................................. 296
7.1. England and Wales .............................................................................................. 297
7.2. France ..................................................................................................................... 298
7.3. The Netherlands ................................................................................................... 300
7.4. Scotland ................................................................................................................. 302
8. Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 304
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 308
CHAPTER 7 DELIVERING CUSTODIAL LEGAL ADVICE ................................................ 311
1. Introduction .......................................................................................................... 311
2. The Lawyer-Client Consultation: Assembling Information ........................... 312
2.1. When Does the Consultation Take Place and for How Long? ....................... 312
2.2. Gathering Information from the Suspect .......................................................... 315
2.3. Taking Notes During the Consultation ............................................................. 318
2.4. Explaining the Role of the Lawyer ..................................................................... 318
2.5. Explaining the Detention Procedure .................................................................. 321
2.6. Requesting an Interpreter .................................................................................... 322
3. Advising the Suspect whether to Answer Questions ...................................... 322
3.1. Directive Approach by the Lawyer .................................................................... 325
3.2. Setting Out the Options - the Lawyer Advises ................................................ 328
3.3. Setting out the Options - the Suspect Decides ................................................. 329
4. Assisting the Suspect Beyond Interrogation ..................................................... 332
5. Lawyers' Perspectives on Their Own Role ....................................................... 335
5.1. New and 'Repeat' Suspects ................................................................................. 336
5.2. Lawyers Ensure Procedural Compliance .......................................................... 337
5.3. Lawyers Unable to Make a Difference .............................................................. 338
5.4. Lawyers as Moral Support .................................................................................. 339
5.5. Lawyers Empathizing with Police Role ............................................................ 340
5.6. The Importance of Good Working Relationships with the Police ................. 341
5.7. Lawyers Asserting Suspects' Rights .................................................................. 342
5.8. The Importance of Lawyers' Own Professional Ideology .............................. 344
6. Police Perspectives on the Lawyer's Role ......................................................... 344
6.1. Lawyers in Opposition to the Police .................................................................. 345
6.1.1. England and Wales .............................................................................................. 345
6.1.2. France ..................................................................................................................... 347
6.1.3. The Netherlands ................................................................................................... 348
6.1.4. Scotland ................................................................................................................. 349
6.2. Lawyers and Advice to Remain Silent .............................................................. 350
6.3. 'Lawyers Should Remain Passive' ..................................................................... 350
6.4. 'Lawyers Make No Real Difference' .................................................................. 350
6.5. Lawyers as a Procedural Protection and Supporting the Suspect ................. 352
6.6. Lawyer Role in Facilitating the Process ............................................................. 352
7. Conclusion ............................................................................................................. 353
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 357
CHAPTER 8 POLICE INTERROGATION AND THE RIGHT TO SILENCE .......................... 359
1. Introduction .......................................................................................................... 359
2. Police Interrogation in the Four Jurisdictions ................................................... 361
2.1. The Purposes and Functions of Police Interrogation ....................................... 361
2.2. The Regulation of Police Interrogation and the Consequences of Breach .... 364
3. Interrogation in Practice ...................................................................................... 368
3.1. Duration of Interrogations .................................................................................. 368
3.2. Recording of Interrogations ................................................................................ 369
3.3. The Conduct of Interrogations ........................................................................... 373
4. The Right to Silence in Interrogations ............................................................... 374
4.1. Notification of the Right to Silence in Interrogations ...................................... 375
4.2. Explanation and Understanding of the Right to Silence ................................. 377
4.3. The Right to Silence and Interrogation Strategies ............................................ 381
5. Lawyers' Attendance at Police Interrogations .................................................. 384
5.1. Attendance at Interrogations in the Four Jurisdictions ................................... 385
5.2. Factors Influencing Lawyers' Attendance at Interrogations .......................... 387
5.2.1. Seriousness of the Offence and Suspects' Vulnerability ................................. 387
5.2.2. Organization of Delivery of Legal Advice and Remuneration ...................... 388
5.2.3. Organization of Police Interrogations ............................................................... 389
5.3. The Attitudes of Lawyers to Attendance at Interrogations ............................ 392
6. The Role of Lawyers in Interrogations .............................................................. 394
6.1. Lawyers' Role in Interrogations in Practice in the Four Jurisdictions ........... 395
6.1.1. England and Wales .............................................................................................. 395
6.1.2. Netherlands and France ...................................................................................... 397
6.1.3. Scotland ................................................................................................................. 400
6.2. Factors that Influence the Lawyer's Role During Interrogations ................... 401
6.2.1. The Attitudes of the Police .................................................................................. 402
6.2.2. Professional Cultures ........................................................................................... 405
6.3. The Effects of the Lawyer's Presence in Interrogations .................................. 408
7. Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 411
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 418
CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................... 423
1. Introduction .......................................................................................................... 423
2. A Suspect-Focused Perspective .......................................................................... 427
3. Compliance with EU Directives in the Four Jurisdictions .............................. 430
3.1. The Right to Interpretation and Translation ..................................................... 431
3.2. The Right to Information ..................................................................................... 433
3.3. The Right of Access to a Lawyer ........................................................................ 435
3.4. The Right to Silence .............................................................................................. 439
4. The Importance of Clear and Detailed Regulations and Procedures,
Accompanied by Effective Verification Procedures ........................................ 441
5. Occupational Cultures and Mutual Understanding of Roles ......................... 443
6. Legal Aid and Duty Lawyer Schemes ............................................................... 448
7. Training ................................................................................................................. 450
8. Recommendations ................................................................................................ 451
8.1. Interpretation and Translation ........................................................................... 451
8.2. The Right to Information ..................................................................................... 452
8.3. The Right of Access to a Lawyer (other than During Police
Interrogation) ........................................................................................................ 454
8.4. Police Interrogation and the Right to Silence ................................................... 456
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 458
OVERVIEW ANNEXES ......................................................................................................... 461
ANNEX 1 INSIDE POLICE CUSTODY: TRAINING FRAMEWORK ON THE
PROVISIONS OF SUSPECTS'S RIGHTS ........................................................ 467
ANNEX 2 DESK REVIEW OUTLINE ............................................................................. 534
ANNEX 3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS SCHEDULE ........................................................... 537
ANNEX 4 CASE LOG PRO-FORMA LAWYER OBSERVATIONS ................................... 550
ANNEX 5 CASE LOG PRO-FORMA POLICE STATION OBSERVATIONS ...................... 553
ANNEX 6 POLICE INTERVIEW PRO-FORMA ............................................................... 556
ANNEX 7 LAWYER INTERVIEW PRO-FORMA ............................................................. 558
ANNEX 8 OVERVIEW OF THE COLLECTED DATA ...................................................... 560
ANNEX 9 OVERVIEW OF THE DATA COLLECTION PERIODS .................................... 561
ANNEX 10 LANGUAGE IDENTIFICATION CARD (SCOTLAND) ................................... 562
ANNEX 11 INTERPRETERS INTRODUCTION SHEET (SCOTLAND) .............................. 564
ANNEX 12 NOTES FOR THE GUIDANCE OF ACCUSED PERSONS (SCOTLAND) .......... 565
ANNEX 13 SOLICITOR ACCESS - PROVISION OF RIGHTS FLOWCHART
(SCOTLAND) ............................................................................................... 567
ANNEX 14 CPOS PRE-INTERVIEW REVIEW OF RIGHTS (SCOTLAND) ...................... 568
ANNEX 15 POLICE STATEMENT FORM S14 DETENTION (SCOTLAND) ...................... 570


Armed Forces and International Jurisdictions
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Authors: Odello, Marco; Seatzu, Francesco
ISBN: 9789400001831
Publishers: Intersentia
Price: £62
Publication Date: 20th Oct 2013

Publisher's Title Information

Different activities conducted by armed forces and their personnel are governed by different branches of international law, in particular international humanitarian law, international criminal law, and human rights law. In recent times, the expanding jurisprudence of international jurisdictions has also addressed the activities of military personnel engaged in different scenarios, including the internal organization of armed forces and forms of violation of different rules of international law. Relevant decisions have come from, for instance, the international ad hoc criminal tribunals, special courts, and truth and reconciliation commissions, as well as human rights courts and the International Court of Justice. This book explores the relationship between armed forces and international tribunals, courts, and non-judicial bodies, taking into consideration the case law developed by those jurisdictions. The contributors are legal academics from various European university law schools, with specific expertise in international human rights law, criminal law, and humanitarian law.

CONTENTS

List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Chapter 1.
Armed Forces and International Jurisdictions: a General Survey
Peter Rowe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1. The Role of National Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Other 'Armed Forces' within a State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. International Law and Armed Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Chapter 2.
International Legal Regimes, Armed Forces and International
Jurisdictions
Marco Odello . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2. Concept, Nature and Evolution of International Law Related to Armed
Confl ict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1. War and Armed Confl ict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.2. The Definition of Armed Conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3. Human Rights Obligations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.1. Human Rights and Armed Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.2. The Relationship between IHL and IHRL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.3. Extraterritorial Applicability of Human Rights Obligations . . . . . . . . . 34
4. International Jurisdictions and International Humanitarian Law . . . . . . . . 37
4.1. Jurisdiction Ratione Materiae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4.2. Jurisdiction Ratione Personae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5. International Criminal Law: a Way to Fill the Gap? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.1. The Nature of International Crimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
5.2. Individual Criminal Responsibility and Armed Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Contents
vi Intersentia
Chapter 3.
Armed Forces and the International Court of Justice: the Relevance of
International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law to the Conduct
of Military Operations
Giulio Bartolini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2. The Relevance of IHL in the Case-Law of the ICJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3. Sources of IHL and the Case-Law of the ICJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4. Obligations Erga Omnes and Jus Cogens in IHL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5. The Application of IHL Principles by the ICJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
5.1. Definition of Armed Conflicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
5.2. Conduct of Hostilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5.3. The Law of Occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
5.4. Humanitarian Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
5.5. Guarantees for the Implementation of IHL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
6. The Application of Human Rights Obligations during Armed Conflicts . . 80
6.1. The Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights Treaties in the
ICJ's Case-Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
6.2. The Relationship between IHL and HRL according to the ICJ . . . . . . . 83
7. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Chapter 4.
Armed Forces before the International Court of Justice: the Jus Ad Bellum
Constantine Antonopoulos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
2. Passage through Foreign Territory in Peacetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3. The Jus Ad Bellum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
3.1. The Justiciability of Disputes on Resort to Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.2. Nature and Extent of the Prohibition of the Use of Force . . . . . . . . . . 101
3.3. Threat of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.4. Support to Armed Bands as a Violation of the Prohibition of
the Use of Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
3.5. The Right of Self-Defence Against an Armed Attack or Against
a Use of Force Short of an Armed Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
3.5.1. Self-Defence in Customary Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
3.5.2. The Concept of Armed Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
3.5.3. Necessity of Self-Defence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
3.5.4. Proportionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
3.5.5. Collective Self-Defence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
3.5.6. Reporting of Measures of Self-Defence to the Security
Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Contents
Intersentia vii
3.5.7. The Response to a Use of Force Short of an Armed Attack . . . 115
3.5.8. The Use of Force Against Irregular Armed Forces . . . . . . . . . . . 117
3.5.9. Anticipatory Self-Defence and “Pre-emptive Self-Defence” . . . 124
3.6. Humanitarian Intervention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
3.7. State Consent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4. UN Peacekeeping Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
5. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Chapter 5.
The Practice of International Courts and Tribunals on Armed Forces:
Issues of Status and Attribution
Andrea Carcano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
2. Issues of Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
2.1. Civilians and Armed Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
2.2. The Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
2.3. The Mrškiæ Case: Status of POW by Agreement? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
2.4. Child Soldiers - Between Civilian and Combatant Status . . . . . . . . . . 152
3. Status of Armed Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
3.1. The Bosnian-Serbs Forces Operating in Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1992-1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
3.2. Croatian Forces Fighting in Vukovar in 1991 Against the JNA . . . . . 156
3.3. The Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
3.4. The Albanian National Liberation Army (NLA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
3.5. The Rwanda Patriotic Front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
3.6. The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
3.7. The Union des Patriotes Congolais (UPC); and the Force
Patriotique pour la Libération du Congo (FRPI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
4. Issues of Attribution of the Conduct of Armed Forces to a State . . . . . . . . 164
5. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Chapter 6.
Echoes of 'The Life of Johnny Reb'. The Protection of the Fundamental
Rights and Freedoms of Armed Forces Personnel in a Comparative
Human Rights Perspective
Francesco Seatzu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
2. Strengths and Weaknesses of the 'Citizen in Uniform' Approach by
the ECTHR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
3. The 'Courts Resisting Courts' Approach of the ACTHR in Dealing
with Cases Involving Military Jurisdictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Contents
viii Intersentia
4. Developing an Alternative and Integrated Approach that Reconciles the
Protection of the Human Rights of Armed Forces Personnel with the
Enforcement of Military Discipline Th rough Ad Hoc Jurisdictions:
a Modest Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Chapter 7.
The Relationship between Truth Commissions and Armed Forces
Alison Bisset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
2. Truth Commission Investigations, Armed Forces and Violations of
International Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
3. Truth Seeking and Armed Forces Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
4. The Push Towards Prosecution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
5. The Use of Truth Commission Materials in International Proceedings . . 200
6. Conclusions and Prospects for Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Conclusions and Recommendations
Marco Odello and Francesco Seatzu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
1. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
2. Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Selected Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Table of Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
The Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

LINKS

"Internet Law Book Reviews", Copyright Rob Jerrard 2014