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Books from the Council of Europe Publishing Reviewed in 2011

Livres du Conseil de l'Europe Edition révisée en 2011
The Council of Europe has 47 member states, covering virtually the entire continent of Europe. It seeks to develop common democratic and legal principles based on the European Convention on Human Rights and other reference texts on the protection of individuals. Ever since it was founded in 1949, in the aftermath of the Second World War, the Council of Europe has symbolised reconciliation.

Council of Europe Publishing produces works in all the Organisation's spheres of reference, including human rights, legal science (constitutional law, criminal law, family law, labour law etc.), health, ethics, social affairs, environment, education, culture, sport, youth and architectural heritage.


Le Conseil de l'Europe dispose de 47 états membres, couvrant pratiquement tout le continent de l'Europe. Il vise à développer démocratique commune et les principes juridiques sur la base de la Convention européenne sur les droits humains et autres textes de référence sur la protection des individus. Depuis qu'il a été fondée en 1949, dans le sillage de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, le Conseil de l'Europe a symbolisé réconciliation.

Conseil de l'Europe produit des ouvres dans toutes les sphères de l'Organisation de référence, y compris les droits de l'homme, la science juridique (droit constitutionnel, droit pénal, droit de la famille, droit du travail etc), la santé, l'éthique, des affaires sociales, environnement, éducation, culture, sport , les jeunes et le patrimoine architectural.

Human rights in Europe: no grounds for complacency (2011)
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Thomas Hammarberg
ISBN: 978-92-871-6916-7
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: € 19 / US$ 38
Publication Date: 2011

Publisher's Title Information

Political rhetoric on human rights in Europe is different from daily reality. Almost every politician is on record as favouring the protection of freedom and justice. Standards on human rights have been agreed at European and international level; many have been integrated into national law; but they are not consistently enforced. There is an implementation gap.
 
It is this implementation gap that this book seeks to address. It is built on a compilation of separate "viewpoints" or articles which Thomas Hammarberg has written, and later updated, since beginning his mandate as Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights in April 2006. He has now visited almost all of the 47 member states of the Council of Europe. On each visit he has met victims of violations of human rights and their families, leading politicians, prosecutors, judges, ombudsmen, religious leaders, journalists and civil society representatives as well as inmates of prisons and other institutions, law enforcement personnel and others. The "viewpoints" written on the basis of these many visits summarise his reflections, conclusions and recommendations.

Contents

Foreword
Chapter 1: Xenophobia and identity
Respecting the other
Islamophobia
The burqa and privacy
Discriminatory stop and search
Hate crimes
Minority languages
Chapter 2: Roma rights
European history of repression of the Roma
Continued stigmatisation of Roma
Ending discrimination against Roma
Roma political representation
Roma without citizenship
Discrimination against Roma migrants
Chapter 3: Immigration and asylum policies
Rights for migrants
The criminalisation of migration
The right to asylum
Detention of asylum seekers
Family reunification
Trafficking
Statelessness
Displaced persons
Chapter 4: Protection against homophobia and transphobia
Yogyakarta Principles
Homophobia
Transphobia
Chapter 5: Rights of people with disabilities
Making society inclusive
Rights for persons with mental disabilities
Discrimination against people with intellectual disabilities
Chapter 6: Gender rights
Gender representation in politics
The pay gap
Domestic violence
Rape
Chapter 7: Rights of the child
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
Views of children
Children and violence
Sexual abuse of children
Children in unsuitable care institutions
Children in prison
Child migrants
Child poverty
Chapter 8: Social and economic rights
Poverty and marginalisation
The global economic crisis and human rights
Equality, discrimination and poverty
The right to housing
The rights of older people
HIV, Aids and the right to health
Climate change: an issue of human rights
Enforcing social rights standards
Chapter 9: Police, courts and prisons
Police violence
The "ticking bomb" argument
Final abolition of the death penalty
Corruption undermines justice
Judges must be independent
Lengthy court proceedings
Enforcement of court decisions
Prison conditions
Life sentences
Remedies for victims of human rights violations
Applications to the Strasbourg Court
Chapter 10: Fighting terrorism while respecting human rights
Counterterrorist methods and European complicity
Intelligence secrecy: no excuse
Terrorist blacklisting
Terrorism - Lessons from Northern Ireland
Privacy and data protection
Chapter 11: Gross violations in the past
Lessons from history
Accountability in post-totalitarian states
The International Criminal Court
Chapter 12: Media freedom and freedom of expression
Blasphemy and hate speech
Media diversity
Journalists at risk
Freedom of assembly
Chapter 13: Actors for human rights
Human rights defenders
The example of Andrei Sakharov
Religious leaders
Ombudsmen
Local authorities
Parliaments
 
Chapter 14: Systematic measures for human rights implementation
National implementation
State budgets
Human rights education
Chapter 15: International action
Foreign policy and human rights
The accountability of international actors
List of acronyms and abbreviations
Council of Europe human rights treaties: record of ratifications and signatures

This Title is also available in French

Résumé
Il y a loin du discours politique sur les droits de l'homme à la réalité quotidienne en Europe. Certes, les responsables politiques se disent presque tous favorables à la protection de la liberté et de la justice. Des normes relatives aux droits de l'homme ont été adoptées aux niveaux européen et international et, pour beaucoup d'entre elles, intégrées en droit interne. Pour autant, ces normes ne se traduisent pas toujours dans les faits, car elles ne sont pas systématiquement mises en œuvre.
 
C'est de ce déficit de mise en œuvre que traite le présent ouvrage. Il rassemble des « points de vue » ou des articles que Thomas Hammarberg a publiés, puis mis à jour, depuis qu'il exerce les fonctions de Commissaire aux droits de l'homme du Conseil de l'Europe, c'est-a-dire depuis avril 2006. A ce jour, il s'est rendu dans la quasi-totalité des 47 Etats membres du Conseil de l'Europe. A chaque fois, il a rencontré des victimes de violations des droits de l'homme et leur famille, des responsables politiques, des procureurs, des juges, des policiers, des ombudsmans, des chefs religieux, des journalistes, des représentants de la société civile, des personnes détenues ou internées. Les « points de vue » que l'ont inspirés ces multiples visites résument ses réflexions, conclusions et recommandations.

Table des matières

Avant-propos
Chapitre 1 : Xénophobie et identité
Respecter l'autre
La burqa et le droit au respect de la vie privée
Arrestations arbitraires et discriminatoires
Crimes de haine
Chapitre 2 : Droits des Roms
Histoire de la répression des Roms en Europe
Persistance de la stigmatisation des Roms
Eradication de la discrimination à l'égard des Roms
Représentation politique des Roms
Discrimination des migrants roms
Chapitre 3 : Politiques d'asile et d'immigration
Droits des migrants
La criminalisation des migrations
Droit d'asile
La détention des demandeurs d'asile
Regroupement familial
La traite des êtres humains
Personnes déplacées
Chapitre 4 : Protection contre l'homophobie el la transphobie
Les Principes de Jogjakarta
Homophobie
Transphobie
Chapitre 5 : Droits des personnes handicapées
Pour une société inclusive
Droits des personnes handicapées mentales
Discrimination des personnes ayant une déficience
Chapitre 6 : Les droits en matière d'égalité hommes-femmes
Représentation politique des femmes et des hommes
Violence domestique
Viol
Chapitre 7 : Droits de l'enfant
La Convention des Nations Unies relative aux droits de l'enfant
Le point de vue de l'enfant
Enfants et violence
Enfants places dans des institutions inadaptées
Enfants en prison
Enfants migrants
La pauvreté des enfants
Chapitre 8 : Droits sociaux et économiques
Pauvreté et marginalisation
La crise économique mondiale et les droits de l'homme
Egalité, discrimination et pauvreté
Droit au logement
Les droits des personnes âgées
Changement climatique : une question de droits de l'homme
Appliquer les normes en matière de droits sociaux
Chapitre 9 : Police, justice et système pénitentiaire
Violences policières
L'argument de la bombe à retardement
L'abolition totale de la peine de mort
La corruption porte atteinte à la justice
Des juges indépendants
Durée excessive des procédures judiciaires
Exécution des décisions de justice
Conditions de détention
La réclusion à perpétuité
Voies de recours pour les victimes de violations des droits de l'homme
Requêtes devant la Cour de Strasbourg
Chapitre 10 : Lutte contre le terrorisme et respect des droits de l'homme
Les méthodes antiterroristes et la complicité européenne
Services de renseignements : les limites du secret
Les listes noires de terroristes
Terrorisme : les enseignements de l'Irlande du Nord
Protection de la vie privée et protection des données
Chapitre 11 : Violations passées des droits de l'homme
Tirer les leçons de l'histoire
Obligation de rendre des comptes dans les Etats post-totalitaires
La Cour pénale Internationale
Chapitre 12 : Liberté des medias et liberté d'expression
Blasphème et discours de haine
La diversité des medias
Les journalistes en danger
Liberté de réunion
Chapitre 13 : Les acteurs des droits de l'homme
Défenseurs des droits de l'homme
L'exemple d'Andrei Sakharov
Collectivités locales
Chapitre 14 : Mesures systématiques de mise en œuvre des droits de l'homme
Mise en oeuvre au niveau national
Budget national
Education aux droits de l'homme
Chapitre 15 : Action internationale
Politique étrangère et droits de l'homme
Responsabilisation des acteurs internationaux
Liste des sigles et des acronymes
Traités du Conseil de l'Europe relatifs aux droits de l'homme : état des ratifications et des signatures
More Details on The Council of Europe Website




Some still more equal than others? Or equal opportunities for all? (2011)
Edition: 2011
Format: Paperback
Authors: Serdar M. Degirmencioglu
ISBN: 9789287167460
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: € 36 / US$ 72
Publication Date: 2011

Publisher's Title Information

Inequality limits young people's chances in life. Yet equality is the basis of democracy and Article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights secures the rights and freedoms of the young "without discrimination on any ground".
 
Research shows that inequality - in opportunities, wealth or health, for example - is widespread in Europe and that the citizens of richer countries do not necessarily have healthier profiles than those of poorer countries. The citizens of egalitarian countries, on the other hand, have the highest life expectancy.
 
This book examines many aspects of inequality and opportunity for young people including schooling, employment, social exclusion, labour migration, trafficking, disability, cultural and religious discrimination, youth work, and opposition and resistance.

More Details on The Council of Europe Website

Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence - Council of Europe Treaty Series No. 210 (2011)
Edition: 2011
Format: Paperback
Author: COE
ISBN:
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: € 8 / US$ 16
Publication Date: 2011

Publisher's Title Information

The Council of Europe Treaty Series (CETS) contains the official versions of all the conventions and agreements adopted within the Council of Europe, numbered in the chronological order of their opening for signature. The date on the cover of the publication is that of the opening of the treaty for signature.
 
The chart of signatures and ratifications of Council of Europe treaties is available free of charge on the web site of the Treaty Office of the Council: http://conventions.coe.int

Also Available in French

Convention du Conseil de l'Europe sur la Prévention et la Lutte Contre la Violence à l'Egard des Femmes et la Violence Domestique - Série des traités du Conseil de l'Europe n° 210 (2011)

Preamble

The member States of the Council of Europe and the other signatories hereto,
Recalling the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ETS No. 5, 1950) and its Protocols, the European Social Charter (ETS No. 35, 1961, revised in 1996, ETS No. 163), the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (CETS No. 197, 2005) and the Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (CETS No. 201, 2007);
Recalling the following recommendations of the Committee of Ministers to member States of the Council of Europe: Recommendation Rec(2002)5 on the protection of women against violence, Recommendation CM/Rec(2007)17 on gender equality standards and mechanisms, Recommendation CM/Rec(2010)10 on the role of women and men in conflict prevention and resolution and in peace building, and other relevant recommendations;
Taking account of the growing body of case law of the European Court of Human Rights which sets important standards in the field of violence against women;
Having regard to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966), the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women ("CEDAW", 1979) and its Optional Protocol (1999) as well as General Recommendation No. 19 of the CEDAW Committee on violence against women, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) and its Optional Protocols (2000) and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006);
Having regard to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (2002);
Recalling the basic principles of international humanitarian law, and especially the Geneva Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1949) and the Additional Protocols I and II (1977) thereto;
Condemning all forms of violence against women and domestic violence;
Recognising that the realisation of de jure and de facto equality between women and men is a key element in the prevention of violence against women;
Recognising that violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between women and men, which have led to domination over, and discrimination against, women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women; Recognising the structural nature of violence against women as gender-based violence, and that violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men;
Recognising, with grave concern, that women and girls are often exposed to serious forms of violence such as domestic violence, sexual harassment, rape, forced marriage, crimes committed in the name of so-called "honour" and genital mutilation, which constitute a serious violation of the human rights of women and girls and a major obstacle to the achievement of equality between women and men;
Recognising the ongoing human rights violations during armed conflicts that affect the civilian population, especially women in the form of widespread or systematic rape and sexual violence and the potential for increased gender-based violence both during and after conflicts;
Recognising that women and girls are exposed to a higher risk of gender-based violence than men;
Recognising that domestic violence affects women disproportionately, and that men may also be victims of domestic violence;
Recognising that children are victims of domestic violence, including as witnesses of violence in the family;
Aspiring to create a Europe free from violence against women and domestic violence.

More Details on The Council of Europe Website

Migrants and their descendants - Guide to policies for the well-being of all in pluralist societies
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Council of Europe
ISBN: 978-92-871-6853-5
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: € 53 / US$ 106
Publication Date: 2011

Publisher's Title Information

Migration to and within Europe has profoundly changed the life and image of the continent. This guide offers theoretical and practical tools for an innovative approach to a key political issue: how, along with our immigrant fellow-citizens, can we build a fair and plural society that ensures the well-being of all?
 
By moving beyond rigid categories like "foreigner", "immigrant" and "illegal , and ambiguous concepts like "identity", "diversity , "immigration control" and "integration", this guide suggests that policy makers, civil servants and citizens need to question their own vocabulary if they are to grasp the complexity and uniqueness of people's migration paths.
 
Perceiving migrants simply from the host country's point or view - the security, well-being and life-style of its nationals - has limitations. We cannot see people of foreign origin only as a threat or a resource to be exploited. If we see them as stereotypes, we are seeing only a mirror of European fears and contradictory aspirations. This guide helps readers decode and address the structural problems of our society, looking at the accusations made against migrants and the utilitarian view of the advantages that immigrants bring to host societies.
 
In publishing this guide, the Council or Europe is seeking to initiate an in-depth debate on the migration issue, which is so high on the European political agenda.

Contents

Foreword
Introduction
Part 1 - Rethinking policies towards migrants and their descendants
Chapter 1 Clarifying the debate and the concepts used
1.1. Introduction to the discourse on and concepts used in relation to migration and migrants
1.2. Mobility and migration
1.3. Foreigners, immigrants, descendants
1.4. Identities, diversity, cultures
Chapter 2 Understanding the thinning behind policies and their effects
2.1. Introduction to policies on migrants and their descendants
2-2. Controls
2.3. Integration
2.4. Well-being of all
Chapter 3 Redrawing the map of stakeholders and shared responsibilities
3.1. Introduction to stakeholders' responsibilities in migration processes
3.2. Denationalisation of state powers
3.3. Redistribution of state powers
3.4. Delegation of state powers
Part 2 - Analysing and transforming harmful stereotypes about migrants and their descendants
Chapter 1 Stereotypes, prejudices and immigration policies: an approach for a social interaction strategy
1.1. Stereotypes and prejudices as cognitive mechanisms based on simplification and generalisation
1.2. Harmful stereotypes as a means of social exclusion
1.3. "Foreigners" as the ready-made targets of harmful stereotypes
1.4. Migrants as a threat
1.5. Migrants as a resource
1.6. An approach for analysing and transforming harmful stereotypes
Chapter 2 Harmful stereotypes portraying migrants and their descendants as a treat to our security
Introduction
2.1. "Migrants cause an increase in crime"
2-2. "Migrants bring diseases into me country"
Chapter 3 Harmful stereotypes portraying migrants and their descendants as a treat to our well-being
Introduction 1
3.1. "Migrant workers take our jobs"
3.2. "Migrant workers drive down our wages"
3.3. "Migrants and their descendants are less educated man us"
3.4. "Migrants abuse me welfare state"
3.5. "Migrants abuse me asylum system"
Chapter 4 Harmful stereotypes portraying migrants and their descendants as a treat to our way of life
Introduction
4.1. "Migrants act as if the place were theirs"
4.2. "Migrants build parallel societies"
4.3. "Migrants' children bring standards down in our schools"
4.4. Migrant women live as a minority
Chapter 5 Stereotypes portraying migrants and their descendants as resources for our competitiveness
Introduction
5.1. "Migrants do the jobs which local workers no longer want to do"
5.2. "Migrants will pay our old age pensions"
Bibliography

Also Available in French: Titre également disponible en Francais

Les migrations vers et à travers l'Europe ont profondément modifié la vie et l'image du continent. Ce guide offre au lecteur des outils théoriques et pratiques pour aborder de manière innovante une question politique majeure liée à ces changements: comment construire avec nos concitoyens immigrés et leurs enfants une société à la fois plurielle et juste, qui assure le bien-être de tous ?
 
Au-delà de catégories rigides - «étranger», «immigré», «clandestin»... -, et au-delà de notions souvent ambiguës d'«identité», de «diversité», de «contrôle de l'immigration», d'«intégration»..., ce guide suggère au décideur politique comme au fonctionnaire ou au citoyen de remettre en question ce vocabulaire et de saisir la complexité et la singularité des parcours migratoires.
 
Le seul point de vue des pays d'accueil, voire de la sécurité, du bien-être et du mode de vie des populations nationales montre ses limites. Les personnes d'origine étrangère ne peuvent être considérées exclusivement comme une menace ou comme une ressource. Les stéréotypes sur les migrants fonctionnent comme un miroir dans lequel les Européens projettent leurs peurs et leurs aspirations contradictoires. Ce guide amène ainsi le lecteur à déchiffrer et aborder les problèmes structurels de nos sociétés à travers les accusations dont sont victimes les immigrés, mais aussi à travers la reconnaissance utilitariste des avantages qu'ils apportent à nos societes.
 
Avec ce guide, le Conseil de l'Europe invite à une réflexion approfondie sur la question des migrations, qui occupe tellement l'espace politique européen.
Table des matières
Avant-propos
Introduction
Première partie Repenser les politiques envers les migrants et leurs descendants
Chapitre 1 Clarifier les discours et les concepts
1.1. Introduction aux concepts et aux discours en matière de migrations et de migrants
1.2. Mobilté et migrations
1.3. Etrangers, immigrés, descendants
1.4. Identités, diversités, cultures
Chapitre 2 Appréhender la logique des politiques et leurs effets
2.1. Introduction aux politiques envers les migrants et leurs descendants
2.2. Contrôles
2.3. Intégration
2.4. Bien-être de tous
Chapitre 3 Reconstruire la cartographie des acteurs et des responsablités partagées
3.1. Introduction aux responsablités des acteurs dans les processus migratoires
3.2. Dénationalisation des pouvoirs étatiques
3.3. Réarticulation des pouvoirs étatiques
3.4. Délégation des compétences étatiques
Deuxième partie Analyser et transformer les stéréotypes prejudiciables sur les migrants et leurs descendants
Chapitre 1 Stéréotypes, préjugés et politiques d'immnigration: note méthodologique pour une stratégie d'interaction sociale
1.1. Stéréotypes et préjugés en tant que dispositifs cognitifs opérant par réduction et généralisation
1.2. Stéréotypes préjudiciables en tant que véhicules d'exclusion sociale
1.3. L' « étranger » comme cible toute désignée de stéréotypes préjudiciables
1.4. Les migrants en tant que menace
1.5. Les migrants en tant que ressource
1.6. Une méthodologie pour l'analyse et la transformation des stéréotypes préjudiciables
Chapitre 2 Stéréotypes préjudiciables considérant les migrants et leurs descendants comme une menace pour « notre » sécurité
Introduction
2.1. « Les migrants augmentent la criminalité »
2.2. « Les migrants amènent des maladies dans le pays »
Chapitre 3 Stéréotypes préjudiciables considérant les migrants et leurs descendants comme une menace pour « notre » bien-être
Introduction
3.1. « Les travailleurs migrants prennent nos emplois »
3.2. « Les travailleurs migrants font baisser nos salaires »
3.3. « Les migrants et leurs descendants sont moins formés que nous »
3.4. « Les migrants abusent de l'Etat social »
3.5. « Les migrants abusent du système de l'asile »
Chapitre 4 Stéréotypes préjudiciables considérant les migrants et leurs descendants comme une menace pour « notre » manière de vivre
Introduction
4.1. « Les migrants se croient chez eux »
4.2. « Les migrants construisent des sociétés parallèles »
4.3. « Les enfants des migrants baissent le niveau de nos écoles »
4.4. « Les femmes migrantes vivent en situation de minorité »
Chapitre 5 Stéréotypes préjudiciables considérant les migrants et leurs descendants comme une ressource pour « notre » compétitivité
Introduction
5.1. « Les migrants occupent les emplois dont les travailleurs autochtones ne veulent plus »
5.2. « Les migrants vont payer nos retraites »
Bibliographie

Forward

"Mankind can develop painlessly only when looking upon itself as one unit, one single family without dividing itself into nations other than in matters of history and traditions."
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov, Reflections
In our contemporary world, migrants are present in every society. Although migration is certainly not a new phenomenon, it has in the last few decades become a hot topic of discussion worldwide. It has become an important element in politics, a key issue for policy makers and„sadly, a source of fear and aversion for many. It has been used to make a distinction between the concepts of "us" and "them" the "nationals" of a country and the "immigrants", "aliens" or "foreigners".
It is worrying to observe how some politicians now try to gain popularity through xenophobic and nationalistic statements and radical anti-immigration policies. It is even more worrying that the policies they advocate find wide support. This has consequences migrants are increasingly perceived through a prism of harmful stereotypes that hamper their integration into the communities in which they live. This, in turn, brings us all away from a society in which all are treated as equals, where all have equal opportunities and all can genuinely benefit from the available resources.
It is important to realise that the process of migration will continue, in spite of the various actions to prevent and hinder it. Migration is an element of globalisation and an inextricable part of 21st-century reality. Immigrants and nationals will continue to live side by side and it is thus essential to find ways in which this cohabitation can be of benefit to all.
The key to promoting tolerance towards migrants is fostering a greater sense of understanding of the phenomenon of migration among policy makers but also the population at large. Knowledge is crucial to overcoming the superficial barrier created between nationals and immigrants.
Migration should be perceived in its sociological, historical and geographical context. It is important to understand that the decision to migrate is taken as result of a more complex set of factors, going beyond just mere poverty. While nationals tend to worry about the impact that large-scale immigration could have on the welfare and security of the state they live in, migrants also have their concerns in relation to family reunification, their possible lack of legal status, lack of access to social services, personal security or loss of values.
Instead of observing migrants in terms of a "community", thus making generalisations and operating on the basis of predefined stereotypes, one should learn to regard every immigrant as an individual, a human being with his/her own background, past experiences, abilities, hopes and wishes for the future. It is essential that we try to understand migrants and learn more about the issues surrounding the question of migration.
How is migration portrayed in modern-day societies? What paths do migrants follow before and upon arrival in their countries of destination? What distinctions can we make between and within the concepts of "immigrants", "aliens" and "foreigners"? What are the aims and effects of immigration and integration policies currently in force and how are they shaped? Who are the stakeholders in migration strategies? What are the common stereotypes with regard to immigrants and how can they be overcome?
These and other important questions are the focus of the present guide, which aims to clarify concepts and fallacies surrounding the phenomenon of migration, as well as to analyse migration policies and offer alternatives to the ones applied at present.
We have no influence over where we are born. Some of us are lucky enough to be born in democratic states governed by the rule of law, where wealth is more or less evenly distributed and everyone has equal opportunities. Others, however, live in places where they are subjected to persecution or have no possibilities for development, which thus compels them to leave their countries of origin and search for happiness elsewhere.
"Nationals" must fight the illusion that the presence of immigrants in their countries is not justifiable and that they have no right to be there. They should cease to treat the "nation" as a point of reference. Rather than giving in to fears of what we perceive as "different" or "foreign", we should be open to pluralism in our societies and benefit from the rich cultural diversity that immigrants bring with them. And recognise that they also have human rights.

Thomas Hammarberg
Commissioner for Human Rights
Council of Europe

More Details on The Council of Europe Website

Combating discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity - Council of Europe standards (2011)
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: COE
ISBN: 978-92-871-6989-1
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: £16.68 € 19 / US$ 38
Publication Date: 2011

Publisher's Title Information

The Council of Europe works to uphold human rights, the rule of law and pluralist democracy. The Council of Europe's standards and mechanisms seek to promote and ensure respect for the human rights of every individual. These include equal rights and dignity of all human beings, including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons.
 
The Council of Europe has adopted a number of international legal instruments and standards on combating discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity. They illustrate the underlying message of the Organisation, which is that the Council of Europe's standards of tolerance and non-discrimination apply to all European societies, and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity is not compatible with these standards.
 
This publication provides an accessible and comprehensive compilation of the standards adopted by the Council of Europe. It should serve as a reference for the governments, international institutions, NGOs, media professionals and to all those who are - or should be - professionally or otherwise involved or interested in protecting and promoting the human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons.

Also available in French

Combattre la discrimination fondée sur l'orientation sexuelle ou l'identité de genre - Les normes du Conseil de l'Europe (2011)
Le Conseil de l'Europe soutient les droits de l'homme, l'Etat de droit et la démocratie pluraliste. Les normes et mécanismes du Conseil de l Europe visent à promouvoir et assurer le plein respect des droits de l'homme de chaque individu, notamment l'égalité des droits et la dignité de tous, y compris des lesbiennes, des gays, des bisexuels et des transgenres.
 
Le Conseil de l'Europe a adopté plusieurs instruments et normes juridiques internationales pour combattre la discrimination fondée sur l'orientation sexuelle ou sur l'identité de genre. Ces textes illustrent le message de fond de l'Organisation : les normes du Conseil de l'Europe en matière de tolérance et de non-discrimination visent l'ensemble des sociétés européennes, et la discrimination fondée sur l'orientation sexuelle et l'identité de genre n'est pas compatible avec ces normes.
 
La présente publication contient un recueil exhaustif et accessible des normes du Conseil de l'Europe. Elle devrait servir de référence aux gouvernements, aux institutions internationales, aux organisations non gouvernementales, aux professionnels des médias et à tous ceux qui, professionnellement ou non, sont associés ou s'intéressent à la protection et à la promotion des droits de l'homme des lesbiennes, des gays, des bisexuels et des transgenres.

Foreword

The Council of Europe's standards and mechanisms seek to promote and ensure respect for the human rights of every individual. These include equal rights and dignity of all human beings, including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons.

In our societies, homophobia and intolerance towards lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons are still widespread. Many of them are still suffering from discrimination, violence and exclusion on grounds of their sexual orientation or gender identity. Discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity is not compatible with Council of Europe standards.

The commitment of the Council of Europe to fighting discrimination based on sexual orientation has a long history: the first recommendation by its Parliamentary Assembly dates back to 1981. Since then, the Assembly, the Committee of Ministers and the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities have dealt with the issue in several texts. The case law of the European Court of Human Rights has also been essential in combating discrimination, regularly recognising since the early 1980s violations of the human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons under various aspects.

A historical step was made on 31 March 2010 with the adoption by the Committee of Ministers of Recommendation CM/Rec(2010)5 to member states on measures to combat discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. This recommendation is the first instrument in the world dealing specifically with one of the most persistent and difficult forms of discrimination. It sets out the principles deriving from existing European and international instruments, with particular emphasis on the European Convention on Human Rights, in the light of European Court of Human Rights case law. It identifies specific measures to be adopted and effectively enforced by member states in order to combat discrimination, to ensure respect for human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons and to promote tolerance towards them.

A few weeks later, on 29 April 2010, the Parliamentary Assembly also adopted a new Resolution 1728 (2010) and a new Recommendation 1915 (2010) on discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity.

This publication contains the relevant legal and political texts adopted by the Committee of Ministers, the Parliamentary Assembly and the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe. It should serve as a reference for the governments, international institutions, non-governmental organisations, media professionals and to all those who are professionally or otherwise involved or interested in protecting and promoting the human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons. But legal responses and political declarations, whilst essential, are not sufficient. They need to be combined with educational, cultural and awareness-raising measures likely to eradicate discrimination and intolerance in the long term.

This objective requires determined action in the first place by the Council of Europe member states themselves, to implement the agreed standards and to put an end to any form of discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in the enjoyment of human rights.

Thorbjorn Jagland
Secretary General

More Details on The Council of Europe Website

Media matters in the cultural contradictions of the "information society" - Towards a human rights-based governance (2011)
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Divina Frau-Meigs
ISBN: 978-92-871-6834-4
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: € 53 / US$ 106
Publication Date: 2011
 
The Council of Europe has 47 member states, covering virtually the entire continent of Europe. It seeks to develop common democratic and legal principles based on the European Convention on Human Rights and other reference texts on the protection of individuals. Ever since it was founded in 1949, in the aftermath of the Second World War, the Council of Europe has symbolised reconciliation.

Publisher's Title Information

Is an online identity protected by freedom of expression or is it a form of publicity subject to trademark law? Is online privacy a commercial service or a public right? What are the limits of consent when dealing with privacy as a service? What are "free", "open", or "public" services on the Internet and how can citizens use them effectively? What policy initiatives can ensure that the digital networks deliver the goods, spectacles and services for our everyday activities that improve our quality of life? What role for governments, the private sector and civil society? What frameworks for international policy instruments to achieve a fair, inclusive and balanced governance of the media as they go digital?
 
This work addresses these burning issues - and many more - that preoccupy decision makers, researchers and activists at all levels of society. It covers the issues of dignity, ethics, identity, privacy, cultural diversity, public service, gate-keeping and education in an encompassing human rights-based governance framework. Considering the perils and promises of each issue, the authors make constructive recommendations, insisting on the relation between local and global governance, the public value of media and digital networks and the benefits of multi-stakeholder partnerships.

Contents

Foreword
Acknowledgements
Introduction -The cultural contradictions of the "information society"
1 . Defining media today: spectacles or services?
2. Fostering ethics beyond access
3. Reclaiming dignity
4. Constructing a positive lifelong dynamic identity
5. Securing Privacy 2.0
6. Creating diversity as a new right for media in culture
7. Re-valorising the public service value of the networks
8. Gatekeeping the gatekeepers
9. Assessing risk of harm and protection of minors
10. Connecting media education to human rights: public, open, participatory and ethical.

The Author

Divina Frau-Meigs is a professor of media sociology at the Sorbonne Nouvelle University and director of the Master's programme AIGEME in "e-learning and media education engineering", She is also an expert with the Council of Europe (Human Rights and Media), the European Commission (Information Society Division) and UNESCO (Information for All Programme)

For more Information go to the Council of Europe Website:



Freedom of expression - Europeans and their rights
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Michel Verpeaux
ISBN: 978-92-871-6464-3
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: € 29 / US$ 58
Publication Date: 2010

Publisher's Title Information

Freedom of expression is not absolute, even though it is a fundamental right enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights. Under the terms of the Article 10 of the Convention, its exercise may be subject to such restrictions as are prescribed by law and are "necessary in a democratic society" in order to uphold the rights of all individuals.
The author compares and analyses the protection of and limits on the right to freedom of expression in the case law of European constitutional courts and the European Court of Human Rights, drawing on practical examples, to see whether a common European approach exists in this area.

Contents

Introduction
Chapter I - The place of freedom of expression in fundamental rights
Section 1 - Wording of freedom of expression in conventions and constitutions
1.1 Progressive recognition of freedom of expression
1.2 Proclamation of freedom of expression in legal instruments
A. International instruments
B. National constitutions and basic laws
1.3 Variable extent of freedom of expression
Section 2 - The nature of freedom of expression
2.1 Freedom of expression as a basis of democracy
A. European and Community courts
B. National constitutional courts
2.2 A multifaceted freedom
A. Both a subjective and a collective right
B. Diversity of the scope of freedom of expression
C. Freedom of mode of expression
D. Freedom without frontiers
2.3 Freedom of expression is not an absolute right
A. General framework
B. Characteristics of supervision
Chapter II - Scope of protection of freedom of expression
Section 1 - Freedom of public debate and freedom of opinion
1.1 Limits on the protection of others
A. Defamation and protection of private life
B. Opinion crimes
C. Respect for national symbols and values
1.2 Limits derived from laws establishing historical facts
1.3 Freedom of expression in the civil service context
1.4 Freedom of expression and political opinions
1.5 Impartiality and the authority of the judiciary
A. General principles
B. Freedom of expression of lawyers
Section 2 - Freedom of communication
2.1 Freedom of the media
A. General principles
B. Audiovisual media
C. The cinema
D. The press
E. Commercial speech
F. Freedom of expression and the Internet
2.2 Less protected areas
A. Access to information
B. Respect for morality or the general interest
Chapter III - Convergence and divergence in freedom of expression in Europe
Section 1 - Towards harmonisation: freedom of the press
1.1 Right to privacy and Scottish concerns
1.2 Limits connected with the protection of reputation and the French example
1.3 Protection of sources
Section 2 - Controversial areas
2.1 Religious opinion
A. The offence of blasphemy in the United Kingdom
B. The complex example of the "Mohammed cartoons"
2.2 Morality
2.3 Artistic freedom
2.4 Discrimination and racial hatred
Bibliography
Codices: Infobase on Constitutional Case Law

Also available if French

Résumé

Droit fondamental inscrit dans la Convention européenne des droits de l'homme, la liberté d'expression n'est cependant pas un droit absolu. Son exercice peut être soumis, selon les termes de l'article 10 de la Convention, à des restrictions, prévues par la loi, «nécessaires dans une société démocratique», afin de garantir les droits de chacun.
 
L'auteur compare et analyse la protection et les limites du droit à la liberté d'expression dans les jurisprudences des cours constitutionnelles européennes et de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme, en s'appuyant sur des exemples concrets, pour déterminer s'il existe un droit commun européen dans ce domaine.

"Europeans and their rights" series

Are there common European rights? This series of publications aims to answer this question through comparative analysis of the protection afforded under national constitutions and international conventions to the various civil and political rights guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights.
Each volume studies a specific individual right based on practical examples and relevant decisions by European constitutional courts or the European Court of Human Rights.
The series uses information obtained from the Codides database, an electronic publication of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (usually called the Venice Commission). Codices (www.codices.coe.int) contains periodic reports of the case law of the constitutional courts of the 47 Council of Europe member states and courts of equivalent jurisdiction in Europe, including the European Court of Human Rights (Council of Europe) and the Court of Justice of the European Communities (European Union).
In both the Codices database and this publication, decisions are presented in the following way:
1. Identification:
Country or Organisation;
Name of court;
Chamber or division (if any);
Date of decision;
Number of decision or case;
Title (if any);
Official publication;
Non-official publications.

Introduction

"I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it."
Attributed to Voltaire

Freedom of expression is regarded by the European Court of Human Rights as one of the pillars of democratic society and, for that very reason, as one of the bases on which its case law is built. By ensuring clarity in democratic debate, freedom of expression in all its forms contributes to respect for the rule of law principle.

The broad foundations laid by the Court have been respected by the member states, which have sometimes helped to define the outlines of European case law through their approaches. A European standard could emerge as a result, but this will be possible only in certain areas of freedom of expression because of the various forms such freedom can take.

The wording of different instruments, such as international conventions or national constitutions, demonstrates that freedom of expression is sometimes confused with other freedoms that can become synonyms for it in the practices of different countries. The different wordings influence its nature, so that this freedom, which constitutes the very cornerstone of the concept of a democratic society, is actually very difficult to define.

Depending on whether freedom of opinion or freedom of communication is concerned the latter is subject to particular constraints freedom of expression is not protected in exactly the same way. While many resemblances exist between national and European law, there are still areas of divergence.

The author wishes to express his very warm appreciation to Ms Anne-Charlene Bezzina for her invaluable assistance with the preparation of this book.

For more Information go to the Council of Europe Website:



LINKS

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