Books from the Council of Europe Publishing Reviewed in 2009

Livres du Conseil de l'Europe Edition révisée en 2009
The Council of Europe has 47 member states, covering virtually the entire continent of Europe. It seeks to develop common democratic and legal principles based on the European Convention on Human Rights and other reference texts on the protection of individuals. Ever since it was founded in 1949, in the aftermath of the Second World War, the Council of Europe has symbolised reconciliation.

Council of Europe Publishing produces works in all the Organisation's spheres of reference, including human rights, legal science (constitutional law, criminal law, family law, labour law etc.), health, ethics, social affairs, environment, education, culture, sport, youth and architectural heritage.

Le Conseil de l'Europe dispose de 47 états membres, couvrant pratiquement tout le continent de l'Europe. Il vise à développer démocratique commune et les principes juridiques sur la base de la Convention européenne sur les droits humains et autres textes de référence sur la protection des individus. Depuis qu'il a été fondée en 1949, dans le sillage de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, le Conseil de l'Europe a symbolisé réconciliation.

Conseil de l'Europe produit des ouvres dans toutes les sphères de l'Organisation de référence, y compris les droits de l'homme, la science juridique (droit constitutionnel, droit pénal, droit de la famille, droit du travail etc), la santé, l'éthique, des affaires sociales, environnement, éducation, culture, sport , les jeunes et le patrimoine architectural.

Youth Policy Manual - How to develop a national youth strategy (2009)
Edition: 1st
Author: Finn Yrjar Denstad
ISBN: 978-92-871-6576-3
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: € 15 / US$ 30
Publication Date: Dec 2009

What is youth policy, and what major elements should a national youth policy strategy include? How can young people be consulted and otherwise involved in developing youth policy? How do institutions such as the European Union, the Council of Europe and the United Nations address youth policy, and how can this work be concretely linked to the efforts of a national government to develop a youth policy agenda?
These are some of the essential questions addressed in this publication. The Youth Policy Manual should be considered a resource, a tool and a helpful guide both for policy makers in the youth field and for non-governmental organisations and other stakeholder groups who advocate for improved youth policy at the national level.
This manual proposes one possible model for how a national youth policy strategy can be developed. It is based on the author's observations from the countries of South-eastern and eastern Europe, as they gain experience in addressing youth policy in a transversal and cross-sectorial manner and with the active involvement of young people.

2is a national youth policy?
2.1. A clearly defined government authority on youth
2.2. A clearly defined target group
2.3. A concrete and transparent strategy
2.4. A knowledge-based policy
2.5. Young people as a resource, not a problem
2.6. Promoting youth participation
2.7. A cross-sectoral, integrated approach to youth policy
2.8. Inter-ministerial co-operation
2.9. A separate budget
2.10. Established links between local, regional and national levels
2.11. In line with European and international practices
3Youth policy in Europe
3.1.The Council of Europe
3.1.1. The decision-making structure of the Council of Europe youth sector
3.1.2. Youth Ministers' Conferences
3.1.3. European Charter on the Participation of Young People in Local and Regional Life
3.1.4. National youth policy reviews
3.1.5. Suggesting a "European standard" of youth policy within the Council of Europe
3.2. The European Union
3.2.1. The dynamic between the EU institutions and the member states
3.2.2. The European Commission White Paper on Youth
3.2.3. The future youth policy of the European Union
3.2.4. The Open Method of Co-ordination (OMC)
3.2.5. The European Youth Pact
3.2.6. The Youth in Action Programme
3.2.7. The "structured dialogue"
3.2.8. The Renewed Social Agenda
3.3. The Youth Partnership between the European Commission and the Council of Europe
3.4.The United Nations system
3.4.1. World Programme of Action for Youth and the Millennium Development Goals
3.4.2. The UN Secretariat and different UN agencies
3.5.Web resources
4Why youth participation - and how?
4.1.Why youth participation?
4.2.Why youth organisations?
4.3.How to involve youth in decision making
4.3.1. The ladder of participation
4.3.2. Examples of youth participation at the national level
4.4.Web resources
5Some important issues to address when developing and implementing a national youth strategy
5.1.Why do we need a national youth strategy?
5.2.1. Government ownership
5.2.2. Ownership by non-governmental youth organisations
5.2.3. Involvement of international organisations
5.3.Process focus versus goal focus
5.4.Confidence, transparency and accountability
5.6.Cross-sectoral co-operation at the governmental level
5.7.Vertical co-operation at the government level
5.8.Expecting the unexpected
6Setting the stage: planning the strategy development process
6.1.A budget for the national youth strategy development process
6.2.The need for research
6.3. Identifying the stakeholder groups
6.4.Developing a project design for the process
6.4.1. An example of a comprehensive project design
6.5.Drawing the time line
6.6.Different levels of a strategy
6.7.Developing a publicity and communications plan
6.8.Monitoring and evaluation
6.9.A strategy document and an action plan
6.10. Web resources
7Developing a youth strategy in seven stages: an example
7.1. Stage 1: early preparations
7.2. Stage 2: getting started and the first consultation
7.3. Stage 3: the second consultation
7.4. Stage 4: developing the first draft
7.5. Stage 5: the third consultation
7.6. Stage 6: final draft for adoption
7.7. Stage 7: developing the action plan
7.8. Web resources

'Youth Policy Manual' is divided into seven chapters, set out clearly as a guide to developing a national youth strategy. It fits in perfectly with the current debates around youth and youth participation. The structure is basic and what one would expect from a manual, setting out the problem, explaining what it is, why it is important and ending with an example. The author makes good use of headings and sub-headings throughout the book, making it an essential reference book for anyone working in the youth policy field. The author is clearly experienced enough and well placed to write on the issue of national youth strategies, having worked in the area and been directly involved in the implementation of youth policies in Moldova and Armenia.

The first part of the book takes the reader through what a national youth policy is and the importance of one as well as addressing what its aims are. A national youth policy aims to improve the lives of young people, providing them with good living conditions and opportunities. It is a commitment from government to provide this and according to this book, the concept is a well-established one in Europe. This book aims to provide information on how a national youth strategy can be developed to highlight the principles which need to be adhered to in order to develop such a strategy. The book achieves this aim, providing information on how this strategy has been developed already in Europe and the role of different agencies in doing so. It does not bombard the reader with useless information, it merely sticks to what is required in a manual.

The third chapter of the book explains the role of European and international organisations in making decisions regarding young people and how these can be implemented into a national youth policy in Europe.

The next section looks at why and how young people should be involved in the decision-making process. This section argues that young people should be involved for a number of reasons and then goes on to look at how and at what level this is possible.

The next two chapters are dedicated to important issues when developing a national youth strategy and the planning stage of one. In line with the rest of the book, this is set out in a clear concise manner.

The final chapter in this book sets out a clear example of how to implement a national youth strategy, breaking the process down into seven stages. This section is particularly good and highlights what exactly needs to be done when developing such a strategy. There is a section for web resources after most chapters, should one want to read further or want to implement a national youth strategy or to find out more about the topic. This makes the book of increased use to undergraduate and postgraduate students. They are also of use when trying to find out more about European organisations.

Whilst on the whole this book does not have many flaws, it does not make enough of the need for research on the situation that young people find themselves in. There is a very small section on the need for research. I feel the book could already be updated to include sections for specific groups of young people, from unemployed young people to those who find themselves in difficulties from other situations such as having a criminal record, or from situations arising from upbringing. There is scope here for a more detailed analysis and guidance of the handling of this part of the strategy.

Overall, this book is very well written and presented. I would recommend this book to anyone working in the youth sector, specifically anyone working in the development of policy. I can think of a number of undergraduate courses in criminology and international politics where this would benefit students and lecturers, especially ones whose methods of assessment include reviewing current policies and developing new ones.

Rashid Aziz

20 years of combating torture - 19th General Report of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) (2009)
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Council of Europe
ISBN: 978-92-871-6731-6
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: € 19 / US$ 38
Publication Date: Dec 2009

Publisher's Title Information
During the 20 years of its existence, the CPT (European Committee for the Prevention of Torture) has carried out some 270 visits to detention places in 47 European States. In its 19th General Report the CPT looks back over two decades of combating torture and ill-treatment in Europe. It discusses the achievements to date - the concrete improvements brought about and the standards developed - as well as the challenges which lie ahead.
The report gives a detailed snapshot of the CPT's activities over the last twelve months. Highlights from recently published visit reports and government responses are also provided; they offer an insight into some of the major issues with which the Committee is confronted during its work and the approaches of States to address them. A specific section describes the safeguards that should be offered to irregular migrants deprived of their liberty, with a special emphasis on the situation of children.
The report will be of interest to all those who are concerned by the treatment of persons deprived of their liberty, whether in prisons, juvenile detention centres, police stations, holding centres for immigration detainees, psychiatric hospitals, social welfare institutions or any other institution.

20 years of the CPT
Activities during the period 1 August 2008 to 31 July 2009
Periodic visits
Ad hoc visits
High-level talks and contacts
Level of co-operation received by the CPT
Plenary meetings and activities of subgroups
Contacts with other bodies
Publication highlights
Report on the ad hoc visit to Albania in June 2008
Report on the ad hoc visit to the Czech Republic in March/April 2008 and response of the Czech authorities
Report on the periodic visit to Finland in April 2008 and response of the Finnish authorities
Report on the ad hoc visit to Greece in September 2008 and response of the Greek authorities
Report on the periodic visit to Moldova in September 2007 and response of the Moldovan authorities
Reports on the ad hoc visits to “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” in October 2007 and July 2008 and responses of the national authorities
Report on the visit to Kosovo in March 2007 and response of UNMIK
Safeguards for irregular migrants deprived of their liberty
Preliminary remarks
Deprivation of liberty of irregular migrants
Basic rights at the initial stages of deprivation of liberty
General safeguards during deprivation of liberty
Health-related safeguards
Three other important safeguards
Additional safeguards for children
Organisational matters
CPT membership
CPT secretariat
1. The CPT's mandate and modus operandi
2. Signatures and ratifications of the Convention establishing the CPT
3. The CPT's field of operations
4. CPT members
5. CPT secretariat
6. Publication of CPT visit reports
7. Countries and places of detention visited by CPT delegations; 2008-2009
Periodic visits
Ad hoc visits

Also Available in French


Pendant ses 20 ans d'existence, le CPT (Comité européen pour la prévention de la torture) a effectué quelque 270 visites de lieux de détention dans 47 États européens. Dans son 19 rapport général, le CPT passe en revue deux décennies de lutte contre la torture et les mauvais traitements en Europe. Il analyse les avancées obtenues à ce jour - les améliorations concrètes acquises et les normes développées - ainsi que les défis à l'horizon.
Le rapport donne un instantané des activités du CPT pendant les douze derniers mois. Il inclut aussi les temps forts des rapports de visite et des réponses des gouvernements publiés récemment ; ils donnent un aperçu de plusieurs des préoccupations principales auxquelles le Comité est confronté dans son travail, ainsi que de l'action des États afin d'y remédier. Un chapitre spécifique décrit les garanties qui devraient être accordées aux étrangers en situation irrégulière privés de liberté, une attention particulière étant portée sur la situation des enfants.
Ce rapport intéressera tous ceux qui sont concernés par le traitement des personnes privées de liberté, que ce soit dans les prisons, les centres de détention pour mineurs, les commissariats de police, les centres de rétention pour étrangers, les hôpitaux psychiatriques, les foyers sociaux ou tout autre établissement.

Table des matières
Les 20 ans du CPT
Activités menées dans la période du 1er août 2008 au 31 juillet 2009
Visites périodiques
Visites ad hoc
Entretiens à haut niveau et contacts
Niveau de coopération dont a bénéficié le CPT
Réunions plénières et activités des sous-groupes
Contacts avec d'autres organes
Temps forts des publications
Rapport sur la visite ad hoc en Albanie de juin 2008
Rapport sur la visite ad hoc en République tchèque de mars/avril 2008 et réponse des autorités tchèques
Rapport sur la visite périodique en Finlande d'avril 2008 et réponse des autorités finlandaises
Rapport sur la visite ad hoc en Grèce de septembre 2008 et réponse des autorités grecques
Rapport sur la visite périodique en Moldova de septembre 2007 et réponse des autorités moldaves
Rapports sur les visites ad hoc en « ex-République yougoslave de Macédoine » d'octobre 2007 et de juillet 2008 et réponses des autorités nationales
Rapport sur la visite au Kosovo* de mars 2007 et réponse de la MINUK
Garanties pour les étrangers en situation irrégulière privés de liberté
Remarques préliminaires
Rétention des étrangers en situation irrégulière
Droits fondamentaux dans les premiers temps de la privation de liberté
Garanties générales pendant la privation de liberté
Garanties liées à la santé
Trois autres garanties importantes
Garanties supplémentaires pour les enfants
Questions d'organisation
Composition du CPT
Secrétariat du CPT
1. Mandat et modus operandi du CPT
2. Signatures et ratifications de la Convention instituant le CPT
3. Champ d'intervention du CPT
4. Membres du CPT
5. Secrétariat du CPT
6. Publication des rapports de visite du CPT
7. Pays et lieux de détention visités par des délégations du CPT ; 2008-2009
Visites périodiques
Visites ad hoc

Manual on hate speech (2009)
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Anne Weber
ISBN: 978-92-871-6614-2
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: € 19
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher's Title Information

The right to freedom of expression entails duties and responsibilities and is subject to certain limits, provided for in Article 10.2 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which are concerned, among other things, with protecting the rights of others. Identifying what constitutes “hate speech” is especially difficult because this type of speech does not necessarily involve the expression of hatred or feelings.
On the basis of all the applicable texts on freedom of expression and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights and other bodies, the author identifies certain parameters that make it possible to distinguish expressions which, although sometimes insulting, are fully protected by the right to freedom of expression from those which do not enjoy that protection.
I Introduction
Conflicting rights and interests
The concept of "hate speech"
Identification criteria
II Applicable instruments
(B)Recommendations and other instruments
III Principles emerging from the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights
(A)General principles relating to the right to freedom of expression (Article 10 of the ECHR)
(B)Speech falling within the ambit of Article 17 of the ECHR
(C) Restrictions to the freedom of expression (Article 10(2) of the ECHR)
IV. Elements from other sources
I Relevant applicable international and regional instruments
II Examples of national measures and initiatives
IIIList of judgments and decisions cited
IV Thematic index
V Glossary
This title is also available in French
Le droit à la liberté d'expression entraîne des devoirs et des responsabilités, et il est soumis à certaines limites, prévues à l'article 10 paragraphe 2 de la Convention européenne des droits de l'homme, qui peuvent notamment tenir à la protection des droits d'autrui. L'identification d'actes pouvant être qualifiés de «discours de haine» apparaît d'autant plus difficile que ce type de discours n'implique pas nécessairement l'expression d'une haine ou d'émotions.
Se fondant sur l'ensemble des textes applicables en matière de liberté d'expression ainsi que sur la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme et d'autres organes, l'auteur dégage certains paramètres permettant de distinguer les expressions qui, bien que parfois insultantes, sont pleinement protégées par le droit à la liberté d'expression de celles qui ne bénéficient pas de cette protection.
Table des matières
I Introduction
Droits concurrents et intérêts en jeu
Notion de discours de haine
Critères d'identification
II Instruments applicables
(A) Traités
(B) Recommandations et autres instruments
III Principes tirés de la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme
(A) Principes généraux relatifs au droit à la liberté d'expression (article 10 CEDH)
(B) Discours tombant sous le coup de l'article 17 CEDH
(C) Restrictions à la liberté d'expression (article 10 § 2 CEDH)
IV. Facteurs tirés d'autres sources
I Dispositions pertinentes des instruments internationaux et régionaux
II Exemples de mesures et initiatives nationales
III Liste des arrêts et décisions cités
IV Index thématique
V Glossaire

The Council of Europe and European Prison Reform (05/11/2009)This collection of 12 fact sheets focuses on European prison reform and covers a number of themes such as the prevention of torture, the abolition of the death penalty, the European Prison Rules, extradition procedures and the training of prison staff.It is intended for legal practitioners, prison authorities and NGOs and citizens active in the field of defending human rights.

To download the file http://book.coe.int/sysmodules/RBS_fichier/admin/download.php?fileid=3354

Human rights and criminal procedure - The case law of the European Court of Human Rights (2009)
Edition: 2009
Format: Paperback
Author: Jeremy McBride
ISBN: 978-92-871-6689-0
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: E53 (Euros)
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher's Title Information

This handbook is intended to assist judges, lawyers and prosecutors to take account of the many requirements of the European Convention on Human Rights - both explicit and implicit - for the criminal process when interpreting and applying Codes of Criminal Procedure and comparable or related legislation.
It does so through extracts from key rulings of the European Court of Human Rights and the former European Commission of Human Rights dealing with complaints about violations of Convention rights and freedoms in the course of the investigation, prosecution and trial of alleged offences, as well as in the course of appellate and various other proceedings linked to the criminal process.
The extracts are significant not only because the mere text of the Convention is insufficient to indicate the scope of what is entailed by it but also because the circumstances of the cases selected give a sense of how to apply the requirements in concrete situations.

Criminal charge
Investigation stage
Obligations regarding investigation
Apprehension and custody
Detention on remand
Gathering evidence
Discontinuance of proceedings
Trial stage
Public hearing
Burden of proof
Expert witness
Admissibility of evidence
Right to an interpreter
Rights of victims
Trial in absentia
Reopening of proceedings
Trial within a reasonable time
Compensation and costs
Reimbursement of costs
Child-related issues
Index of cases

Handbook on Values for Life in a Democracy
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Authors: Robert Strandling and Christopher Rowe
ISBN: 978-92-871-6554-1
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: 23 Euros
Publication Date: 2009

Publisher's Title Information
The Council of Europe project "Cultural identities, shared values and citizenship" (2006-2008) was launched after the Organisation's 3rd Summit (Warsaw, 2005). It was based on the premise that an awareness and appreciation of Europe's rich diversity of cultures and heritages and how they have interacted with each other over time are essential preconditions for mutual respect, peaceful coexistence, intercultural dialogue, a shared attachment to common values and an emerging European cultural citizenship.
One of the outcomes of the project was the Handbook on values for life in a democracy which is structured around a series of key questions to promote discussion among young people about universal human rights and the implementation of core European values.
This book encourages the reader to apply these values to a variety of issues. The case studies it presents and the discussion cards are designed to promote an approach to discussion where each participant can:
· develop his or her own point of view in relation to others;
· think about clashes of values and human rights and how they might be resolved in fair, balanced, proportionate and peaceful ways;
· empathise with others' points of views (even if not agreeing with them);
· engage in dialogue over disputed issues rather than in monologues based solely on his or her own point of view or cultural perspective;
· set particular issues and debates into a wider historical, cultural and global context.
These core "procedural" values need to be practised and upheld not only in the law courts but in our everyday dealings with each other. Otherwise they become meaningless and we will cease to have any real sense of commitment to them. Just as we learn skills by practising them, so we acquire these values by practising them.

The authors
The aims and structure of this book
Introduction: Cultural identities, shared values and citizenship
Key question one: How is the ordinary person to be protected against the arbitrary power of the state?
Case study 1: The case of extraordinary renditions in the "war on terror”
Case study 2: When a totalitarian regime is overthrown, should the secret police files be destroyed or should the archives be opened so that society can confront its past?
Key question two: Does the state need to protect people from themselves?
Case study 3: The banning of tobacco smoking in public places
Case study 4: The right to live and the right to die
Key question three: Do we have the right to freely express ourselves in any way we wish?
Case study 5: Free speech or religious offence - the case of the Danish cartoons mocking the Prophet Mohammed
Case study 6: The right to march to commemorate one's cultural history - the case of Northern Ireland
Key question four: Does everybody have the right to live where they wish?
Case study 7: Political refugees or economic migrants? Europe's changing response to immigration
Case study 8: The process of becoming a minority
Key question five: Can there be a "just war"?
Case study 9: The "war on terror"
Case study 10: Cultural monuments or human lives? The case for the protection of cultural property
Key question six: What is more important: maintaining a healthy national economy or ensuring that everyone is entitled to the basic necessities of life?
Case study 11: Did the end of communism leave the elderly and vulnerable in a worse position?
Case study 12: Has government intervention been effective in promoting the principle of equal pay for equal work?
Case study 13: Women have the same right to education as men. Why is it that they cannot always exercise that right?
Key question seven: Why do human beings seem to find it so difficult to look after their environment?
Case study 14: The Kyoto Protocol and the debate on the speed and impact of climate change
Case study 15: How are we going to meet our increasing energy needs in the 21st century?
Key question eight: Is democracy enough?
Case study 16: Can democracy take root when it is transplanted? The example of Iraq
Case study 17: Can new technologies help to make governments more accountable to the people?

Also available in French
Le projet du Conseil de l'Europe «identités culturelles, valeurs partagées et citoyenneté» (2006-2008) a été lance à la suite du 3e Sommet de l'Organisation (Varsovie, 2005). Il était fondé sur le postulat suivant: la prise de conscience de la richesse que représente la diversité des cultures et des patrimoines européens, et de l'importance de leur interaction au fil du temps, est l'un des préalables indispensables au respect mutuel, à la coexistence pacifique, au dialogue interculturel, à l'engagement commun pour la défense de valeurs partagées et à l'émergence d'une citoyenneté culturelle européenne.
Le projet a abouti, entre autres, à l'élaboration de ce Guide des valeurs pour la vie en démocratie. Ce dernier s'articule autour d'une série de questions clés pour encourager les jeunes à discuter des enjeux essentiels associes aux droits de l'homme universels et aux valeurs européennes fondamentales.
Ce guide invite le lecteur à appliquer ces valeurs. Les études de cas et les fiches de discussion visent à favoriser la discussion au cours de laquelle chaque interlocuteur peut:
· développer son point de vue en le confrontant à d'autres ;
· réfléchir aux valeurs et droits humains inconciliables et aux moyens de résoudre ces contradictions honnêtement, de façon adaptée et proportionnée ;
· comprendre les points de vue d'autrui (même en cas de désaccord) ;
· engager le dialogue sur des questions controversées au lieu de s'enferrer dans des monologues axés exclusivement sur sa propre opinion ou vision culturelle ;
· resituer les problèmes et les débats dans un cadre historique, culturel et géographique plus large.
Appliquer et défendre des valeurs formelles s'avère nécessaire non seulement au sein des cours et tribunaux, mais aussi dans nos relations quotidiennes. Sinon, ces valeurs perdront leur sens et nous n'aurons plus véritablement le sentiment de devoir les défendre. Tout comme les compétences, c'est par la pratique que s'acquièrent les valeurs.
Table des matières
Les auteurs
Propos et structure du présent ouvrage
Introduction: identités culturelles, valeurs partagées et citoyenneté
Question clé 1 - Comment protéger l'individu du pouvoir arbitraire de l'Etat
Etude de cas n° 1 - L'affaire des transferts de personnes soupçonnées de terrorisme dans la «Ward on Terroir» («guerre contre la terreur»)
Etude de cas n° 2 - Après la chute d'un régime totalitaire, faut-il détruire les fichiers de la police secrète ou ouvrir les archives pour que la société puisse faire face à son passé ?
Question clé 2 - L'Etat doit-il protéger l'individu contre lui-même?
Etude de cas n° 3 - L'interdiction de fumer dans les lieux publics
Etude de cas n° 4 - Le droit à la vie et le droit de mourir
Question clé 3 - Avons-nous le droit de nous exprimer librement et comme bon nous semble?
Etude de cas n° 5 - Liberté d'expression ou offense à la religion: l'affaire des caricatures danoises se moquant du Prophète Mahomet
Etude de cas n° 6 - Le droit de défiler pour commémorer son histoire culturelle: le cas de l'Irlande du Nord
Question clé 4 - Chacun a-t-il le droit de vivre ou il veut?
Etude de cas n° 7 - Refugiés politiques ou migrants économiques ? L'attitude changeante de l'Europe face à l'immigration
Etude de cas n° 8 - Le processus de formation d'une minorité
Question clé 5 - Peut-il y avoir une «guerre juste»?
Etude de cas n° 9 - La «guerre contre le terrorisme»
Etude de cas n° 10 - Monuments culturels ou vies humaines ? La cause de la protection du patrimoine culturel
Question clé 6 - Quel est le plus important: préserver la bonne sante de l'économie nationale ou faire en sorte que chacun ait droit au minimum vital?
Etude de cas n° 11 - La fin du communisme a-t-elle aggravé la situation des personnes âgées et vulnérables ?
Etude de cas n° 12 - L'intervention de l'Etat a-t-elle permis de promouvoir efficacement le principe de l'égalité de rémunération pour un même travail?
Etude de cas n° 13 - Les femmes ont le même droit à l'éducation que les hommes. Pourquoi ne peuvent-elles pas toujours exercer ce droit ?
Question clé 7 - Pourquoi est-il si difficile pour les humains de prendre soin de leur environnement?
Etude de cas n° 14 - Le Protocole de Kyoto et le débat sur la rapidité et l'impact du changement climatique
Etude de cas n° 15 - Pourrons-nous satisfaire nos besoins énergétiques croissants au XXIe siècle ?
Question clé 8 - La démocratie suffit-elle?
Etude de cas n° 16 - Une démocratie transplantée peut-elle prendre racine ? L'exemple de l'Irak
Etude de cas n° 17 - Les nouvelles technologies peuvent-elles aider à rendre les gouvernements plus responsables de leurs actes devant la population?

Manual on the wearing of religious symbols in public areas
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Malcolm D. Evans
ISBN: 978-92-871-6616-6
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: € 25
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher's Title Information

This manual explores how the European Convention on Human Rights relates to the freedom of thought, conscience and religion. It identifies the key concepts which can be found in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and examines the role and responsibilities of both state and citizen.
The central issue addressed is the wearing of religious symbols in public areas. For this purpose, the author first looks at a number of fundamental topics, including the 'visibility' of religions and beliefs in the public sphere, and the notion of 'wearing religious symbols'.
The essential questions policy makers need to ask when addressing issues concerning the wearing of religious symbols are then listed. Finally, the manual seeks to apply these principles and approaches to a number of key areas such as state employment, schools and universities, the private sector and the criminal justice system.

I General Introduction
II The Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion: an Introduction
(A) The 'Forum Internum'
(B) The Manifestation of Religion or Belief
(C) Restrictions upon the Manifestation of Religion or Belief
(D) The Education of Children
III The Key Concepts Emerging from the Practice of the European Court of Human Rights
(A) The Principle of Respect
(B) The Principle of Individual and Community Autonomy
(C) Non-discrimination in the Enjoyment of the Rights
(D) Living Instrument
IV The Role and Responsibilities of the State
(A) Neutrality and Impartiality
(B) Fostering Pluralism and Tolerance
(C) Protecting the Rights and Freedoms of Others
V The Role and Responsibilities of Individuals and Religious Communities
VI The Wearing of Religious Symbols in Public Areas: Definitional Issues
(A) The 'Visibility' of Religions and Beliefs in Public Life and in the Public Sphere
(B) What is a 'Religious Symbol'?
(C) 'Wearing' Symbols and the Scope of the Manual
(D) What is a 'Public Area'?
(E) Conclusion
VII The Wearing of Religious Symbols: the Practical Application of the Principles Identified
(A) The Basic Framework: a Brief Recapitulation
(B) The Key Questions to be Considered
VIII The Approach in Action: Areas of Practical Application
(A) Restrictions Flowing from Laws of General Application
(B) The Wearing of Religious Symbols by those in General State Employment
(C) The Wearing of Religious Symbols in Public Educational Institutions
(D) The Private Sector
(E) The Wearing of Religious Symbols and the Criminal Justice System
I Relevant Applicable International Human Rights Instruments
II Thematic Index
III List of Judgments and Decisions Cited (by Alphabetical Order)
IV Glossary

Titre également disponible en French
Le manuel explique les dispositions de la Convention européenne des droits de l'homme concernant la liberté de pensée, de conscience et de religion. Il décrit les concepts clés de la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme et examine la distribution des rôles et des responsabilités entre l'Etat et les citoyens.
La question centrale est celle du port de symboles religieux dans les lieux publics. L'auteur commence par faire le point sur certains aspects fondamentaux tels que la « visibilité » des religions et des croyances dans la sphère publique et la notion de « port de symboles religieux ». Il énumère ensuite les questions essentielles à examiner par les pouvoirs publics avant de prendre des mesures concernant le port de symboles religieux. Enfin, le manuel tente d'appliquer les principes énoncés à certains domaines clés tels que la fonction publique, les écoles et les universités, le secteur privé et le système judiciaire.

Kit - Raise your hand against smacking (2009)
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperbacks
Author: COE
ISBN: 978-92-871-6624-1
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: € 49
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher's Title Information

"Raise your hand against smacking!" is a Council of Europe campaign launched in June 2008 to eliminate corporal punishment of children. This kit will facilitate campaign activities throughout Europe. It contains a mix of publications addressed to different target audiences. These shed light on the thorny issue of corporal punishment by defining it, provide a historical overview Council of Europe and United Nations efforts to eradicate it and debunk some of the myths that have sustained the existence and "legitimacy" of violent discipline. They also offer parents alternatives to violence in the form of positive parenting and outline the three approaches needed to successfully challenge corporal punishment - awareness raising, legal reform and policy reform. The kit also contains examples of some of our promotional material - postcards, posters, calendars and a handy e-card, with audio-visual material, including a slide-show presentation and Handscape, a television spot by Saatchi & Saatchi-London, in both a Mac and PC version. The kit will be particularly useful for those wanting to start awareness-raising action at national, regional or local level. It can be used by governments, parliaments, NGOs, ombudspersons, social workers, trainers and teachers throughout Europe.

· Abolishing corporal punishment of children - Questions and answers
· Abolishing corporal punishment of children - Key points
· Eliminating corporal punishment -A human rights imperative for Europe's children
· Off the books - Guidance for Europe's parliaments on taw reform to eliminate corporal punishment of children
· parenting in contemporary Europe -A positive approach
· 7 good reasons for "Building a Europe for and with children" Promotional material
· 2 campaign posters "Raise your hand against smacking!" · "Raise your hand against smacking!" campaign postcards · An e-card (mini-CD containing audio-visual material)
· A wall calendar · An invitation to lend your name to the campaign
The kit also contains examples of some of our promotional material - postcards, posters, calendars and a handy e-card, with audio-visual material, including a slide-show presentation and Handscape, a television spot by Saatchi & Saatchi-London, in both a Mac and PC version.
The kit will be particularly useful for those wanting to start awareness-raising action at national, regional or local level. It can be used by governments, parliaments, NGOs, ombudspersons, social workers, trainers and teachers throughout Europe.
· Abolishing corporal punishment of children - Questions and answers
· Abolishing corporal punishment of children - Key points
· Eliminating corporal punishment -A human rights imperative for Europe's children
· Off the books - Guidance for Europe's parliaments on taw reform to eliminate corporal punishment of children
· Parenting in contemporary Europe -A positive approach
· 7 good reasons for "Building a Europe for and with children"
Promotional material
· 2 campaign posters "Raise your hand against smacking!"
· "Raise your hand against smacking!" campaign postcards
· An e-card (mini-CD containing audio-visual material)
· A wall calendar
· An invitation to lend your name to the campaign

Also Available in French

« Levez la main centre la fessée ! » est une campagne en faveur de l'abolition du châtiment corporel à l'encontre des enfants, lancée en juin 2008 par le Conseil de l'Europe. Ce dossier facilitera la mise en œuvre des activités de la campagne dans toute l'Europe. Il comprend un ensemble de publications, visant différents publics, qui traitent de la délicate question des châtiments corporels : ces matériaux en donnent une définition, retracent brièvement l'action menée par le Conseil de l'Europe et l'Organisation des Nations Unies contre cette forme de punition, démontent les mythes qui «légitiment» la violence comme moyen de discipline, proposent aux parents une parentalité positive offrant des alternatives à la violence et indiquent les trois approches qu'il convient d'associer pour venir à bout des châtiments corporels : la sensibilisation, la reforme juridique et la reforme des politiques.
Le dossier contient aussi certains supports promotionnels de la campagne - cartes postales, affiches, calendriers et carte électronique incluant du matériel audiovisuel, dont un diaporama et Handscape, spot télévisuel conçu par Saatchi & Saatchi-Londres, en versions Mac et PC.
Le dossier sera des plus utiles à ceux qui souhaitent engager une action de sensibilisation aux niveaux national, régional ou local. II est destiné aux gouvernements, aux parlements, aux ONG, aux médiateurs, aux travailleurs sociaux, aux formateurs et aux enseignants de toute l'Europe.
· L'abolition des châtiments corporels à l'encontre des enfants -Questions et réponses
· L'abolition des châtiments corporels à l'encontre des enfants - Points clés
· L'abolition des châtiments corporels - Un impératif pour les droits de l'enfant en Europe
· Hors la loi! Conseils à l'usage des parlements désirant reformer la législation en vue d'éliminer les châtiments corporels des enfants
· La parentalité dans l'Europe contemporaine : une approche positive
· 7 bonnes raisons pour construire une Europe pour et avec les enfants
Matériel promotionnel
· 2 affiches de la campagne « Levez la main contre la fessée ! »
· Cartes postales de la campagne « Levez la main contre la fessée ! »
· Une carte électronique (mini-CD incluant des matériels audiovisuels)
· Un calendrier mural
· Une invitation à associer son nom à la campagne

Break the Silence on Domestic Violence
Briser le Silence autour de la Violence domestique
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback A5
Author: COE
ISBN: 978-92-871-6558-9
Publishers: Council of Europe Publishing
Price: € 28 / US$ 56
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher's Title Information

In present-day Europe, thousands of women have to cope every day with acts of physical, sexual or psychological violence, even in their own homes. “It starts with screams and must never end in silence”. Preventing domestic violence against women concerns us all, men and women alike, and we all have a duty to break the silence.
In an exhibition staged in connection with the Council of Europe's campaign to “Stop domestic violence against women” (2006-2008), the photographer, Sandro Weltin, presents us with different faces and perspectives - those of parliamentarians, local and regional representatives, representatives of non-governmental organisations and field workers who play an active part in measures to combat domestic violence, but above all those of the victims themselves, who will always be the focal point of this people's cause.

Also available in French
Aujourd'hui en Europe, des milliers de femmes sont quotidiennement confrontées à des actes de violence physique, sexuelle ou psychologique, y compris au sein de leur foyer. « Tout commence par des cris et ne doit jamais finir dans un grand silence ». Combattre la violence domestique à l'égard des femmes nous concerne tous et toutes. Il appartient à chacun de nous de briser le silence.
Dans une exposition réalisée dans le cadre de la campagne du Conseil de l'Europe « Stop à la violence domestique faite aux femmes » (2006-2008), Sandro Weltin, photographe, met en lumière différents regards: celui des parlementaires, des élus locaux et régionaux, de représentants d'organisations non gouvernementales, d'acteurs sur le terrain qui s'engagent contre la violence domestique à l'égard des femmes, mais surtout celui des victimes elles-mêmes qui restent au cœur de cette démarche citoyenne.

Eradicating Violence against Children
French edition is :
Halle a la violence a regard des enfants L'action du Conseil de /'Europe ISBN 978-92-871-6465-0
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Council of Europe Publishing
ISBN: 9789287164322
Publishers: Council of Europe Publishing
Council Conseil De L'europe
Price: €19/US$38
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher's Title Information

In spite of a high level of social awareness in Europe, millions of its children are still subjected to violence. Children's rights are violated on a daily basis in all European countries. Corporal punishment, sexual abuse, the exploitation of children and other similar violations are only now emerging into the public eye. While some progress has been made, it is far too slow and timid. Elaborately organised networks in human trafficking, online child pornography and sexual violence behind what should be the safe doors of the home still prevent Europe from fully guaranteeing children's human rights.
The Council of Europe promotes and secures children's human rights through developing standards and policies, monitoring countries' compliance with norms, and launching awareness-raising actions. It also assists countries to develop comprehensive strategies addressing all forms of violence against children. This book references the Council of Europe's work in this field and provides insights into the processes that have led to its many conventions, recommendations, decisions, programmes, reports and publications.

Children have rights. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child recognises children as holders of fundamental human rights. In Europe, human rights are protected by the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Social Charter.
Just to remind you what these rights are: they include the right to life, the right to respect for the views of the child, the right not to be submitted to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, the right to protection against child labour or exploitation, the right to respect for private and family life, the right to protection from injury and abuse and the right to education.
There is no footnote in the European Convention on Human Rights that says that the rights it protects do not apply to children. If anything, children are vulnerable and they need more protection, not less. Children are victims of many forms of violence. They are neglected, abused, mutilated, killed, used as workers and soldiers. This happens on the street, at school, through the Internet, in the media, in detention centres, at home and in places where children are placed for their protection and safety. Children are vulnerable and depend on adults for most things. They cannot defend themselves and their voices are the last to be heard. Special measures need to be taken to counteract children's vulnerability. The Council of Europe Programme "Building a Europe for and with children" launched in 2005, aims to eradicate all forms of violence against children. It is based on the four Ps: protection of children, prevention of violence, prosecution of criminals and participation of children. The programme pays special attention to particularly vulnerable children: children with disabilities, children living in poverty and children being raised without parental care.
Violence against children is intolerable and can be effectively prevented. In many European countries, society accepts and condones some recurrent forms of violence against children, in particular those inflicted in the family setting such as corporal punishment. However, no tradition, religion, belief, economic situation or "educational" method can ever justify hitting, smacking, spanking, mutilating, abusing, humiliating, or any other practice that violates children's right to physical integrity and dignity. "Building a Europe for and with children" is campaigning to eradicate all forms of violence against Eradicating violence against children - Council of Europe actions children, focusing in particular on awareness-raising, education, training and capacity-building to promote a culture of non-violence and reach a zero level of tolerance. In June 2008, a Europe-wide initiative to ban corporal punishment of children will be launched in the Croatian capital of Zagreb.
Most cases of violence against children remain invisible, including as a result of weak reporting. A lack of data and research makes it difficult for governments to adopt effective prevention measures. "Building a Europe for and with children" aims to help countries adopt strategies for the prevention of violence against children. It seeks to provide authorities and professionals with the ability to respond quickly and adequately to reported violence. Special efforts are being made to eradicate sexual abuse and the exploitation of children. A Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse has been opened for signature in October 2007 and will hopefully soon be ratified by all our member states. Non-European countries can also apply to join. International co-operation is essential when it comes to resolving problems affecting many countries throughout Europe and in fighting transborder crime and protecting child victims. Cyber-criminals and traffickers in human beings, whose targets are all too often young people and children, benefit from a lack of effective international co-operation.
The Council of Europe was founded in 1949 to build Europe upon three main pillars: human rights, democracy and the rule of law. This mandate implies that all 47 Council of Europe member states should co-operate and commit themselves to building a space where children feel safe, happy and develop to their full potential. "Building a Europe for and with children" is making the most out of international co-operation. It combines important tools such
as standard setting, monitoring, policy development, technical assistance and awareness raising, putting them to the service of children and the safeguard of their rights. The Council of Europe works in partnership with other important players in Europe such as the European Union and UNICEF, and is committed to ensuring appropriate follow-up to the recommendations of the United Nations Secretary-General's study on violence against children.
Maud de Boer-BuquicchioMarta Santos Pais
Deputy Secretary GeneralDirector
Council of Europe'UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

Abolishing corporal punishment of children
Questions and answers
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Author: Council of Europe Publishing
ISBN: 9 789287 163103
Publishers: Council of Europe Publishing
Price: €12/US$18
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher's Title Information

Why should it be made illegal to hit children for disciplinary reasons? What right does the state have to interfere in the way children are raised? How can public attitudes be shifted towards positive and non-violent parenting? These and many other issues are discussed in this booklet, intended for parents, policy makers, lawyers, children's advocates and other people working with children, all of whom have a vested interest in their well-being.
Divided into four main parts, this booklet defines corporal punishment of children; gives reasons, based on international law, why corporal punishment should be abolished; discusses how abolition can be achieved; and debunks myths and public fears hovering around the issue. Punishing children physically is an act of violence and a violation of children's human rights. Every nation in Europe has a legal obligation to join the 17 European nations that have already enacted a total ban on corporal punishment of children.

Just as the Council of Europe systematically campaigned to rid Europe of the death penalty, it is now pursuing its vision of a continent free of corporal punishment. Hitting people is wrong - and children are people too.
Children have the same rights as adults to respect for their human dignity and physical integrity and to equal protection under the law. The 47 member states of the Council of Europe have immediate human rights obligations, under international and regional human rights instruments, to reform their laws and take educational and other measures to prohibit and eliminate all corporal punishment of children, including within the family home.
In 2006, this became not just a regional but a global goal. The United Nations Secretary-General's study on violence against children, in a report submitted to the UN General Assembly, has set 2009 as the target date for achieving universal abolition. Europe is well on the way: by October 2007, more than a third of member states had achieved prohibition, and at least eight others had committed themselves to full reform.

French edition
L'abolition des châtiments corporels à l'encontre des enfants Questions et reponses
ISBN 978-92-871-6309-7

Legal instruments for combating racism on the Internet
Edition: 2009 1st
Format: paperback
Author: COE
ISBN: 978-92-871-6540-4
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: € 25, US$ 50
Publication Date: 2009

Publisher's Title Information
Various national and international legal instruments punish hate speech. However, the specific nature of the Internet calls for the adoption of new strategies to combat hate speech promoting racism and violence, which is widely and swiftly disseminated on the web.
As the Internet ignores territories and has no boundaries, states cannot control it effectively by unilateral national regulation: so what is needed is increased international co-operation. Efforts to harmonise national legislation - including the Additional Protocol to the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime - have come up against a series of difficulties. One of these is the fact that there is no universally accepted definition of the illegal nature of racist speech, which can be protected by the right to freedom of expression.
This book describes the situation in ten Council of Europe member and observer, states and discusses the problems faced and solutions introduced by these countries and by European and international organisations and civil society.

Terms of reference
Scope of the study
Our approach
Cautionary note
I.the technical and legal environment
1.1.“network of networks”: polycentric, ubiquitous, clandestine and ephemeral
1.3.1.Service providers
1.3.3.of information
II.issues raised in the work of law-enforcement and investigative authorities
2.1.a vast territory to cover
2.1.1.in criminal matters
2.1.2.in civil matters
2.2.havens and freedom of expression in the USA
2.2.2.' legislation
2.3.bases for investigations and seizures
2.4.in media law to establishing personal liability for racist content
raised by data protection law
of international police co-operation
III.of the various parties involved in the Internet
the problem so far
's liability
Limits to criminal liability: the difficulty of identifying an author
liability of the “author”
parties have different degrees of liability
' liability
' liability
providers' liability
solutions and measures in the pipeline
in the pipeline
The particular case of the European Union and the USA
laws/criminal liability
IV.position in public international law
4.1.setting out legal duties
4.2.' practice in respect of Article 4 of the International Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD)
4.3.of specialist bodies and legal experts
4.4.of the Convention on Cybercrimeof the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Cybercrime
V.“Soft law”
of conduct - machinery for self-regulation
' general terms and conditions
registration bodies and hotlines
Tools for tracing illegal content: filtering, rating and labelling systems
plan on the safer use of the Internet
Implementation of soft-law instruments by Internet providers and NGOs
United Kingdom
of soft-law instruments by government bodies
Appendix 1:general policy recommendation no 6: Combating the dissemination of racist, xenophobic and antisemitic materiel via the Internet
Appendix 2:Protocol to the Convention on Cybercrime, concerning the criminalisation of acts of a racist and xenophobic nature committed through computer systems

This title is also available in French
Divers instruments juridiques aux niveaux national et international répriment le discours de haine. Cependant, la nature spécifique de l'internet requiert l'adoption de nouvelles stratégies en matière de lutte contre les discours de haine raciale et de violence diffusés largement et rapidement sur le web.
Ignorant les territoires et les frontières, internet ne permet pas aux Etats d'assurer un contrôle efficace par l'application d'une réglementation nationale unilatéral, et implique de ce fait une coopération croissante au niveau international. Les efforts d'harmonisation des législations nationales - dont le Protocole additionnel à la Convention du Conseil de l'Europe sur la cybercriminalité - se heurtent à de nombreuses difficultés. L'une d'elles est qu'il n'existe pas de définition universellement reconnue du caractère illicite d'un discours à contenu raciste, qui peut être protégé par le droit à la liberté d'expression.
Cet ouvrage présente la situation dans dix pays membres et observateurs du Conseil de l'Europe. II étudie les problèmes et les solutions mises en œuvre par les Etats, les instances européennes et internationales ainsi que la société civile.

European Convention on the Adoption of Children (Revised), Council of Europe Treaty Series No. 202 (2009)
Edition: English or French
Format: Paperback
Author: Council of Europe
ISBN: 978-92-871-6565-7
Publishers: Council of Europe
Price: € 8 / US$ 16
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher's Title Information

The aim of the Convention is to take account of social and legal developments while keeping to the European Convention on Human Rights and bearing in mind that the child's best interests must always take precedence over any other considerations.
New provisions introduced by the Convention:
- The father's consent is required in all cases, even when the child was born out of wedlock.
- The child's consent is necessary if the child has sufficient understanding to give it.
- It extends to heterosexual unmarried couples who have entered into a registered partnership in States which recognise that institution. It also leaves States free to extend adoptions to homosexual couples and same sex-couples living together in a stable relationship.
- The new convention strikes a better balance between adopted children's right to know their identity and the right of the biological parents to remain anonymous.
- The minimum age of the adopter must be between 18 and 30, and the age difference between adopter and child should preferably be at least 16 years.

Also available in French
Titre également disponible en français

L'objectif de la Convention est de répondre aux évolutions de la société et du droit tout en respectant la Convention européenne des Droits de l'Homme et en ayant à l'esprit que l'intérêt supérieur de l'enfant doit toujours primer sur toute autre considération.
Nouveautés introduites par la Convention :
- Le consentement du père est exigé dans tous les cas, même lorsque l'enfant est né hors mariage.
- Le consentement de l'enfant est nécessaire, si l'enfant a le discernement suffisant.
- La Convention étend la possibilité d'adopter à des couples hétérosexuels non mariés mais liés par un partenariat enregistré dans les Etats qui reconnaissent une telle institution. Elle laisse la liberté aux Etats d'étendre la portée de la Convention à l'adoption par des couples homosexuels et hétérosexuels qui vivent ensemble dans le cadre d'une relation stable.
- Le nouveau texte assure un meilleur équilibre entre le droit de l'enfant adopté de connaître son identité et celui de ses parents biologiques de rester anonymes.
- L'âge minimum de l'adoptant doit se situer entre 18 et 30 ans, la différence d'âge entre l'adoptant et l'enfant devant de préférence être d'au moins 16 ans.

Armed Forces and Security Services: What Democratic Controls?
"Points of view Points of law"
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 978-92-871-6536-7
Publishers: Council of Europe Publishing
Price: € 35 / US$ 70
Publication Date: 2009
Publisher's Title Information

Two Council of Europe bodies, the Parliamentary Assembly and the European Commission for Democracy through Law (known as the Venice Commission), are working together to define and uphold the Organisation's fundamental values human rights, the rule of law and democracy more effectively.
The Parliamentary Assembly holds debates on major issues of topical concern in Europe. The Venice Commission provides the benefit of its legal expertise.
The "Points of view Points of law" collection is designed to bring together, in a single volume on a single topic, the Parliamentary Assembly's position and the Venice Commission's opinions. Each volume will serve as a reference work on the political and legal aspects of a topical issue.

  Armed forces and security services: what democratic controls? (2009)
Faced with the growing threats of terrorism and international organised crime, European societies are feeling an increasing need for both domestic and external security.
Government action to combat these threats must be lawful - and also legitimate - and be conducted with due respect for human rights, democracy and the rule of law, which are fundamental Council of Europe principles. The question arises as to who is going to exercise democratic oversight in this area. What are the roles of parliaments, the executive, the judiciary and civil society ? Do supervisory bodies exist at supranational level ?
This book presents the various players and their duties in the security field and confirms the need to strike a balance between a democratic conception of fundamental freedoms and security safeguards, on the basis of reports by the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly and the European Commission for Democracy through Law.

Part 1
Democratic oversight of the security sector in member states
Report of the Parliamentary Assembly
Adopted texts
Recommendation 1713 (2005) of the Parliamentary Assembly to the Committee of Ministers and its reply
Explanatory memorandum
A. Introduction
B. Intelligence services
C. Democratic policing
D. Border management
E. Defence
Part 2
Democratic oversight of the security services
Report of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission)
Executive summary
I. Introduction
II. Previous Council of Europe work in this area
III. The scope of the present study
IV. Is there a need for (improved) democratic control?
V. Accountability
VI. Accountability and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights
VII. Internal and governmental controls as part of overall accountability systems
VIII. Parliamentary accountability
IX. Judicial review and authorisation
X. Accountability to expert bodies
XI. Complaints mechanisms
XII. Concluding remarks
Part 3
Democratic control of the armed forces
Report of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission)
Executive summary
I. Introduction
II. The scope of the study
III. The necessity for democratic control of the armed forces
IV. The role of the armed forces in Council of Europe member states
V. Actors, acts, moments and procedures of control
VI. Conclusions
Appendix A: Overview of national legislation on the authority to decide participation in missions abroad
Appendix B: Overview of the constitutional rules of appointment of top commanders in selected Council of Europe member states
Appendix C: Overview of civil and political rights for armed forces personnel: selected examples

International Justice for Children
Building a Europe for and with children
Edition: 1st
Format: Paperback
Authors: Various
ISBN: 78-92-871-6534-3
Publishers: Council of Europe Publishing
Council Of Europe:Conseil De L'Europe
Price: €25
Publication Date:
Publisher's Title Information

Children's rights have gained greater global visibility through the almost universal ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Treaty bodies for other international and regional instruments, which cover the rights of "everyone", including children, are giving increasing attention to children's rights. In the same vein, human rights mechanisms, including regional ones such as the European Court of Human Rights, the European Committee of Social Rights and the Inter-American Commission and Court, have become more sensitive to children's rights.
With this increasing visibility comes the recognition that children in every country of the world suffer widespread and often severe breaches of the full range of their rights - civil, political, economic, social and cultural. In many cases, children do not have adequate or realistic remedies for breaches of their rights at national level. Seeking remedy through international and regional human rights mechanisms, though on the increase, is not well-developed.
International justice for children discusses the principles of child-friendly justice at international level and examines monitoring mechanisms and current systems of admissibility, determining how easy or difficult it is for children to gain access to them. This publication also identifies the obstacles to be overcome and proposes concrete ways to remove them through specific recommendations to governments, international organisations and monitoring bodies.
This, work is a solid contribution to making international justice accessible, friendly and meaningful to children, thus ensuring that children's rights safeguarded by conventions are concrete and not just theoretical.

A child does not become a "person" only when they reach the age of majority;
children are persons, and therefore included in "everyone".
The Council of Europe has been upholding children's rights for a long time and a number of major instruments have been adopted in this area. But the programme "Building a Europe for and with children", implemented as a result of the Third Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe (Warsaw 2005), is a very significant step forward and is also a great success, including in terms of media coverage.
The Council of Europe programme tackles some truly crucial problems, particularly violence against children, whether in the form of corporal punishment, sexual abuse or human trafficking, and wherever it occurs, whether in the family, at school or elsewhere. The programme also addresses the issue of children's access to national and international justice.

The European Court of Human Rights could not stay on the sidelines of this programme and I wanted it to participate fully. Admittedly, the European Convention on Human Rights does not contain a specific provision on children. However, Article 1 of the Convention provides that states "shall secure" - rather than simply "undertake to secure" as in most international treaties - the rights and freedoms defined in the Convention to "everyone", which necessarily includes children. A child does not become a "person" only when they reach the age of majority; children are persons, and therefore included in "everyone".
The Court has in fact had to deal with a number of cases involving children. Its case law continuously adjusts to changes in our societies and it is often pointed out that the Court has described the European Convention on Human Rights as a "living instrument". The first Court judgment to use this expression, the Tyrer vs the United Kingdom judgment of 1978, precisely concerned children and dealt with the corporal punishment inflicted on them in the Isle of Man. It considered this punishment to be a degrading penalty, in breach of Article 3 of the Convention. This demonstrates the close link between that long standing judgment and the campaign launched by the Council of Europe in 2008 against corporal punishment of children, which still occurs in a number of Council of Europe member states, although the Court judgment prompted an awakening and caused some countries to abolish such punishment. In cases involving family law (such as those on custody or child welfare), the Court refers to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child or the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. Strictly speaking, these conventions are not binding on the Court, but its approach reflects its concern to give priority to children, who are by definition vulnerable.

One of the events included in the Council of Europe programme "Building a Europe for and with children" was the conference on "International justice for children" held in Strasbourg on 17 and 18 September 2007, in which the Court was involved. As the Deputy Secretary General of the Council of Europe, Ms Maud de BoerBuquicchio, rightly pointed out when opening the conference, children's access to international justice is unsatisfactory. I agree with her that children must have "a real chance to have their voices heard and interests taken care of by an international judicial or non-judicial body". She quite rightly added that "the Strasbourg Court is increasingly taking into consideration the principles of the best interest of the child and the specific needs of children when examining cases involving them".

This book contains a selection of contributions from the participants, including two judges of the Court, Francoise Tulkens and Isabelle Berro-Lefevre, who drew the conference's attention to the part played by the Court in upholding children's rights.

Francoise Tulkens focused her presentation on the sensitive issues of minors' asylum and immigration, minors in detention and violence in the family. Using examples taken from our case law, she showed how effectively the Court had addressed the extremely vulnerable situations of minors. She also showed what kind of action the Court had taken in holding that states' positive obligation to take measures to ensure that children are not subject to inhuman or degrading treatment also applied where such treatment was administered by private individuals. That is an example of the "indirect protection" established by the Strasbourg Court's case law. She rightly pointed out that new and complex issues were arising such as the right to know one's origins, consent to adoption and the situation of foreign and immigrant minors.

However, the conference did not simply review the Court's case law on protection of children's rights. In her presentation, another judge of the Court, Isabelle Berro-Lefevre, looked at the situation of minors in terms of their access to the European Court of Human Rights and the processing of their applications; above all, she discussed the practical improvements that could be made to facilitate children's access and speed up the processing of their cases. The Court has embarked on an internal study of the issue of "prioritisation", and speeding up proceedings involving minors is an avenue that it wishes to explore. In the same vein, the Council of Europe has taken the excellent initiative of setting up the Theseus database, which contains analyses of the Court's case law on children's rights.
I have referred to my two colleagues' presentations, but I am also bound to mention those given by all the internal and international specialists who contributed to the success of the event. The Court gave a reception for the participants at the end of the conference and their contributions are included in this book.
Other conferences will be held as part of the programme "Building a Europe for and with children". The European Court of Human Rights will continue to support this major initiative, particularly with its judges' participation in the various events aimed at introducing the tools required to make both national and international justice child-friendly. This is a further example of the synergy I have always wanted between the Court I preside over and the Council of Europe.
Jean-Paul Costa, President of the European Court of Human Rights


The objective of the book and other books published buy the Council of Europe Programme is to build Europe for and with children. It particularly responds to the need for childrens' rights in Europe and to protect children from all forms of danger and violence.
There have been a number of publications including books on the following subjects:
1.Violence reduction in schools.
2.Abolishing corporal punishment of children (questions and answers).
3.Eradicating violence against children (2008).
The book and what it is attempting to achieve is based on the universal ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.
As one who has been involved in protecting children through the courts as an expert witness dealing with family problems, I was particularly interested to read this book and to note how, if it were put into operation, many of the views expressed in the book would be very helpful to children who have suffered from the effects of implacable hostility between their parents and the resulting break-up of the marriage and the consequent loss of one of their parents in their lives.
This book consists of three parts and a conclusion reached. The first part deals with the milestones in international justice for children and hence development of human rights for children written by Francoise Tulkens. There is also a section dealing with the protection of children's rights through the European Social Charter written by Polonca Koncar. The rest of Part one is written by Jane Connors and Marta Santos X' Pais deals with the United Nations monitoring the protection of childrens' rights and international law and childrens' rights.
Part Two deals with the access of children to international justice and how this access can be improved through the Human Rights Courts. Of particular emphasis are access to childrens' rights in Africa written by Helen Seifu. The role of an Ombudsperson is discussed by George Moschos.
The third part of the book deals with children's participation and access to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child by Yanghee Lee, followed by children and how they function within the courts especially as a result of their own testimony by Josiane Bigot. The book emphasises the principle of child friendly justice at the National level by Willie McCarney with the international level being dealt with by Peter Newell. Ways of bringing about complaints of children suffering from deficit in human rights are in the final section dealing with this theme by Thomas Hammarberg.
The book is completed with a number of conclusions reached based on what has been achieved since 1948, and at a Universal Declaration of Human Rights having been adopted. A number of recommendations are made to Governments including speedy ratification of effective ways, whereby children's rights can be protected.
This book is likely to be of particular value to those persons dealing with family law and attending family courts, and most especially Judges, Barristers, and Lawyers. It must be realised that many laws fail to protect children and most especially when children are faced with the dissolving of their parent's marriage leading to one parent no longer being accepted by the child due to parental alienation processes having taken place. This has been the current writer's experiences within the family courts who fail to take heed of the suffering of children and the absent parent when lawyers and judges fail to take into consideration the importance of deeper understanding of how the implacable hostility between the parents has affected the child now and in the future.
Dr L. F. Lowenstein 23-02-09

"Internet Law Book Reviews, Copyright Rob Jerrard 2009